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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Webb-Pomerene Act At Home And Abroad, Richard A. Sloan Apr 1977

The Webb-Pomerene Act At Home And Abroad, Richard A. Sloan

IUSTITIA

For the most prolonged period of time in recent history, American corporations have been experiencing difficulties in dealing with foreign economic competition. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in finding ways to enhance the marketing strength of American firms competing with foreign firms in foreign markets. This is not the first time concern with American firms' competitive strength has been articulated; the Webb- Pomerene Act of 1918 was an attempt by Congress to vitalize American exporting firms. Since 1918, the Webb-Pomerene Act has been the subject of disagreement as to its usefulness and effectiveness in achieving its stated goal ...


Judicial Incentives: Some Evidence From Urban Trial Courts, Greg A. Caldeira Apr 1977

Judicial Incentives: Some Evidence From Urban Trial Courts, Greg A. Caldeira

IUSTITIA

In the following pages, I shall outline the basics of a method for studying the motivations of trial judges - or any public officials, for that matter - that I find particularly interesting and fruitful - "incentive theory". The use of incentive theory is, in my view, a preliminary contribution to an ongoing movement to fill glaring gaps in the literature on judicial motivation and trial judging.


Using A Prediction Model In Forecasting Appeals, Paul A. Rake Apr 1977

Using A Prediction Model In Forecasting Appeals, Paul A. Rake

IUSTITIA

Following the 1972 reorganization of the Indiana Court of Appeals into three panels serving defined geographical districts, the Court soon found itself floundering with too many unevenly distributed cases. Lacking a sufficient base of statistical data from which to formulate a plan to cope with the problem, various proposals, including redistricting the court, adding more judges, and developing a more sophisticated staff research, could not be measured for effectiveness or advisability.

In response to these problems, the Court developed a project to deal with the future caseload by constructing a regression model to predict appeals. This model generated estimates of ...


A Review: Unequal Justice: Lawyers And Social Change In Modern America, Lawrence Mayberry Apr 1977

A Review: Unequal Justice: Lawyers And Social Change In Modern America, Lawrence Mayberry

IUSTITIA

Unequal Justice is a social history of the legal profession from the emergence of The American Bar Association in the 1870's until the 1970's. Auerbach is a professional historian and not a member of the legal profession who writes history, nor is he a sociologist. But before his graduate work in history, the author entered and quickly left law school. The honesty with which he relates the experience and the competent research and analysis manifest in his work demonstrate that he writes this book from a perspective of understanding rather than of bitterness or indifference. In fact Auerbach ...


The National Emergencies Act Of 1976- End Of Emergency Government?, George G. Slater Apr 1977

The National Emergencies Act Of 1976- End Of Emergency Government?, George G. Slater

IUSTITIA

The purpose of this article is to examine whether the National Emergencies Act will accomplish its purpose of insuring that the exercise of national emergency authority by the Executive is responsible, appropriate, and timely. While the National Emergencies Act has drawn a certain amount of attention to the problem, it has, by no means, solved it. The Act exempts from its provisions eight statutes which the executive branch considers "vital" national emergency authority.' 9 The obvious paradox of these exceptions, which is one of the most important continuing problems in the area, is more easily understood after an examination of ...


The Conflicts Between Female Inmates' Needs And Prisoners' Goals, Aline L. Mohr Apr 1976

The Conflicts Between Female Inmates' Needs And Prisoners' Goals, Aline L. Mohr

IUSTITIA

A comparison of the purposes behind the existence of male and female institutions reveals that several common goals exist: custody, deterrence, and rehabilitation. An examination of these goals of women's prisons can be best understood in the context of whom they are aimed to serve. If the goals are to serve society alone, then the custody of female offenders is undoubtedly viewed as an accomplished goal, since society is protected and secure from the infliction of criminal acts by these female offenders. However, if the goals are directed at the inmates as well, deterrence of further criminal activity and ...


