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Full-Text Articles in Law

Health Information Equity, Craig Konnoth Jan 2017

Health Information Equity, Craig Konnoth

Articles

In the last few years, numerous Americans’ health information has been collected and used for follow-on, secondary research. This research studies correlations between medical conditions, genetic or behavioral profiles, and treatments, to customize medical care to specific individuals. Recent federal legislation and regulations make it easier to collect and use the data of the low-income, unwell, and elderly for this purpose. This would impose disproportionate security and autonomy burdens on these individuals. Those who are well-off and pay out of pocket could effectively exempt their data from the publicly available information pot. This presents a problem which modern research ethics ...


Consent Confusion, Aya Gruber Jan 2016

Consent Confusion, Aya Gruber

Articles

The slogans are ubiquitous: “Only ‘Yes’ Means ‘Yes’”; “Got Consent?”; “Consent is Hot, Assault is Not!” Clear consent is the rule, but the meaning of sexual consent is far from clear. The current state of confusion is evident in the numerous competing views about what constitutes mental agreement (grudging acceptance or eager desire?) and what comprises performative consent (passive acquiescence or an enthusiastic “yes”?). This paper seeks to clear up the consent confusion. It charts the contours of the sexual consent framework, categorizes different definitions of affirmative consent, and critically describes arguments for and against affirmative consent. Today’s widespread ...


Not Affirmative Consent, Aya Gruber Jan 2016

Not Affirmative Consent, Aya Gruber

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Hydra, Carl E. Schneider Jul 2010

The Hydra, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Almost nobody favors long consent forms for prospective research subjects. Almost everybody thinks they interfere with informed consent's purpose-good decisions. Nevertheless, almost everybody believes consent forms have long been getting longer. Years ago, Paul Appelbaum lamented the "tendency to cram ever more information into consent forms." Weeks ago, Ilene Albala and her colleagues (one of them Appelbaum) reported in IRE: Ethics & Human Research that the length of one institutional review board's forms "increased roughly linearly by an average of 1.5 pages per decade. In the 1970s, the average consent form was less than one page long and ...


Against Secret Regulation: Why And How We Should End The Practical Obscurity Of Injunctions And Consent Decrees (Symposium: Rising Stars: A New Generation Of Scholars Looks At Civil Justice), Margo Schlanger Jan 2010

Against Secret Regulation: Why And How We Should End The Practical Obscurity Of Injunctions And Consent Decrees (Symposium: Rising Stars: A New Generation Of Scholars Looks At Civil Justice), Margo Schlanger

Articles

Every year, federal and state courts put in place orders that regulate the prospective operations of certainly hundreds and probably thousands of large government and private enterprises. Injunctions and injunction-like settlement agreements-whether styled consent decrees, settlements, conditional dismissals, or some other more creative title-bind the activities of employers, polluters, competitors, lenders, creditors, property holders, schools, housing authorities, police departments, jails, prisons, nursing homes, and many others. The types of law underlying these cases multiply just as readily: consumer lending, environmental, employment, anti-discrimination, education, constitutional, and so on. Injunctive orders, whether reached by litigation or on consent, suffuse the regulatory environment ...


Principal Investigator Views Of The Irb System, Simon N. Whitney, Kirsten Alcser, Carl E. Schneider, Laurence B. Mccullough, Amy L. Mcguire, Robert J. Volk Jan 2008

Principal Investigator Views Of The Irb System, Simon N. Whitney, Kirsten Alcser, Carl E. Schneider, Laurence B. Mccullough, Amy L. Mcguire, Robert J. Volk

Articles

We undertook a qualitative e-mail survey of federally-funded principal investigators of their views of the US human subjects protection system, intended to identify the range of investigator attitudes. This was an exploratory study with a 14% response rate. Twenty-eight principal investigators responded; their comments were analyzed to show underlying themes, which are here presented along with supporting quotations. There was consensus that it is important to protect human subjects from research abuse, but disagreement over how well the IRB system is functioning. Some researchers felt that the system is effective and serves its purpose well. Of those who support the ...


Search Me?, John Burkoff Jan 2007

Search Me?, John Burkoff

Articles

Professor Burkoff contends that most people who purportedly "consent" to searches by law enforcement officers are not really - freely and voluntarily, as the Supreme Court decisional law supposedly requires - consenting to such searches. Yet, absent unusual circumstances, the great likelihood is that a court nonetheless will conclude that such consent was valid and any evidence seized admissible under the Fourth Amendment. Professor Burkoff argues, however, that the Supreme Court's 2006 decision in Georgia v. Randolph now dictates that the application of consent law doctrine should reflect the actual voluntariness (or involuntariness) of the questioned consents that come before the ...


