Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

University of Michigan Law School

Treaties

Discipline
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 421 - 449 of 449

Full-Text Articles in Law

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen Oct 1982

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that greater appreciation for the nature and importance of national treatment obligations will compel tribunals fashioning antitrust relief to provide more suitably for foreign firms, and thus avoid straining international trade relations. Moreover, because antitrust relief and national treatment objectives are mutually reinforcing, greater recognition of national treatment requirements should improve remedial orders from the standpoint of antitrust economics. Meeting national treatment requirements should place little added burden on the antitrust tribunal; it must merely extend impartial economic analysis to all market suppliers, not just domestic firms.

This Note explores methods to ensure that antitrust relief orders ...


Anti-Dumping Law In A Liberal Trade Order, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Anti-Dumping Law In A Liberal Trade Order, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Anti-Dumping Law in a Liberal Trade Order by Richard Dale


Managing The Risks Of International Agreement, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Managing The Risks Of International Agreement, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Managing the Risks of International Agreement by Richard B. Bilder


Refugees And Refugee Law In A World In Transition, Atle Grahl-Madsen Jan 1982

Refugees And Refugee Law In A World In Transition, Atle Grahl-Madsen

Michigan Journal of International Law

In country after country a political polarization is growing, a movement away from the center-to the right and to the left. In states with a less than stable political structure, coups d'etat and strongmen are commonplace. International law is broken as a matter of convenience. The media are filled with news of interventions, aggressions, even warfare. Human rights are frequently trodden under foot. And we are faced with a rising wave of xenophobia.


Nordic Refugee Law And Policy, Göran Melander Jan 1982

Nordic Refugee Law And Policy, Göran Melander

Michigan Journal of International Law

Since the end of World War II, the Nordic states have shown an interest in refugee policy and have taken part in work on behalf of refugees through various international organizations. In the 1940s and the 1950s, when Western Europe was faced with a huge refugee problem, the Nordic states shared the burden with countries of first asylum in Central Europe by admitting refugees for permanent resettlement. In the 1960s and 1970s, when other continents were confronted with refugee problems, the Nordic states also generously contributed material assistance to refugees resettled in neighboring countries. In 1979, for instance, the Nordic ...


Entry And Exclusion Of Refugees: The Obligations Of States And The Protection Function Of The Office Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees, Guy S. Goodwin-Gill Jan 1982

Entry And Exclusion Of Refugees: The Obligations Of States And The Protection Function Of The Office Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees, Guy S. Goodwin-Gill

Michigan Journal of International Law

Refugee problems today tend to have one factor in common-the huge numbers of people involved. But whether it is a case of one or of a mass of individuals, each arriving asylum seeker represents a challenge to established principles of state sovereignty. International jurists once wrote of the free movement of persons between nations, unhampered by passport and visa control. Since the late nineteenth century, however, the principle most widely accepted has been that each state retains exclusive control- an absolute discretion- over the admission to its territory of foreign nationals, refugees or not. Although in practice many countries concede ...


The Development Of Refugee Law, Paul Weis Jan 1982

The Development Of Refugee Law, Paul Weis

Michigan Journal of International Law

In customary international law, nationality provides the principal link between the individual and the law of nations. Refugees are commonly understood to be persons who have been compelled to leave their homes on account of natural catastrophes or because of political events; they may be inside or outside their country of origin. Refugees may be stateless or not; most present-day refugees are not stateless. Only international political refugees-persons who are outside their country of origin for political reasons-are discussed in this article, an overview of sources of refugee law, and a preface to the articles in this volume which take ...


Refugees, Law, And Development In Africa, Peter Nobel Jan 1982

Refugees, Law, And Development In Africa, Peter Nobel

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article concerns those large movements of people in Africa, which have been called the "African refugee problem." However, large and intriguing migrations of populations have occurred in Africa for centuries. The earliest migrations reflected the spread of culture, the growth of trade and the development of roving early kingdoms. The unique history behind the refugee dilemma, however, begins with the instability spawned by slave trading and colonialism. Sensitivity to these eras heightens an understanding of why today's Africa is wrought with economic crises, territorial disputes, unnatural frontiers, misfit ethnic combinations, and more refugees than any other continent. Against ...


The Individual Right To Asylum Under Article 3 Of The European Convention On Human Rights, David Scott Nance Jan 1982

The Individual Right To Asylum Under Article 3 Of The European Convention On Human Rights, David Scott Nance

Michigan Journal of International Law

International law does not recognize an individual right to be granted asylum. The emergence of a variant of such a right under the European Convention on Human Rights, albeit under limited conditions, therefore marks a major departure from customary law, a departure particularly noteworthy given that the parties to the Convention represent some of the most advanced legal systems in the world. The recognition of a right to asylum not only establishes a valuable precedent, but also has a direct impact on the status of refugees in Europe. Although no right of entry is provided, aliens already in countries of ...


