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Full-Text Articles in Law

Reconstructing The Effective Control Criterion In Extraterritorial Human Rights Breaches: Direct Attribution Of Wrongfulness, Due Diligence, And Concurrent Responsibility, Vassilis P. Tzevelekos Sep 2014

Reconstructing The Effective Control Criterion In Extraterritorial Human Rights Breaches: Direct Attribution Of Wrongfulness, Due Diligence, And Concurrent Responsibility, Vassilis P. Tzevelekos

Michigan Journal of International Law

As one of the core elements of statehood, territory is inextricably linked to sovereignty. For this reason, jurisdiction is primarily territorial. In principle, the sphere of power of the sovereign state—including its competence to exercise legislative, judicial, and executive authority—applies within the confines of its own territory. Otherwise, the state risks interfering with the sovereignty of other states and thereby breaking one of the fundamental principles of Public International Law (PIL), that of sovereign equality. The principle of sovereign equality dictates that all assertions of jurisdiction have to be balanced with the sovereign rights of other states. This ...


The International Human Rights Regime And Supranational Regional Organizations: The Challenge Of The Eu, Pauline Hilmy Sep 2014

The International Human Rights Regime And Supranational Regional Organizations: The Challenge Of The Eu, Pauline Hilmy

Michigan Journal of International Law

The global legal order as we know it today developed largely to accommodate and facilitate the modern state system that arose in the wake of the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. As a result, international law consists primarily of international agreements1 and customary rules arising out of state practice and recognition.2 States still remain the primary subjects of international law today, but they are increasingly joined by other actors on the global stage, including international organizations and individuals–and the global legal order has struggled to adapt and adjust.


Trafficking In Europe: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of European Law, Saadiya Chaudary Oct 2011

Trafficking In Europe: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of European Law, Saadiya Chaudary

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Essay looks at the manifestation of various forms of human trafficking within Europe and analyzes the effectiveness of current European law provisions in combating trafficking and protecting victims. The Essay will accomplish this by examining recent and current cases before the European Court of Human Rights and the comparative gap between European standards and domestic procedures in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is a well-known destination state for trafficking victims' and consequently is required to meet obligations under international law toward a significant number of individuals who have been forced into exploitation in the United Kingdom.


Leveraging Asylum, James C. Hathaway Jan 2010

Leveraging Asylum, James C. Hathaway

Articles

I believe that the analysis underlying the leveraged right to asylum is conceptually flawed. As I will show, there is no duty of non-refoulement that binds all states as a matter of customary international law and it is not the case that all persons entitled to claim protection against refoulement of some kind are ipso facto entitled to refugee rights. These claims are unsound precisely because the critical bedrock of a real international legal obligation-namely, the consent of states evinced by either formal commitments or legally relevant actions -does not yet exist.


Revisiting Germany's Residenzpflicht In Light Of Modern E.U. Asylum Law, Paul Mcdonough Jan 2009

Revisiting Germany's Residenzpflicht In Light Of Modern E.U. Asylum Law, Paul Mcdonough

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note explores whether the E.C. treaties, nonetheless, provide the European Court of Justice (ECJ) sufficient competence to use the Reception Directive as a vehicle to assess the Residenzpflicht in relation to the Refugee Convention. It concludes that, through the Residenzpflicht, Germany denies refugees lawfully present their Convention right to free movement within its territory, and that the ECJ can order the restoration of this right.


Are Eu Trade Sanctions On Burma Compatible With Wto Law?, Robert L. Howse, Jared M. Genser Jan 2008

Are Eu Trade Sanctions On Burma Compatible With Wto Law?, Robert L. Howse, Jared M. Genser

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article will explore the European Union's approach to Burma. The European Union, until recently, has implemented quite limited trade sanctions against the Burmese junta. According to the most recent figures, E.U. countries still import €306 million ($454 million) of commodities and products, ninety-five percent of which are textiles, timber, gems, and precious metals. However, the Common Position of November 19, 2007, strengthens considerably E.U. measures against the Burmese regime and contains a ban on the importation of these goods from Burma. Further, the Common Position requires E.U. countries to prohibit intentional and knowing "participation" in ...


Compensation For Porperty Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen Jan 2007

Compensation For Porperty Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article asks whether the right to property, as a human right, serves the same general purpose as other human rights. The Article does so by examining the standards relating to compensation for deprivations of property under the European human rights system. If the system protects property for similar reasons as other fundamental rights, the interpretation of the right to property should draw upon the principles developed in relation to the interpretation of other rights. However, if the right to property is distinct from other human rights, then perhaps guidance on its interpretation should come from comparative law, specifically in ...


