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Full-Text Articles in Law

European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein Oct 1984

European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The conception of fundamental rights as natural rights of human beings developed in European legal thinking mainly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and also Immanuel Kant should be mentioned. But it was in the new world that the principles of fundamental human rights were first put into practice. A little more than ten years after the first American declarations, the "Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen" was adopted in Paris; it remains part of French constitutional law today. But, unlike the development in the United States, the French guarantees could not be ...


Direct And Indirect Judicial Control Of Community Acts In Practice: The Relation Between Articles 173 And 177 Of The Eec Treaty, Gerhard Bebr May 1984

Direct And Indirect Judicial Control Of Community Acts In Practice: The Relation Between Articles 173 And 177 Of The Eec Treaty, Gerhard Bebr

Michigan Law Review

The European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty contains two different judicial controls over the exercise of the powers granted to the Community by the Treaty: (1) a direct control through an action in the European Court of Justice under article 173 to annul a Community act; and (2) an indirect control through reference by a national court to the Court of Justice under article 177 to review the validity of a Community act. Each of . these controls is designed to ensure the legal exercise of power by Community institutions. In form, however, they are quite different procedures.

The present study seeks ...


Effects Of International Agreements In European Community Law: Are The Dice Cast?, Jacques H.J. Bourgeois May 1984

Effects Of International Agreements In European Community Law: Are The Dice Cast?, Jacques H.J. Bourgeois

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of this contribution is to explore the extent to which the "direct effect" doctrine, developed within the Community legal system for the purpose of the relations between Community law and the Member States' law, has spilled over into the field of the relations between international law and Community law, or, to use a somewhat daring comparison, to what extent the doctrine of McCulloch v. Maryland has been applied in a Foster and Elam situation.


The European Community And The Requirement Of A Republican Form Of Government, Jochen Abr. Frowein May 1984

The European Community And The Requirement Of A Republican Form Of Government, Jochen Abr. Frowein

Michigan Law Review

The European Community - that is, the factual entity composed of three legally separate communities which has been and still is one of the basic concerns of Eric Stein - cannot be understood without taking into account European history after 1933. As an irony of history, the stage for a new beginning was set by the man who destroyed the old Europe and who was the reason that so many academics left the "old country" for the new world. This new start was not only influenced by the determination of those Europeans who had lived through the darkness to overcome the dangers ...


Civil Enforcement Of Eec Antitrust Law, Francis G. Jacobs May 1984

Civil Enforcement Of Eec Antitrust Law, Francis G. Jacobs

Michigan Law Review

This paper examines whether and to what extent private civil remedies are, as a matter of law, and ought to be, as a matter of policy, available in the courts of the EEC Member States for breach of the antitrust provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (the Treaty of Rome). These questions are addressed in Part I. Part II sets the issues in the broader context of the enforcement of the Treaty obligations of Member States. In this way, it is hoped to elucidate the relationship between national law and Community law, and also indirectly to illuminate ...


The Applicability Of The Ecsc-Cartel Prohibition (Article 65) During A "Manifest Crisis", Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker May 1984

The Applicability Of The Ecsc-Cartel Prohibition (Article 65) During A "Manifest Crisis", Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker

Michigan Law Review

The Commission and the Council have found that the steel industry of the Community is facing a "manifest crisis" within the meaning of article 58 of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty. Factors that have led to this crisis include structural peculiarities of the steel industry, an increase in production costs, a decrease in demand for steel and steel products, and the resulting excess capacity in steel mills. A majority of the Member States have attempted to protect their national steel industries from the economically mandated cutback in production capacity through substantial subsidization. International competition has thus degenerated ...


How Flexible Is Community Law? An Unusual Approach To The Concept Of "Two Speeds", Claus-Dieter Ehlermann May 1984

How Flexible Is Community Law? An Unusual Approach To The Concept Of "Two Speeds", Claus-Dieter Ehlermann

Michigan Law Review

The concept of "two speeds" de lege ferenda and the connected question of possible flexibility in Community law de lege lata raise a number of highly complex institutional questions that go to the very roots of the Community system. We offer the following analysis of such questions to Eric Stein, whose writing and teaching have contributed so greatly to the understanding of the Community's foundations.