After Autonomy, Carl E. Schneider Apr 2006

After Autonomy, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Bioethicists today are like Bolsheviks on the death of Lenin. They have, rather to their surprise, won the day. Their principle of autonomy is dogma. Their era of charismatic leadership is over. Their work of Weberian rationalization, of institutionalizing principle and party, has begun. The liturgy is reverently recited, but the vitality of Lenin's "What Is To Be Done?" has yielded to the vacuity of Stalin's "The Foundations of Leninism." Effort once lavished on expounding ideology is now devoted to establishing associations, organizing degree programs, installing bioethicist commissars in every hospital, and staffing IRB soviets. Not-so-secret police prowl ...


Gang Aft Agley, Carl E. Schneider Jan 2001

Gang Aft Agley, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

In my last contribution to this column (HCR, July-August 2000), I argued that the law of bioethics has repeatedly failed to achieve the hopes cherished for it. I presented evidence, for example, that most doctors breach the duty of informed consent, that advance directives do not direct patients' care, and that repeated legal attempts to increase organ donation have failed to find the success predicted for them. I closed that column by promising to try to explain this chastening experience. It would, of course, take a lifetime of columns to capture all the reasons the law of bioethics has so ...


The Best-Laid Plans, Carl E. Schneider Jul 2000

The Best-Laid Plans, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

It is natural to suppose law is like the centurion and can do as it will: "I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it." But a thousand years ago, King Canute tried to disillusion his courtiers about his efficacy by commanding the waves to stop beating. And fifty years ago, Harry Truman predicted of Dwight Eisenhower, "He'll sit here, and he'll say, 'Do this! Do that!' And nothing will happen. Poor Ike-it won't be a bit like the Army ...


Conceiving Nonmarital Fathers' Rights: An Inquiry Into The Constitutionality Of West Virginia's Adoption Statute, Lisa Kelly Jan 2000

Conceiving Nonmarital Fathers' Rights: An Inquiry Into The Constitutionality Of West Virginia's Adoption Statute, Lisa Kelly

Articles

When do the rights of nonmarital fathers to their children quicken? Is it only upon the father's establishment of a substantial economic and emotional relationship with his child? Do such fathers' interests gel only after the ink has dried on an order or affidavit in which paternity is established or acknowledged? Do there fundamental rights lie inchoate in the beating hearts of the newborn or gestating child? How should the law regard the role of the nonmarital father in the adoption context? Should there be one standard for all or two-one for fathers of infants and another for fathers ...


Testing Testing, Carl E. Schneider Jul 1997

Testing Testing, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Last year, Congress passed the Ryan White Care Act Amendments of 1996. The amendments authorize ten million dollars for each fiscal year from 1996 through 2000 for counseling pregnant women on HIV disease, for "outreach efforts to pregnant women at high risk of HN who are not currently receiving prenatal care," and for voluntary testing for pregnant women. The amendments compromise a central question: whether prenatal and neonatal AIDS testing should be compelled. The compromise is complex. The director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is instructed to establish a system for states to use to discover and ...


The Empty Circles Of Liberal Justification, Pierre Schlag Jan 1997

The Empty Circles Of Liberal Justification, Pierre Schlag

Articles

No abstract provided.


Imagining Children's Rights, Suellyn Scarnecchia Jan 1995

Imagining Children's Rights, Suellyn Scarnecchia

Articles

Today, I will tell you some stories about real, live children, whose futures have been determined by our legal system. To speak of children's rights hypothetically, raises images of children suing to go live with their rich uncle or suing to demand a Nintendo system from their parents. I hope that by bringing you stories of the legal system's treatment of real children, you will have a better understanding of what I mean by children's rights and why they must be recognized. Although children's rights have been recognized in limited ways in the areas of free ...


A Child's Right To Protection From Transfer Trauma In A Contested Adoption Case, Suellyn Scarnecchia Jan 1995

A Child's Right To Protection From Transfer Trauma In A Contested Adoption Case, Suellyn Scarnecchia

Articles

On August 2, 1993, I arrived at the home of Jan, Robby, and Jessica DeBoer' a few hours before the transfer. At 2:00 P.M. I would carry Jessica out of her home and deliver her to the parents who had won the case,2 her biological mother and father. This task probably would have been easier had I not spent eight days in the trial court listening to the experts explain that this transfer from one set of parents to another would harm Jessica.3 It would have been easier had I not recently obtained affidavits from other ...


Democratic Credentials, Donald J. Herzog Jan 1994

Democratic Credentials, Donald J. Herzog

Articles

We've made a mistake, urges Bruce Ackerman. We've failed to notice, or have forgotten, that ours is a dualist democracy: ordinary representatives passing their statutes are in fact the democratic inferiors of We the People, who at rare junctures appear on the scene and affirm new constitutional principles. (Actually, he claims in passing that we have a three-track democracy.)' Dwelling lovingly on dualism, Ackerman doesn't quite forget to discuss democracy, but he comes close. I want to raise some questions about the democratic credentials of Ackerman's view. Not, perhaps, the ones he anticipates. So I don ...


