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Full-Text Articles in Law

Implementing The Tokyo Round: Legal Aspects Of Changing International Economic Rules, John H. Jackson, Jean-Victor Louis, Mitsuo Matsushita Dec 1982

Implementing The Tokyo Round: Legal Aspects Of Changing International Economic Rules, John H. Jackson, Jean-Victor Louis, Mitsuo Matsushita

Michigan Law Review

International economic and political interdependence has increased dramatically since the close of World War II. We now watch foreign wars on our living room television sets, move billions of dollars worth of funds across national borders daily, and feel the effects of political violence in the Mideast throughout our domestic farmlands. A corollary to economic and political interdependence, however, is the less visible but equally pervasive problem of legal interdependence. Any attempt, in the contemporary world, to create new international rules or institutions necessarily depends on the national legal and constitutional systems of a number of countries. This Article analyzes ...


Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen Oct 1982

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that greater appreciation for the nature and importance of national treatment obligations will compel tribunals fashioning antitrust relief to provide more suitably for foreign firms, and thus avoid straining international trade relations. Moreover, because antitrust relief and national treatment objectives are mutually reinforcing, greater recognition of national treatment requirements should improve remedial orders from the standpoint of antitrust economics. Meeting national treatment requirements should place little added burden on the antitrust tribunal; it must merely extend impartial economic analysis to all market suppliers, not just domestic firms.

This Note explores methods to ensure that antitrust relief orders ...


Managing The Risks Of International Agreement, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Managing The Risks Of International Agreement, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Managing the Risks of International Agreement by Richard B. Bilder


Anti-Dumping Law In A Liberal Trade Order, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Anti-Dumping Law In A Liberal Trade Order, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Anti-Dumping Law in a Liberal Trade Order by Richard Dale


Refugees And Refugee Law In A World In Transition, Atle Grahl-Madsen Jan 1982

Refugees And Refugee Law In A World In Transition, Atle Grahl-Madsen

Michigan Journal of International Law

In country after country a political polarization is growing, a movement away from the center-to the right and to the left. In states with a less than stable political structure, coups d'etat and strongmen are commonplace. International law is broken as a matter of convenience. The media are filled with news of interventions, aggressions, even warfare. Human rights are frequently trodden under foot. And we are faced with a rising wave of xenophobia.


Nordic Refugee Law And Policy, Göran Melander Jan 1982

Nordic Refugee Law And Policy, Göran Melander

Michigan Journal of International Law

Since the end of World War II, the Nordic states have shown an interest in refugee policy and have taken part in work on behalf of refugees through various international organizations. In the 1940s and the 1950s, when Western Europe was faced with a huge refugee problem, the Nordic states shared the burden with countries of first asylum in Central Europe by admitting refugees for permanent resettlement. In the 1960s and 1970s, when other continents were confronted with refugee problems, the Nordic states also generously contributed material assistance to refugees resettled in neighboring countries. In 1979, for instance, the Nordic ...


Entry And Exclusion Of Refugees: The Obligations Of States And The Protection Function Of The Office Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees, Guy S. Goodwin-Gill Jan 1982

Entry And Exclusion Of Refugees: The Obligations Of States And The Protection Function Of The Office Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees, Guy S. Goodwin-Gill

Michigan Journal of International Law

Refugee problems today tend to have one factor in common-the huge numbers of people involved. But whether it is a case of one or of a mass of individuals, each arriving asylum seeker represents a challenge to established principles of state sovereignty. International jurists once wrote of the free movement of persons between nations, unhampered by passport and visa control. Since the late nineteenth century, however, the principle most widely accepted has been that each state retains exclusive control- an absolute discretion- over the admission to its territory of foreign nationals, refugees or not. Although in practice many countries concede ...


The Development Of Refugee Law, Paul Weis Jan 1982

The Development Of Refugee Law, Paul Weis

Michigan Journal of International Law

In customary international law, nationality provides the principal link between the individual and the law of nations. Refugees are commonly understood to be persons who have been compelled to leave their homes on account of natural catastrophes or because of political events; they may be inside or outside their country of origin. Refugees may be stateless or not; most present-day refugees are not stateless. Only international political refugees-persons who are outside their country of origin for political reasons-are discussed in this article, an overview of sources of refugee law, and a preface to the articles in this volume which take ...


Refugees, Law, And Development In Africa, Peter Nobel Jan 1982

Refugees, Law, And Development In Africa, Peter Nobel

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article concerns those large movements of people in Africa, which have been called the "African refugee problem." However, large and intriguing migrations of populations have occurred in Africa for centuries. The earliest migrations reflected the spread of culture, the growth of trade and the development of roving early kingdoms. The unique history behind the refugee dilemma, however, begins with the instability spawned by slave trading and colonialism. Sensitivity to these eras heightens an understanding of why today's Africa is wrought with economic crises, territorial disputes, unnatural frontiers, misfit ethnic combinations, and more refugees than any other continent. Against ...


The Individual Right To Asylum Under Article 3 Of The European Convention On Human Rights, David Scott Nance Jan 1982

The Individual Right To Asylum Under Article 3 Of The European Convention On Human Rights, David Scott Nance

Michigan Journal of International Law

International law does not recognize an individual right to be granted asylum. The emergence of a variant of such a right under the European Convention on Human Rights, albeit under limited conditions, therefore marks a major departure from customary law, a departure particularly noteworthy given that the parties to the Convention represent some of the most advanced legal systems in the world. The recognition of a right to asylum not only establishes a valuable precedent, but also has a direct impact on the status of refugees in Europe. Although no right of entry is provided, aliens already in countries of ...


International Human Rights Forums: A Means Of Recourse For Refugees, Amy Young-Anawaty Jan 1982

International Human Rights Forums: A Means Of Recourse For Refugees, Amy Young-Anawaty

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article explores the possibility of using some of the other international agreements to secure the rights of asylum seekers. These treaties belong to the relatively new body of international law- human rights law- which gives broad protection to individuals everywhere regardless of status. In a significant development for international law, 12 institutions and procedures have been established internationally and regionally to monitor the enforcement of these human rights agreements. Several of these institutions, by virtue of treaty or statute, even possess the competence to hear complaints about states' violations of human rights. Insofar as the claims of refugees fall ...


Appendix I, Michigan Jouranl Of International Law Jan 1982

Appendix I, Michigan Jouranl Of International Law

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this section: • Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees • Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees • Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees • OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa • A List of Other International Instruments Concerning Refugees