The Canons Of Indian Treaty And Statutory Construction: A Proposal For Codification, Jill De La Hunt Apr 1984

The Canons Of Indian Treaty And Statutory Construction: A Proposal For Codification, Jill De La Hunt

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that the canons of construction should play a central role in the interpretation of Indian treaties and statutes. The Note proposes revitalization of the canons through congressional action codifying the rules of construction into federal law. Part I traces the historical development of the canons to further the federal-Indian trust relationship. Part II analyzes recent Supreme Court decisions that demonstrate decreased use of the canons. Part III argues that strong canons of construction are necessary to the development of self-determining Indian tribes and proposes federal legislation to ensure the continued vitality and importance of the canons of ...


More On European Community Law, Trevor Hartley Feb 1984

More On European Community Law, Trevor Hartley

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Yearbook of European Law 1981 by F.G. Jacobs


Prior Consultation In International Law: A Study Of State Practice, Michigan Law Review Feb 1984

Prior Consultation In International Law: A Study Of State Practice, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Prior Consultation in International Law: A Study of State Practice by Frederic L. Kirgis, Jr.


Restrictions On Trade In Communication And Information Services, Geza Feketekuty, Jonathan David Aronson Jan 1984

Restrictions On Trade In Communication And Information Services, Geza Feketekuty, Jonathan David Aronson

Michigan Journal of International Law

Section one highlights some of the changes that the revolution in information exchange is producing. It also argues that transborder data flows could help facilitate international economic adjustment. Section two analyzes the types of reasons used to justify policy measures that inhibit the integration of the world communication network or prevent information from flowing across national borders. It also discusses the implication of restrictions on transborder data flows for the world trading system and for world economic growth. The final section discusses strategies for halting the proliferation of barriers to trade in communication and information services and for reducing existing ...


The Space Warc: International Accommodations For Satellite Communications, Martin A. Rothblatt Jan 1984

The Space Warc: International Accommodations For Satellite Communications, Martin A. Rothblatt

Michigan Journal of International Law

Communication satellites in geostationary orbit have the marvelous ability to permit information exchange across very large distances. These satellites can accomplish this feat because they are high enough above the earth's surface to be in the "line-of-sight" of microwave transmitters and receivers many thousands of miles apart. Although communication satellites were first used to relay information between continents, by the end of the 1970s they were being used increasingly to transmit information within large countries. This more recent usage, known as "domestic satellite service," is an attractive substitute for lengthy terrestrial microwave or cable networks.


Some Conflicting Trends In Satellite Telecommunications, David M. Leive Jan 1984

Some Conflicting Trends In Satellite Telecommunications, David M. Leive

Michigan Journal of International Law

Two broad trends are evident today in international satellite telecommunications. The first is a trend towards greater international regulation of the natural resources involved, the radio frequency spectrum and the geostationary satellite orbit. The second is a trend towards international and regional groupings in the provision of communications services among countries. Other articles in this volume discuss various aspects of one or the other of these trends, such as the 1985/1988 Space WARC, and regional satellite developments in Europe. Consequently, no attempt is made here to analyze the two trends fully. The principal point of this paper is to ...


Steps Toward A European Agreement On Satellite Broadcasting, Frits W. Hondius Jan 1984

Steps Toward A European Agreement On Satellite Broadcasting, Frits W. Hondius

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article is a progress report, written at the beginning of 1983. It is about the unfolding of a new communications medium, satellite broadcasting, in Europe. It is very probable that by the time of publication, many new developments will have taken place. However, this analysis may still be helpful later on to allow those responsible for the development and use of this powerful new channel of communication to know what the expectations and apprehensions were in 1983. Feedback from history is indispensable to builders of the future, provided that someone is willing to commit to paper a record of ...


Legal Framework Of Communications Programs In The European Space Agency, W. M. Thiebaut Jan 1984

Legal Framework Of Communications Programs In The European Space Agency, W. M. Thiebaut

Michigan Journal of International Law

The establishment of the ESC gave Europe the necessary impetus to start applications programs. In 1968, the third ESC ministerial meeting at Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany, unequivocally assigned space applications to ESRO, created the Committee of Senior Officials as an advisory board, and allocated a small budget for studies on application satellites. The Committee of Senior Officials set up a working group specifically to study possible European involvement in communication satellite programs. This working group consisted not only of representatives of the ESC and the space organizations ELDO and ESRO but also of the potential users of the ...


Prior Consent And The United Nations Human Rights Instruments, Walter E. Spiegel Jan 1984

Prior Consent And The United Nations Human Rights Instruments, Walter E. Spiegel

Michigan Journal of International Law

After reviewing the legal framework of an international right of freedom of information, this article examines United States opposition to prior consent in the context of the human rights provisions. It contends that the United States should not argue that any recognition of a right of prior consent is inconsistent with Article 19, but rather that international principles recognize a right of prior consent limited to certain types of programming. The article then considers arguments for the Third World position of strict prior consent concluding that, in addition to being inconsistent with the general intent of Article 19, strict prior ...