Synthesizing Related Rules From Statutes And Cases For Legal Expert Systems, Layman E. Allen, Sallyanne Payton, Charles S. Saxon Jan 1990

Synthesizing Related Rules From Statutes And Cases For Legal Expert Systems, Layman E. Allen, Sallyanne Payton, Charles S. Saxon

Articles

Different legal expert systems may be incompatible with each other: A user in characterizing the same situation by answering the questions presented in a consultation can be led to contradictory inferences. Such systems can be ”synthesized’ to help users avoid such contradictions by alerting them that other relevant systems are available to be consulted as they are responding to questions. An example of potentially incompatible, related legal expert systems is presented here - ones for the New Jersey murder statute and the celebrated Quinlan case, along with one way of synthesizing them to avoid such incompatibility.


Authority And Value: Reflections On Raz's Morality Of Freedom, Donald H. Regan Jan 1989

Authority And Value: Reflections On Raz's Morality Of Freedom, Donald H. Regan

Articles

Joseph Raz's The Morality of Freedom1 is full of subtle, original, and thought provoking arguments. It also manifests abundantly Raz's philosophical good sense and sensitivity to the complexities of the moral life. These are reasons enough to class it with the handful of genuinely important books whose appearance in the last two decades has constituted a renaissance in political philosophy. But in my opinion, Raz has another, and even stronger claim on our attention: He comes closer to the truth about political morality than anyone has for nearly a century. (Possibly much longer, but we need not attempt ...


Some Non-Religious Views Against Proposed 'Mercy-Killing' Legislation Part Ii, Yale Kamisar Jan 1976

Some Non-Religious Views Against Proposed 'Mercy-Killing' Legislation Part Ii, Yale Kamisar

Articles

There have been and there will continue to be compelling circumstances when a doctor or relative or friend will violate The Law On The Books and, more often than not, receive protection from The Law In Action. But this is not to deny that there are other occasions when The Law On The Books operates to stay the hand of all concerned, among them situations where the patient is in fact ( 1 ) presently incurable, ( 2) beyond the aid of any respite which may come along in his life expectancy, suffering ( 3 ) intolerable and ( 4) unmitigable pain and of a ( 5 ...


Some Non-Religious Views Against Proposed 'Mercy-Killing' Legislation Part I, Yale Kamisar Jan 1976

Some Non-Religious Views Against Proposed 'Mercy-Killing' Legislation Part I, Yale Kamisar

Articles

In essence, Williams' specific proposal is that death be authorized for a person in the above situation "by giving the medical practitioner a wide discretion and trusting to his good sense." This, I submit, raises too great a risk of abuse and mistake to warrant a change in the existing law. That a proposal entails risk of mistake is hardly a conclusive reason against it. But neither is it irrelevant. Under any euthanasia program the consequences of mistake, of course, are always fatal. As I shall endeavor to show, the incidence of mistake of one kind or another is likely ...


Representing The Low Income Consumer In Repossessions, Resales And Deficiency Judgment Cases, James J. White Jan 1970

Representing The Low Income Consumer In Repossessions, Resales And Deficiency Judgment Cases, James J. White

Articles

The goal of this article is to lend a helping hand to the debtor's lawyer in his job of defending deficiency judgment suits brought following the repossession and resale of a debtor's encumbered personal property. Although some of the following discussion is relevant to the defense of any creditor's suit, and some applies to representation of the debtor prior to repossession or resale, the focal point of the discussion is the low-income consumer who has lost his automobile, television or some other "hard good" and has become a defendant in a suit brought by his secured creditor ...


Foreign Marriages And The Conflict Of Laws, Herbert F. Goodrich Jan 1922

Foreign Marriages And The Conflict Of Laws, Herbert F. Goodrich

Articles

With the purely local phases of the law governing the relation of husband and wife, Conflict of Laws has no concern. Nor do we deal with Public International Law problems, such as the question of expatriation by marriage. We are concerned with two questions: first, what law governs the creation of the marriage relation; and second, the recognition and protection to be given the relation and incidents arising therefrom, under the law of states other than that in which the relationship was created.


Surgical Operation On Minor Without Consent Of Parent, Harry B. Hutchins Jan 1906

Surgical Operation On Minor Without Consent Of Parent, Harry B. Hutchins

Articles

The case of Bakker v. Welsh et al., Io8 N. W. Rep. 94, recently decided by the Supreme Court of Michigan, is of interest, as it involves a question of special importance to the surgical practitioner and one upon which there seems to be a great dearth of authority.


The Consent Of The Governed, Bradley M. Thompson Jan 1900

The Consent Of The Governed, Bradley M. Thompson

Articles

The acquisition of the Philippine Islands has aroused a profound interest in certain constitutional questions. This is not to be deplored. One of those questions is the meaning, the force and effect of the statement in the Declaration of Independence that "all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed." That doctrine is not embodied in the constitution in those words nor in words of similar import, but some contend that the Declaration of Independence is a great beacon fire kindled by the fathers of the revolution and that in its light the constitution, afterwards adopted by ...