Worth Doing Well- The Improvable European Union Constitution, Stephen C. Sieberson Jan 2005

Worth Doing Well- The Improvable European Union Constitution, Stephen C. Sieberson

Michigan Journal of International Law

As background for this critique of the Constitution, Part II of this Article provides a brief overview of the existing EU Treaties, their shortcomings, and the political processes that culminated in the creation of the new Constitution. Of particular interest are certain goals articulated for the new document, such as the desire to replace the complex Treaties with a simpler, more approachable instrument. Part III is a summary of the Constitution's textual content, details that are necessary to illuminate the analysis that follows. Part IV offers a critical review of the awkward manner in which the Constitution is organized ...


The New Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards For Food Created With Modern Biotechnology: Implications For The Ec Gmo Framework's Compliance With The Sps Agreement, Aaron A. Ostrovsky Jan 2004

The New Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards For Food Created With Modern Biotechnology: Implications For The Ec Gmo Framework's Compliance With The Sps Agreement, Aaron A. Ostrovsky

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note makes two assertions. First, despite the fact that the Codex guidelines do not specifically invoke the Precautionary Principle in name, it can indeed be read into the guidelines in the amount of deference given to states in how they assess risk. This in turn means that the E.C.'s Deliberate Release Directive should be enjoy a presumption of compliance with both the SPS Agreement and the GATT. The second assertion is that even if the adjudicating body of the WTO finds that the Deliberate Release Directive, in relying on the Precautionary Principle, prescribes a higher level of ...


Wto And Gmos: Analyzing The European Community's Recent Regulations Covering The Labeling Of Genetically Modified Organisms, Brian Schwartz Jan 2004

Wto And Gmos: Analyzing The European Community's Recent Regulations Covering The Labeling Of Genetically Modified Organisms, Brian Schwartz

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note explores the compatibility of the EC's GMO regulations within the framework of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ("GATT 1994" or "GAT"), all integral parts of the WTO Agreement. Part II presents arguments for or against the use of GM-products. Part III explores the concept of ecolabeling by analyzing the general goals of such programs, including the economic theory behind green consumerism and the characteristics necessary for effective schemes. Part IV describes the ...


Protection Against Unwarranted Searches And Seizures Of Corporate Premises Under Article 8 Of The European Convention On Human Rights: The Colas Est Sa V. France Approach, Marius Emberland Jan 2003

Protection Against Unwarranted Searches And Seizures Of Corporate Premises Under Article 8 Of The European Convention On Human Rights: The Colas Est Sa V. France Approach, Marius Emberland

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, the author considers the judgment delivered April 16, 2002, by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Colas Est SA v. France. The judgment concerned the interpretation of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which provides: (1) Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. (2) There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of ...


The Effectiveness Of European Community Law With Specific Regard To Directives: The Critical Step Not Taken By The European Court Of Justice, Carla A. Varner Jan 2001

The Effectiveness Of European Community Law With Specific Regard To Directives: The Critical Step Not Taken By The European Court Of Justice, Carla A. Varner

Michigan Journal of International Law

The purpose of this Note is to investigate the European Court of Justice's less expansive treatment of directives as compared to other forms of EC law through its failure to apply horizontal direct effect to directives. More specifically, this Note attempts to answer two questions which arise from the current status of ECJ jurisprudence: First, why has the Court been reluctant to implement horizontal direct effect for directives, especially in light of other actions it has taken to increase the potency of EC law? Second, given the alternative steps taken by the ECJ, is it still necessary to establish ...


Are We Compatible?: Current European Community Law On The Compatibility Of Joint Ventures With The Common Market And Possibilities For Future Development, Alyssa A. Grikscheit Feb 1994

Are We Compatible?: Current European Community Law On The Compatibility Of Joint Ventures With The Common Market And Possibilities For Future Development, Alyssa A. Grikscheit

Michigan Law Review

The Commission and commentators note that the potential for reform in the procedural arena is quite great. The current literature discusses the difficulties would-be venturers have in determining if their proposed venture is concentrative or cooperative and the procedural differences between notifications under the two standards.

This Note argues, however, that the substantive differences between the two standards are even more problematic than the procedural ones. Reducing the substantive differences between the two compatibility standards, short of creating a single standard that is unresponsive to the tensions between concentrative and cooperative situations, will have a beneficial impact. Similar standards of ...


Promises To Keep And Miles To Go: A Look At Europe Poised Between Two Treaties, Willajeanne F. Mclean Jan 1994

Promises To Keep And Miles To Go: A Look At Europe Poised Between Two Treaties, Willajeanne F. Mclean

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Singular Europe: Economy and Polity of the European Community After 1992 (William J. Adams ed.) and Decision-Making in the European Community: The Council Presidency and European Integration by Emil J. Kirchner


A Practitioner's Guide To The Maastricht Treaty, Michael H. Abbey, Nicholas Bromfield Jan 1994

A Practitioner's Guide To The Maastricht Treaty, Michael H. Abbey, Nicholas Bromfield

Michigan Journal of International Law

Before undertaking a section by section summary of the Maastricht Treaty, this article will briefly discuss some of the highlights of the Treaty and the prospects for European Monetary Union.


