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Full-Text Articles in Law

Different Problems Require Different Solutions: How Air Warfare Norms Should Inform Ihl Targeting Law Reform & Cyber Warfare, Christian H. Robertson Ii Jun 2019

Different Problems Require Different Solutions: How Air Warfare Norms Should Inform Ihl Targeting Law Reform & Cyber Warfare, Christian H. Robertson Ii

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

On February 19, 2018, United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres claimed that he was “absolutely convinced” that “the next war will begin with a massive cyber-attack to destroy military capacity . . . and paralyze basic infrastructure.” The Secretary-General’s greatest concern, however, is that he believes “there is no regulatory scheme for that type of warfare, it is not clear how the Geneva Convention or international humanitarian law applies to it.” Although Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (AP I) targeting laws generally identify who and what States may target in war, it expressly limits itself to attacks affecting people and objects ...


Evolution Of Water Institutions In The Indus River Basin: Reflections From The Law Of The Colorado River, Erum Sattar, Jason Robison, Daniel Mccool Jun 2018

Evolution Of Water Institutions In The Indus River Basin: Reflections From The Law Of The Colorado River, Erum Sattar, Jason Robison, Daniel Mccool

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Transboundary water institutions in the Indus River Basin can be fairly characterized as broken in key respects. International relations between India and Pakistan over the Indus Waters Treaty, as well as interprovincial relations within Pakistan over the 1991 Water Accord, speak to this sentiment. Stemming from research undertaken by the authors for the Harvard Water Federalism Project and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), this Article seeks to spur the evolution of the Indus River Basin’s water institutions by offering a comparative perspective from North America’s most “institutionally encompassed” basin, the Colorado River Basin. Mindful of ...


The Eighteenth Birthday Of The Convention Of Rights Of The Child: Achievements And Challenges, Jaap E. Doek Oct 2007

The Eighteenth Birthday Of The Convention Of Rights Of The Child: Achievements And Challenges, Jaap E. Doek

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Although the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child has produced positive results in many countries, the United States remains one of the few nations that has not signed on to this treaty. This Essay will begin by describing the content of the treaty. This Essay will discuss the achievements, challenges, and solutions resulting from the treaty in the areas of child poverty, violence against children, and child labour. Given the positive results produced in other countries, this Essay will conclude with an invitation to the United States to join the Convention on the Rights of the Child.


Transboundary Pollution: Harmonizing International And Domestic Law, Noah D. Hall Jul 2007

Transboundary Pollution: Harmonizing International And Domestic Law, Noah D. Hall

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Addressing transnational pollution requires both international and domestic law. Transnational pollution is an international problem that demands and deserves the attention of international legal mechanisms such as treaties, agreements, arbitration, and international management and governance. At the same time, transnational pollution problems can often be addressed more effectively and efficiently through the domestic legal system. An ideal approach is to harmonize transnational pollution management and dispute resolution under international and domestic law. This Article seeks to provide pragmatic, feasible, and politically realistic solutions to transnational pollution by harmonizing international and domestic law. However, given the diversity in geography, domestic legal ...


Biopiracy And Beyond: A Consideration Of Socio-Cultural Conflicts With Global Patent Policies, Cynthia M. Ho May 2006

Biopiracy And Beyond: A Consideration Of Socio-Cultural Conflicts With Global Patent Policies, Cynthia M. Ho

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article provides afresh and multi-dimensioned approach to a long-standing claim of biopiracy patents made by developing countries and communities. The basic principles of patent law and policy are first established to provide a foundation from which to evaluate the claim that genetic resources and traditional knowledge from developing countries are being misappropriated in a variety of ways that are loosely referred to as biopiracy. The Article distinguishes rhetoric from reality in examining biopiracy allegations from the perspective of national patent laws, as well as international agreements. In addition, the Article explains the underlying conflicts, misconceptions, and historical biases that ...


Russian Compliance With Articles Five And Six Of The European Convention Of Human Rights As A Barometer Of Legal Reform And Human Rights In Russia, Jeffrey Kahn May 2002

Russian Compliance With Articles Five And Six Of The European Convention Of Human Rights As A Barometer Of Legal Reform And Human Rights In Russia, Jeffrey Kahn

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note examines two of Russia's obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR): the Article 5 right to liberty and security, and the Article 6 right to a fair trial to gauge Russian compliance with European human rights norms. These articles lie at the heart of systematic legal reform in the Russian Federation. This Note defends the thesis that the agonizingly slow progress of judicial reform and the advancement of human rights in Russia is a function of the inevitable lag of conceptual norms behind institutional reform. Part I explores the weak place of the rule of ...


European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein Oct 1984

European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The conception of fundamental rights as natural rights of human beings developed in European legal thinking mainly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and also Immanuel Kant should be mentioned. But it was in the new world that the principles of fundamental human rights were first put into practice. A little more than ten years after the first American declarations, the "Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen" was adopted in Paris; it remains part of French constitutional law today. But, unlike the development in the United States, the French guarantees could not be ...


The Canons Of Indian Treaty And Statutory Construction: A Proposal For Codification, Jill De La Hunt Apr 1984

The Canons Of Indian Treaty And Statutory Construction: A Proposal For Codification, Jill De La Hunt

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that the canons of construction should play a central role in the interpretation of Indian treaties and statutes. The Note proposes revitalization of the canons through congressional action codifying the rules of construction into federal law. Part I traces the historical development of the canons to further the federal-Indian trust relationship. Part II analyzes recent Supreme Court decisions that demonstrate decreased use of the canons. Part III argues that strong canons of construction are necessary to the development of self-determining Indian tribes and proposes federal legislation to ensure the continued vitality and importance of the canons of ...


A Right Of Fair Dismissal: Enforcing A Statutory Guarantee, Janice R. Bellace Jan 1983

A Right Of Fair Dismissal: Enforcing A Statutory Guarantee, Janice R. Bellace

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Support for the concept that employees should be protected against wrongful dismissal continues to grow in this country. Yet, many advocates of protection have thus far refrained from venturing into the legislative arena. Even though the movement to achieve this protection is still at an early stage, it is not too soon to focus on specific proposals designed to translate ideals into protections. By failing to coalesce behind a single proposal, supporters have retarded the progress of the movement. Without a proposal for specific legislation, supporters lack a rallying point and legislators have nothing concrete to debate. This Article attempts ...


Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen Oct 1982

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that greater appreciation for the nature and importance of national treatment obligations will compel tribunals fashioning antitrust relief to provide more suitably for foreign firms, and thus avoid straining international trade relations. Moreover, because antitrust relief and national treatment objectives are mutually reinforcing, greater recognition of national treatment requirements should improve remedial orders from the standpoint of antitrust economics. Meeting national treatment requirements should place little added burden on the antitrust tribunal; it must merely extend impartial economic analysis to all market suppliers, not just domestic firms.

This Note explores methods to ensure that antitrust relief orders ...


Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell Jan 1974

Toward International Freedom Of Religion: A Proposal For Change In Fcn Treaty Practice, Bruce F. Howell

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Since the founding of this nation, Americans have relied on fundamental constitutional principles for the ultimate protection of their religious liberty. These guarantees have been extended to all persons in the United States, not just citizens. American nationals traveling or living abroad may discover, however, that religious freedom is not regarded as a fundamental right elsewhere. Although most nations do, at least in principle, adhere to the basic idea of freedom of religious belief and exercise, religious freedom may be denied either to a state's own citizens or to foreign nationals within its boundaries.