International Human Rights Forums: A Means Of Recourse For Refugees, Amy Young-Anawaty Jan 1982

International Human Rights Forums: A Means Of Recourse For Refugees, Amy Young-Anawaty

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article explores the possibility of using some of the other international agreements to secure the rights of asylum seekers. These treaties belong to the relatively new body of international law- human rights law- which gives broad protection to individuals everywhere regardless of status. In a significant development for international law, 12 institutions and procedures have been established internationally and regionally to monitor the enforcement of these human rights agreements. Several of these institutions, by virtue of treaty or statute, even possess the competence to hear complaints about states' violations of human rights. Insofar as the claims of refugees fall ...


Appendix I, Michigan Jouranl Of International Law Jan 1982

Appendix I, Michigan Jouranl Of International Law

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this section: • Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees • Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees • Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees • OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa • A List of Other International Instruments Concerning Refugees


Regulating Multinational Corporate Concentration-The European Economic Community, John Temple Lang Jan 1981

Regulating Multinational Corporate Concentration-The European Economic Community, John Temple Lang

Michigan Journal of International Law

It is the purpose of this article to discuss the policies and goals of the efforts of the European Communities to regulate multinational corporate concentration. For reasons that will become clear in the course of the article, it is necessary to start by outlining the means available to the European Communities, both presently and potentially, to promote these policies. It is not possible to see what those policies might be or how they are likely to develop without understanding the practical implications of the various legal rules on which the Community might rely in the future. This article does not ...


Compensation And Reward For Saving Life At Sea, Steven F. Friedell May 1979

Compensation And Reward For Saving Life At Sea, Steven F. Friedell

Michigan Law Review

This Article explores the life salvage rules under the general maritime law and under the 1912 life salvage statute. Surprisingly, some life salvors had greater rights under the general maritime law than they have under cases construing the statute. This Article suggests that courts have given insufficient attention to the purposes of the Brussels Salvage Convention of 1910, which inspired the 1912 statute, and that American courts should .remain free to recognize all rights that life salvors possessed before the Brussels Convention.

This Article then considers whether American courts should further expand the rights of life salvors by awarding life ...


Jus Non Scriptum And The Reliance Principle, Stanley L. Paulson Nov 1976

Jus Non Scriptum And The Reliance Principle, Stanley L. Paulson

Michigan Law Review

On the Continent, a general theory of customary law has been developed-what I term the Continental theory; it identifies formation and validity as the central issues in the analysis of custom and customary law. Yet the Continental theory, notwithstanding its longevity and continuing favorable reception among international lawyers, is ridden with problems. In particular, as I argue in the following section, the theory fails for want of a coherent position on the formation issue. In the course of my argument, I suggest a classification of the norms of customary law in terms of a generic category broader in scope than ...


Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell Jan 1974

Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Since the founding of this nation, Americans have relied on fundamental constitutional principles for the ultimate protection of their religious liberty. These guarantees have been extended to all persons in the United States, not just citizens. American nationals traveling or living abroad may discover, however, that religious freedom is not regarded as a fundamental right elsewhere. Although most nations do, at least in principle, adhere to the basic idea of freedom of religious belief and exercise, religious freedom may be denied either to a state's own citizens or to foreign nationals within its boundaries.


The Rising Tide Of Reverse Flow: Would A Legislative Breakwater Violate U.S. Treaty Commitments?, Michigan Law Review Jan 1974

The Rising Tide Of Reverse Flow: Would A Legislative Breakwater Violate U.S. Treaty Commitments?, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Up to the present the United States has imposed few restrictions on foreign direct investment. It has never enacted any limitations as sweeping as those proposed by the Dent-Gaydos bill. This Note will briefly discuss the need for such restrictions and then examine the extent to which a reversal in policy is permitted by existing U.S. treaty obligations.


Conflicts Between Treaties And Subsequently Enacted Statutes In Belgium: Etat Belge V. S.A. "Fromagerie Franco-Suisse Le Ski", Michigan Law Review Nov 1973

Conflicts Between Treaties And Subsequently Enacted Statutes In Belgium: Etat Belge V. S.A. "Fromagerie Franco-Suisse Le Ski", Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

In Etat Belge v. S.A. "Fromagerie Franco-Suisse Le Ski," the Supreme Court of Belgium was faced with a conflict between a provision of the European Economic Community (EEC) treaty and a domestic law enacted subsequent to Belgian ratification of the treaty. The traditional approach in Belgium--and, incidentally, the rule in the United States--had been to give effect to whichever was enacted later in time. Although not stated explicitly in any constitutional provision, this rule had been well settled in Belgium.