The Recognition Of Judgments In The European Community: The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Of The Brussels Convention, Robert C. Reuland Jan 1993

The Recognition Of Judgments In The European Community: The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Of The Brussels Convention, Robert C. Reuland

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article is directed at two objectives. It will first provide, in Part I, an outline of the history of the Brussels Convention from its inception to the present day. It will examine the growth of the Convention from a vague undertaking of the six original Member States of the EC, through various treaties of accession and the 1988 Lugano Convention with the EFTA, and finally to the text currently in force. Part II will discuss the nature of the Convention and the philosophy behind it. The second purpose of this article is a more pragmatic one: to provide the ...


State Aids And European Community Law, Hans-Jorg Niemeyer Jan 1993

State Aids And European Community Law, Hans-Jorg Niemeyer

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article provides an overview of EC State aid rules, focusing on recent Commission policy and recent judgments of the Court of Justice on State aids. In Part I, some general points, such as what may constitute a State aid, are considered. In Part II, the procedural aspects are dealt with in more detail, with emphasis on the notification process, and the procedure for reviewing State aids. Part III examines the recovery of illegally granted aids, and the defenses a beneficiary may assert. Next, Part IV sets out the remedies available for breach of the State aid rules, including the ...


International Regulation And Control Of The Production And Use Of Chemicals And Pesticides: Perspectives For A Convention, Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz Jan 1992

International Regulation And Control Of The Production And Use Of Chemicals And Pesticides: Perspectives For A Convention, Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz

Michigan Journal of International Law

A wide variety of instruments and mechanisms for the regulation and control of chemicals and pesticides is already available internationally. What is missing is an analysis that attempts to systematize the different approaches, to create transparency, to define where they overlap, and to discover prospective deficiencies and shortcomings. In order to accomplish this task, this article covers legally binding rules as well as recommendations and codes - the international soft law. The overall purpose is to outline a framework for future international regulation of chemicals and pesticides and to propose an international convention as a possible solution.


Article 235 Of The Treaty Establishing The European Economic Community: Potential Conflicts Between The Dynamics Of Lawmaking In The Community And National Constitutional Principles, Franziska Tschofen Jan 1991

Article 235 Of The Treaty Establishing The European Economic Community: Potential Conflicts Between The Dynamics Of Lawmaking In The Community And National Constitutional Principles, Franziska Tschofen

Michigan Journal of International Law

The purpose of this essay is to analyze the extent to which the present interpretation and application of article 235 of the Treaty appears to be incompatible with basic national constitutional safeguards such as the principles of democracy, the "Rule of Law," sovereignty and federalism and to discuss ways to reconcile potential incompatibilities. To this end, Part I will explore the scope of the authority of EEC organs under article 235 as delimited by the European Court of Justice and legal scholars. Part II will analyze potential conflicts between Community powers exercised pursuant to article 235 of the Treaty and ...


Natural Gas In The European Internal Market: A Comparative Analysis Of Common Carriage And Price Transparency, Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker Jan 1990

Natural Gas In The European Internal Market: A Comparative Analysis Of Common Carriage And Price Transparency, Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker

Michigan Journal of International Law

After reviewing the general goals of a common energy policy, this paper provides a comprehensive comparative study analyzing the potential effects of common carriage and price transparency in the Community's natural gas market. Direct comparisons are made between market structures and regulatory policies in the United States, Great Britain, and the Federal Republic of Germany. After extensive analysis, the author concludes that the plans laid out by the Commission reveal conflicting objectives, require extensive new regulation, and are incompatible with the system of undistorted competition guaranteed by the EEC Treaty.


Constitutional Developments In The European Community And The Impact Of The Single European Market After 1992, F. G. Jacobs Jan 1990

Constitutional Developments In The European Community And The Impact Of The Single European Market After 1992, F. G. Jacobs

Michigan Journal of International Law

The Single European Act, by its amendments to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, seeks to achieve by the end of 1992 an internal market comprising an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured in accordance with the provisions of the treaty. To this end, a very substantial amount of new legislation is being enacted in the form of Council Regulations and Directives, currently estimated at some 279 separate measures, many of which will also need implementing legislation in the Member States.


Panel Discussion: Europe 1992, Eric Stein, Jochen A. Frowein, Jacques J.H.J. Bourgeois, Edwin Vermulst, Reinhard Quick Jan 1990

Panel Discussion: Europe 1992, Eric Stein, Jochen A. Frowein, Jacques J.H.J. Bourgeois, Edwin Vermulst, Reinhard Quick

Michigan Journal of International Law

Transcript of a panel on Europe in 1992.