Jamming And The Law Of International Communications, Rochelle B. Price Jan 1984

Jamming And The Law Of International Communications, Rochelle B. Price

Michigan Journal of International Law

The Soviet Union began to jam Western radio broadcasts to the Soviet Union in 1948. Jamming has continued to be a problem since then, though not a constant one; over the years, the level of jamming has varied in relation to East-West tensions but more particularly in consonance with internal and external crises. As the post-war international debate concerned with virtually all aspects of modem communications has evolved, jamming has become one focus of the free flow of information- national sovereignty debate. Though seldom completely effective, jamming is a sufficiently large-scale and controversial practice to warrant international attention today, as ...


Major Legal Issues Arising From The Use Of The Geostationary Orbit, Stephen Gorove Jan 1984

Major Legal Issues Arising From The Use Of The Geostationary Orbit, Stephen Gorove

Michigan Journal of International Law

The remarkable scientific and technological developments of the past three decades have resulted in the increasing use of the "geostationary orbit.” Advances in the technology of broadcasting, meteorological reconnaissance, tracking and data relay from orbital satellites, for example, have greatly enlarged its importance. The growing number of geostationary satellites and the anticipated increases in their use have evoked widespread concerns among many less-developed countries (LDCs) about the early preemption of available orbital positions by more developed nations. Attention has focused on the question of the maximum number of satellites that can be accommodated in the orbit. Although estimates have varied ...


Eutelsat: Europe's Satellite Telecommunications, Simone Courteix Jan 1984

Eutelsat: Europe's Satellite Telecommunications, Simone Courteix

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the 1950s long distance telephone communication by wire or Herz circuit was extremely limited and usually very expensive. In 1956, the installation of the first transatlantic telephone cable, TAT 1, signaled the beginning of the present era in intercontinental telecommunications. However, it soon became apparent that underwater cables would not meet the ever-increasing demand for communications created by expanding global economic activity. At the same time, radio communications also experienced growing demand, and suffered from overcrowded frequencies. It was therefore natural that the first application of telecommunications technology in space focused on the improvement of intercontinental circuits.


Current Issues In Remote Sensing, I. H. Ph. Diederiks-Verschoor Jan 1984

Current Issues In Remote Sensing, I. H. Ph. Diederiks-Verschoor

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this article certain problems surrounding Satellite remote sensing (SRS) will be addressed with particular emphasis on their legal implications. Aspects of air law as they affect remote sensing will not be discussed in any detail, nor will it be necessary to refer to the vexing problem of determining the satisfactory boundary between the airspace and outer space. This fundamental problem is still in dispute and under constant review, both in scholarly circles and in the United Nations; and the world community may consider itself fortunate that the issue has not prevented a number of important international agreements on space ...


A Historical Survey Of The International Regulation Of Propaganda, Elizabeth A. Downey Jan 1984

A Historical Survey Of The International Regulation Of Propaganda, Elizabeth A. Downey

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article traces international efforts to regulate propaganda through the pre- and post-UN periods, charting its development from a rather peripheral concern of international law to its important role in the currently evolving law of international communication.


Direct Television Broadcasting And The Quest For Communication Equality, Howard C. Anawalt Jan 1984

Direct Television Broadcasting And The Quest For Communication Equality, Howard C. Anawalt

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the immediate past modem communication means such as efficient telephone and television systems have been viewed as the luxuries of well developed economies. Rapid advances in the field of communications and computer technologies have changed this basic outlook. Now, it is possible to use these technologies as tools of economic growth in both developed and developing countries. This is primarily because cost has gone down while efficiency has gone up. A recent article concerning small computers demonstrates the point. "If the aircraft industry had developed as spectacularly as the computer industry over the past twenty-five years, a Boeing 767 ...


The Political Economy Of Orbit Spectrum Leasing, Harvey Levin Jan 1984

The Political Economy Of Orbit Spectrum Leasing, Harvey Levin

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article will propose several plans for allocating a common resource of the earth-the international orbit spectrum--among nations through mechanisms designed to introduce market incentives. The rights to orbital "parking places" are so defined as to permit their subdivision, recombination, and assignment in lease markets. The lease market approach accommodates the interests of both developed countries (DCs), who have the technology and domestic demand to establish satellite systems today, and less-developed countries (LDCs), who seek long-range planning to guarantee them access to the orbit spectrum at a time in the future when they, too, possess the capability and need. In ...