Personality Testing By The Schools: A Possible Invasion Of Privacy, Angelika Hoyman Apr 1976

Personality Testing By The Schools: A Possible Invasion Of Privacy, Angelika Hoyman

IUSTITIA

Contemporary critics, concerned with the maintenance of personal privacy, have termed the use of personality tests a "white glove rack and screw" . Monroe H. Freedman, Dean of Hofstra University School of Law, while testifying before a congressional subcommittee, compared the use of psychological tests to the administration of truth serums and found both to be an affront to personal dignity.

Nevertheless, the 1960's witnessed a three-fold increase in the number of school counselors employed in most schools and a nation-wide survey of these counselors indicated that at least one-third of their time was spent in dealing with the personal ...


Toward A Critical Theory Of Female Criminality, Ann Curry Thompson Apr 1976

Toward A Critical Theory Of Female Criminality, Ann Curry Thompson

IUSTITIA

Twentieth-century theories about female criminality are the weakest link in conventional criminology, representing the most conservative and unscientific thinking about human nature and social organization. Traditional thinking about female criminality reflects the general inability of conventional theorists to examine categories of sex, race, and class oppression as determined by the basic social structure of a particular society and as they relate to deviance and crime. The result has been that female deviance has been analyzed solely in light of assumptions about women's biological nature. Whether there is indeed something distinctive about female crime which can be explained apart from ...


The Cost Of Environmental Protection: A Review, Ian T. Ball Apr 1976

The Cost Of Environmental Protection: A Review, Ian T. Ball

IUSTITIA

Dan Richardson's study is "an attempt to analyze present regulatory procedures in the New Jersey coastal zone, with an emphasis on the cost of these procedures to residential developers and housing consumers." Specifically, twenty-one residential developments in a coastal township were monitored from acquisition of land to final approval of the development proposal, and the costs of regulatory approvals, consulting engineering, legal, and governmental fees, as well as holding costs incurred by the developer, were itemized. The costs of the regulatory process were then broken down according to costs incurred during the local regulatory process and those costs resulting ...


Synopses Of Recent Books Apr 1976

Synopses Of Recent Books

IUSTITIA

Synopses Of Recent Books


Judicial Review Of Parole Release Decisionmaking, Thomas B. Grier Apr 1976

Judicial Review Of Parole Release Decisionmaking, Thomas B. Grier

IUSTITIA

An inmate at a federal penal institution "is entitled only to be released after full service of his sentence less good time earned during incarceration." He or she is not entitled to parole, for parole is not a right but a privilege, a matter of "legislative grace". The United States Board of Parole has "absolute discretion" in deciding whether and when to grant parole. The judiciary will not interfere with the Board, as "courts are without power to grant a parole or to determine judicially eligibility for parole." And since the Board is statutorily authorized to exercise broad discretion, and ...


Subject Index Oct 1975

Subject Index

IUSTITIA

Subject Index


The Street Perspective: A Conversation With The Police, Patrick L. Baude Oct 1975

The Street Perspective: A Conversation With The Police, Patrick L. Baude

IUSTITIA

Professor Baude's purpose in this discussion is to elicit police officers' comments on what members of the legal profession ought to know about the influence of the "street perspective" in shaping those officers' attitudes towards the criminal justice system and the role they play in it. It is police insistence on the broad validity of insights which only "the street" can provide that accounts for the considerable gulf between "front-line" enforcement officers and other functionaries in (and students of) that system. Law students (and no doubt lawyers) seem uncomfortable with the notion that our system cannot adequately be understood ...


Synopses Of Books Received Oct 1975

Synopses Of Books Received

IUSTITIA

Synopses Of Books Received


The Flood Disaster Protection Act Of 1973: A Rational Approach To Flood Damage Prevention, Larry J. Wilson Oct 1975

The Flood Disaster Protection Act Of 1973: A Rational Approach To Flood Damage Prevention, Larry J. Wilson

IUSTITIA

Throughout history, man has utilized rivers for water supply, transportation, power generation, and waste disposal. This strong relationship has encouraged the location of human settlements near rivers and streams despite the risk of periodic flooding. The modern technology of transportation and public services has reduced the necessity for riverside locations, but the development of flood plains in urban areas has continued, resulting in the periodic loss of human life and property when flooding has occurred. Within the United States, flooding has taken over 5000 lives in the last fifty years and causes an estimated $1.25 billion in property damages ...