The Role Of The Court Of Justice In The Implementation Of The Single European Act, Michel Waelbroeck Jan 1990

The Role Of The Court Of Justice In The Implementation Of The Single European Act, Michel Waelbroeck

Michigan Journal of International Law

This paper will begin by evoking the judicial achievements obtained on the eve of the enactment of the Single European Act. Next, it will explain the innovations introduced by the Single European Act, and emphasize the divergent interpretations that they are likely to receive. Then, the author will modestly strive to express several personal suggestions for a solution, as an external observer.


Coherence And The European Court Of Human Rights: The Adjudicative Background To The Soering Case, Colin Warbrick Jan 1990

Coherence And The European Court Of Human Rights: The Adjudicative Background To The Soering Case, Colin Warbrick

Michigan Journal of International Law

On January 1, 1990, the Eighth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights came into force. This Protocol makes some amendments to the structure and procedure set out in the Convention itself. The need for reform was created by the increasing workload of the institutions, which had reached such a level that the backlog of applications before the Commission would have continued to increase at a greater rate than the Commission's capacity to dispose of them. There are several reasons for this overwhelming burden. The acceptances by States of the right of individual application under article 25 have ...


European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein Oct 1984

European Integration Through Fundamental Rights, Jochen Abr. Frowein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The conception of fundamental rights as natural rights of human beings developed in European legal thinking mainly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and also Immanuel Kant should be mentioned. But it was in the new world that the principles of fundamental human rights were first put into practice. A little more than ten years after the first American declarations, the "Declaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen" was adopted in Paris; it remains part of French constitutional law today. But, unlike the development in the United States, the French guarantees could not be ...


How Flexible Is Community Law? An Unusual Approach To The Concept Of "Two Speeds", Claus-Dieter Ehlermann May 1984

How Flexible Is Community Law? An Unusual Approach To The Concept Of "Two Speeds", Claus-Dieter Ehlermann

Michigan Law Review

The concept of "two speeds" de lege ferenda and the connected question of possible flexibility in Community law de lege lata raise a number of highly complex institutional questions that go to the very roots of the Community system. We offer the following analysis of such questions to Eric Stein, whose writing and teaching have contributed so greatly to the understanding of the Community's foundations.


Direct And Indirect Judicial Control Of Community Acts In Practice: The Relation Between Articles 173 And 177 Of The Eec Treaty, Gerhard Bebr May 1984

Direct And Indirect Judicial Control Of Community Acts In Practice: The Relation Between Articles 173 And 177 Of The Eec Treaty, Gerhard Bebr

Michigan Law Review

The European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty contains two different judicial controls over the exercise of the powers granted to the Community by the Treaty: (1) a direct control through an action in the European Court of Justice under article 173 to annul a Community act; and (2) an indirect control through reference by a national court to the Court of Justice under article 177 to review the validity of a Community act. Each of . these controls is designed to ensure the legal exercise of power by Community institutions. In form, however, they are quite different procedures.

The present study seeks ...


Effects Of International Agreements In European Community Law: Are The Dice Cast?, Jacques H.J. Bourgeois May 1984

Effects Of International Agreements In European Community Law: Are The Dice Cast?, Jacques H.J. Bourgeois

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of this contribution is to explore the extent to which the "direct effect" doctrine, developed within the Community legal system for the purpose of the relations between Community law and the Member States' law, has spilled over into the field of the relations between international law and Community law, or, to use a somewhat daring comparison, to what extent the doctrine of McCulloch v. Maryland has been applied in a Foster and Elam situation.


The European Community And The Requirement Of A Republican Form Of Government, Jochen Abr. Frowein May 1984

The European Community And The Requirement Of A Republican Form Of Government, Jochen Abr. Frowein

Michigan Law Review

The European Community - that is, the factual entity composed of three legally separate communities which has been and still is one of the basic concerns of Eric Stein - cannot be understood without taking into account European history after 1933. As an irony of history, the stage for a new beginning was set by the man who destroyed the old Europe and who was the reason that so many academics left the "old country" for the new world. This new start was not only influenced by the determination of those Europeans who had lived through the darkness to overcome the dangers ...


Civil Enforcement Of Eec Antitrust Law, Francis G. Jacobs May 1984

Civil Enforcement Of Eec Antitrust Law, Francis G. Jacobs

Michigan Law Review

This paper examines whether and to what extent private civil remedies are, as a matter of law, and ought to be, as a matter of policy, available in the courts of the EEC Member States for breach of the antitrust provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (the Treaty of Rome). These questions are addressed in Part I. Part II sets the issues in the broader context of the enforcement of the Treaty obligations of Member States. In this way, it is hoped to elucidate the relationship between national law and Community law, and also indirectly to illuminate ...