Stein: Impact Of New Weapons Technology On International Law: Selected Aspects, Egon Schwelb Dec 1972

Stein: Impact Of New Weapons Technology On International Law: Selected Aspects, Egon Schwelb

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Impact of New Weapons Technology on International Law: Selected Aspects by Eric Stein


Boskey & Willrich: Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects; And Willrich: Civil Nuclear Power And International Security, Charles N. Van Doren Dec 1972

Boskey & Willrich: Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects; And Willrich: Civil Nuclear Power And International Security, Charles N. Van Doren

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects for Control edited by Bennett Boskey and Mason Willrich, and Civil Nuclear Power and International Security edited by Mason Willrich


Controlling Great Lakes Pollution: A Study In United States-Canadian Environmental Cooperation, Richard B. Bilder Jan 1972

Controlling Great Lakes Pollution: A Study In United States-Canadian Environmental Cooperation, Richard B. Bilder

Michigan Law Review

In this context, a study of the proposed Agreement and, more particularly, of the long history of developing United States-Canadian cooperation that preceded it may be of use. First, this United States-Canadian experience offers guidance for the solution of some of the specific problems that programs for international environmental cooperation may face: questions of framework and approach; institutional organization, function, and authority; determination of objectives; apportionment of burdens; coordination; and implementation. Second, at a time when international discussion has focused principally on global approaches to the solution of environmental problems, it calls attention to the important, if less dramatic, contribution ...


Dam: The Gatt, Law And International Economic Organization, Carl H. Fulda Mar 1971

Dam: The Gatt, Law And International Economic Organization, Carl H. Fulda

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The GATT, Law and International Economic Organization by Kenneth Dam


Fawcett: International Law And The Uses Of Outer Space, Stanley D. Metzger Jun 1970

Fawcett: International Law And The Uses Of Outer Space, Stanley D. Metzger

Michigan Law Review

A Review of International Law and the Uses of Outer Space by J.E.S. Fawcett


Conflict-Of-Laws Rules By Treaty: Recognition Of Companies In A Regional Market, Eric Stein Jun 1970

Conflict-Of-Laws Rules By Treaty: Recognition Of Companies In A Regional Market, Eric Stein

Michigan Law Review

The term "recognition" has many meanings. We speak in family law of a "recognized child," in public international law of recognizing a newly emerged state or newly installed government, and in private international law (conflict of laws) of recognizing foreign judgments or legal persons. In both public and private international law, it is the nation-state that grants or denies recognition. In public international law, the "recognizing" nation-state expresses "a value judgment acknowledging that a given fact situation is in accord with the exigencies of the international legal order." In private international law (or conflict of laws), on the other hand ...


The 'Hot Trail' Into Mexico And Extradition Analogies, Edwin D. Dickinson Jan 1922

The 'Hot Trail' Into Mexico And Extradition Analogies, Edwin D. Dickinson

Articles

The recent decision of the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals in Dominguez v. State, 234 S. W. 79, has given us an important precedent and also a valuable example of the solution of novel problems by means of analogies. A detachment of the military forces of the United States had been authorized by the War Department to enter Mexico on the "hot trail" in pursuit of bandits. While following a "hot trail" this detachment arrested Dominguez, a native citizen and resident of Mexico, and returned with him to the United States. It developed later that he was not one of ...


The Execution Of Peace With Germany: An Experiment In International Organization, Edwin D. Dickinson Jan 1920

The Execution Of Peace With Germany: An Experiment In International Organization, Edwin D. Dickinson

Articles

IN one respect, at least, the Peace of Versailles is unlike any of the great European settlements of earlier date. The provisions included to ensure the execution of its terms are vastly more ambitious in scope and more elaborate in detail than anything of the kind contained in earlier treaties. There is an extraordinary emphasis upon organization for the enforcement of peace.


The Power Of The Senate To Amend A Treaty, Bradley M. Thompson Jan 1905

The Power Of The Senate To Amend A Treaty, Bradley M. Thompson

Articles

The recent refusal of the Senate to ratify eight general arbitration treaties which the President had concluded with Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Germany, Mexico, and Norway and Sweden, until, against the protest of the President, it had modified them materially by amendment, has called public attention to the treaty-making power, and has raised the question as to whether or not any of that power is vested in the Senate.


The Power Of The Senate To Amend A Treaty, Bradley M. Thompson Jan 1905

The Power Of The Senate To Amend A Treaty, Bradley M. Thompson

Articles

The recent refusal of the Senate to ratify eight general arbitration treaties which the President had concluded with Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Germany, Mexico,' and Norway and Sweden, until, against the protest of the President, it had modified them materially by amendment, has called public attention to the treaty-making power, and has raised the question as to whether or not any of that power is vested in the Senate.


International Extradition, Henry W. Rogers Jan 1888

International Extradition, Henry W. Rogers

Articles

It is a well-established principle of law that criminal prosecutions are local and not transitory. A wrong-doer whose wrong consists in a civil injury, or arises out of a breach of contract, can ordinarily be required to answer for the wrong done wherever he may be found. But a different principle is applied to the case of one who has committed a crime. As one nation does not enforce the penal laws of another, and as the process of the courts of a state can confer no authority beyond its own territorial limits, punishment can be avoided by escaping from ...


Extradition, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1875

Extradition, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

The policy of returning for trial and punishment the criminal of one country who has escaped to another, is not less manifest than its justice. It would seem, therefore, that there ought to be no great difficulty in agreeing upon the proper international regulations for the purpose. This, ho:wever, has until recently been practically an impossibility. While the leading nations of Christendom were engaged for a very large proportion of the time in inflicting upon each other all the mischief possible, it was not to be expected that they would be solicitous to assist in the enforcement of their ...