Robert M. O'Neil's Discriminating Against Discrimination: A Review, Karen Ruse Strueh Oct 1975

Robert M. O'Neil's Discriminating Against Discrimination: A Review, Karen Ruse Strueh

IUSTITIA

It is difficult these days to find anyone who will deny that racial minorities have been discriminated against in the area of educational opportunities. Few will deny the desirability of enhancing these opportunities and increasing the number of minority persons in the various professions. But very few will agree on the means that are appropriate to accomplish this desirable end. Robert O'Neil has tackled the awesome task of pinpointing and evaluating the policy considerations that affect the tough choices involved in formulating standards for admissions to professional school programs that will promote academic quality but at the same time ...


Author Index Oct 1975

Author Index

IUSTITIA

Author Index


Changing Attitudes Toward Euthanasia, Alice V. Mehling Oct 1975

Changing Attitudes Toward Euthanasia, Alice V. Mehling

IUSTITIA

Death is a very individual matter which does not readily lend itself to collective decision. Medical ethicists frequently conclude that to allow a person to die from malice is more reprehensible than to help a person to die from mercy. The most striking change which is taking place in consideration of the problem is recognition of the need to reinforce the patient's right to decide on the course of medical treatment.

A New York Times editorial of February 3, 1903 condemned the practice of active euthanasia by comparing it to "practices of savages in all parts of the world ...


Title Index Oct 1975

Title Index

IUSTITIA

Title Index


Collective Hindsight: A Review Of The Grass Roots Primer, Jenifer Robison Oct 1975

Collective Hindsight: A Review Of The Grass Roots Primer, Jenifer Robison

IUSTITIA

What do you do when the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers announces that its solution to the hurricane "problem" in New York (four major hurricanes in 200 years) is to build a wall around Coney Island? How do you fight it when a local landowner secures a zoning variance so he can open a game farm whose main access (for its projected 300,000 visitors in 100,000 cars) is the only street in your tiny village? In the days before the citizen's suit provisions of the present environmental laws there was very little recourse for people outraged ...


The Runaways, Richard David Young Oct 1975

The Runaways, Richard David Young

IUSTITIA

At the present stage of development, the varied literature on runaway children and adolescents provides little basis for firm conclusions. The apparent heterogeneity of runaways has yet to be fully realized in conceptual or research attempts, although efforts in that direction are beginning. There appears to be little utility or meaning in assigning runaway behavior solely to categories of delinquency or psychopathology. Such efforts have done little to clarify the meaning of running away or to define the important environmental factors and personality features involved in running away. To some extent their greatest impact has been on the restriction of ...


Law, Morality And The Judge: Robert M. Cover's Justice Accused, Raymond L. Faust Apr 1975

Law, Morality And The Judge: Robert M. Cover's Justice Accused, Raymond L. Faust

IUSTITIA

The intellectual world of the nineteenth century judge was one in which the two main concerns relevant to our topic here were what the judge's role ought to be in the evolution of law in a democratic society, and whether a recognition and application of 'natural law' was ever appropriate to a legal system. Professor Cover reviews exhaustively the eighteenth and nineteenth century sources from which American judges drew their ideas on these subjects, and studies practically all of the antebellum slavery litigation to discover how judges actually applied these doctrines in the context of slavery cases. What he ...


The Abused Child And His Parents, Richard David Young Apr 1975

The Abused Child And His Parents, Richard David Young

IUSTITIA

Children in our society pass through a prolonged period of dependency during which they are taught the complex technological and social skills necessary for successful adult functioning. The child's experiences during this period can have profound effects on the development of his potential for meaningful interpersonal relationships, competency, and creativity. The child's dependence needs are the complement of the caretaker's nurturance. When nurturance fails or is inconsistent, societal loss merges with individual tragedy. Yet nurturance does occasionally fail. Some of those charged with the care of children abdicate their responsibilities, and do not provide the physical and ...


A Review: The Interaction Of Law And Religion, Frona Powell Apr 1975

A Review: The Interaction Of Law And Religion, Frona Powell

IUSTITIA

In 1971 at Boston University, Harold J. Berman, Story Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, delivered four lectures in the series of Lowell Lectures on Theology. This book is comprised of those lectures with an introduction, postscript, and annotations. One would hope that Berman's analysis of the interaction of law and religion would provide insight into an area which is often neglected by modern jurisprudents. Unfortunately, it does not.

Those who are members of the legal profession as well as those who are not, are aware of the fact that the legal system does not always function properly ...


Pesticide Regulation And The Farm Worker, R. Craig Loveless Apr 1975

Pesticide Regulation And The Farm Worker, R. Craig Loveless

IUSTITIA

It has long been recognized that many pesticide products offer a potential hazard, which if unregulated, may result in injury or death. The development of highly toxic pesticides during the last decade has created a need for stricter regulation of pesticide use in the agricultural community. Specifically, the farm worker of today is in need of legislative protection from exposure to deadly chemical agents now being used to control pests and disease in the fields and orchards. Regulating the handling and use of these dangerous pesticides is but one way to protect the farmer, the farm worker, and the environment ...


The Good Society And The Complexity Of The Structure Of Morality, Hector-Neri Castaneda Apr 1975

The Good Society And The Complexity Of The Structure Of Morality, Hector-Neri Castaneda

IUSTITIA

In this paper I have two main purposes: (i) to outline the most general structure of morality, which is the fundamental schema of a good society, and (ii) to indict most of the mainstream views in the history of moral philosophy for their unchecked tendency toward reductionism and oversimplification. The tendency to oversimplification appears both in the gathering of the data for philosophical theorizing and in the theorizing itself. I will also point out another major recurring error in moral philosophy. I envision the day when moral philosophers, after examining their ontological and their methodological assumptions, rally to the banner ...


Sanctions And Deviance: Another Look, Herbert Kritzer Apr 1975

Sanctions And Deviance: Another Look, Herbert Kritzer

IUSTITIA

In the past several years, there has been an extended dialogue in the literature concerning the question of the efficacy of sanctions as a means of deterring criminal behavior. There is some convincing evidence that threatened sanctions can and do deter some forms of behavior, such as parking violations and income tax evasion. Do these findings extend to other forms of behavior which our society has defined as criminal? This issue is considered by Gibbs in an article which appeared to find a clear link between the certainty and severity of sanctions and the murder rate. Gibbs' article stimulated additional ...


Informed Consent And Medical Experimentation, George H. Martin Jr. Apr 1975

Informed Consent And Medical Experimentation, George H. Martin Jr.

IUSTITIA

Certain biomedical technologies already or almost already with us "threaten to reduce the meaning of man and to degrade the human spirit in the very process of becoming technologically feasible, long before the final stage of deployment and widespread use has been reached." It is this threat that has prompted me to consider certain medical and legal problems associated broadly with the human experimentation process. I shall be examining the concept of "informed consent" to both experimental medical therapy and nontherapeutic scientific experimentation as a means of protecting man from the potential ravages of a zealous application of scientific advances ...


Disqualification For Bias- Indiana In Prespective, John Philip Updike Apr 1975

Disqualification For Bias- Indiana In Prespective, John Philip Updike

IUSTITIA

In 1943, the Indiana Legislature created a Stream Pollution Control Board;' in 1961, it created an Air Pollution Control Board; and then in 1972, the Legislature created an Environmental Management Board to coordinate and facilitate the efforts of the air and stream boards. The concern within the State Legislature for the environment reaches back more than two decades, and it would appear that the policy of the State is to become progressively more active in this area. However, the effectiveness of State programs to protect the Hoosier environment is necessarily dependent upon the dedication of those persons sitting on the ...


Private Markets And Social Control, Lloyd D. Orr Oct 1974

Private Markets And Social Control, Lloyd D. Orr

IUSTITIA

The continuing failure of society to deal adequately with its problems has led to criticism that goes beyond the imperfections of a fundamentally sound social organization. Individual economic incentive and private markets, the basics of our economic organization, are condemned as inherently destructive of desirable social goals. It may be that such criticism is naive with respect to the basic history of economic organization and the prospects for meaningful alternatives. It also may be that the "solutions" offered are frequently more authoritarian than the critics allege the present system to be. We are still left to ponder the vital, long-standing ...