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University of Michigan Law School

Treaties

Dispute Resolution and Arbitration

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Promises Unfulfilled: How Investment Arbitration Tribunals Mishandle Corruption Claims And Undermine International Development, Andrew T. Bulovsky Oct 2019

Promises Unfulfilled: How Investment Arbitration Tribunals Mishandle Corruption Claims And Undermine International Development, Andrew T. Bulovsky

Michigan Law Review

In recent years, the investment-arbitration and anti-corruption regimes have been in tension. Investment tribunals have jurisdiction to arbitrate disputes between investors and host states under international treaties that provide substantive protections for private investments. But these tribunals will typically decline to exercise jurisdiction over a dispute if the host state asserts that corruption tainted the investment. When tribunals close their doors to ag-grieved investors, tribunals increase the risks for investors and thus raise the cost of international investment. At the same time, the decision to decline jurisdiction creates a perverse incentive for host states to turn a blind eye to ...


Intellectual Property: A Beacon For Reform Of Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel Gervais Jan 2019

Intellectual Property: A Beacon For Reform Of Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel Gervais

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article attempts to resolve clashes between intellectual property and investor-state dispute settlement (“ISDS”). ISDS clauses contained in bilateral, plurilateral, or multilateral trade and investment agreements give multinational investors (corporations) a right to sue a state in a binding proceeding before an independent arbitral tribunal. This jurisgenerative right to file a claim against a state in an international tribunal with mandatory jurisdiction is exceptional; it is generally reserved to other states. Only multinational corporations can use ISDS to file claims against states in which they invest, provided the state is party to a bilateral investment treaty (“BIT”) or a trade ...


The New York Convention: A Self-Executing Treaty, Gary B. Born Oct 2018

The New York Convention: A Self-Executing Treaty, Gary B. Born

Michigan Journal of International Law

The thesis of this Article is that uncertainty regarding the Convention’s status as a self-executing treaty of the United States is unwarranted and unfortunate. Instead, both the Convention’s provisions for recognition and enforcement of arbitration agreements (in Article II) and of arbitral awards (in Articles III, IV, V, and VI) should be regarded as self-executing and directly applicable in U.S. (and other national) courts. As discussed in detail below, this is because Article II establishes mandatory, complete, and comprehensive substantive rules, directed specifically to national courts, for the recognition and enforcement of international arbitration agreements. Likewise, the ...


A Global Treaty Override? The New Oecd Multilateral Tax Instrument And Its Limits, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu May 2018

A Global Treaty Override? The New Oecd Multilateral Tax Instrument And Its Limits, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article will proceed as follows. Section 2 summarizes the main provisions of the MLI. Section 3 discusses the purpose of tax treaties in the twenty-first century, because it can be argued that they are less necessary under conditions of tax competition. Section 4 raises the question whether tax treaties can be improved short of a full-fledged multilateral tax treaty by inserting a most favored nation (MFN) provision similar to those found in bilateral investment treaties. Such an MFN provision operates over time to create a de facto multilateral treaty without the negotiation of one. Section 5 concludes this article.


The Boundaries Of Most Favored Nation Treatment In International Investment Law, Tony Cole Apr 2012

The Boundaries Of Most Favored Nation Treatment In International Investment Law, Tony Cole

Michigan Journal of International Law

Contemporary international investment law is characterized by fragmentation. Disputes are heard by a variety of tribunals, which often are constituted solely for the purpose of hearing a single claim. The law applicable in a dispute is usually found in a bilateral agreement, applicable only between the two states connected to the dispute, rather than in a multilateral treaty or customary international law. Moreover, the international investment community itself is profoundly divided on many issues of substantive law, meaning both that the interpretation given to international investment law by a tribunal will be determined largely by those who sit on it ...


An Examination Of The Developments In Chapter 19 Antidumping Decisions Under The North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta): The Implications And Suggestions For Reform For The Next Century Based On The Experience Of Nafta After The First Five Years, Kenneth J. Pippin Jan 1999

An Examination Of The Developments In Chapter 19 Antidumping Decisions Under The North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta): The Implications And Suggestions For Reform For The Next Century Based On The Experience Of Nafta After The First Five Years, Kenneth J. Pippin

Michigan Journal of International Law

This paper describes the themes in the Chapter 19 antidumping panel decisions that have developed over the first five years of NAFTA. Part I provides a brief overview of the Chapter 19 panel process and the method of antidumping determinations for each NAFTA party. Part II presents statistics on the number and types of antidumping panel decisions made under the first five years of NAFTA. Finally, Part III explores the most significant themes in the antidumping Chapter 19 panel decisions and discusses their implications for reforming the Chapter 19 panel process.


Getting Along: The Evolution Of Dispute Resolution Regimes In International Trade Organizations, Andrea Kupfer Schneider Jan 1999

Getting Along: The Evolution Of Dispute Resolution Regimes In International Trade Organizations, Andrea Kupfer Schneider

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the face of the remarkable growth of international organizations in the last fifty years, scholars in multiple disciplines have sought to explain why and how states cooperate. Dispute resolution is one of the most crucial components of international cooperation. Examining the dispute resolution regimes of international organizations in light of these theories can inform and help reform these evolving regimes.


Procedural Issues In Wto Dispute Resolution, Peter Lichtenbaum Jan 1998

Procedural Issues In Wto Dispute Resolution, Peter Lichtenbaum

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article identifies particularly significant procedural issues that are arising in WTO dispute resolution and comments on the possible evolutionary paths of the law. This task requires that the article strike a balance between breadth of coverage and depth of coverage. As a result, the article does not aim to provide a complete discussion of all aspects of the WTO dispute resolution system and generally does not discuss issues that have not been addressed by WTO panels. The article does not seek to provide an exhaustive analysis of each issue discussed, and therefore deals briefly with the background under the ...


Of Substantial Interest: Third Parties Under Gatt, Chi Carmody Jan 1997

Of Substantial Interest: Third Parties Under Gatt, Chi Carmody

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article's examination of the status of third parties under GATT is important for several reasons, one of which is the proliferation of third party participation as demonstrated by Bananas III. A second reason for its importance is that there has been little written about third parties under GATT. This neglect stands in sharp contrast to ample literature on the related subject of greater public participation in the WTO. The oversight could be a function of GATT dispute resolution, which did not always enjoy the level of public attention it garners today. Until recently the GATT system handled no ...


Decisionmaking And Dispute Resolution In The Free Trade Area Of The Americas: An Essay In Trade Governance, Frank J. Garcia Jan 1997

Decisionmaking And Dispute Resolution In The Free Trade Area Of The Americas: An Essay In Trade Governance, Frank J. Garcia

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article examines certain theoretical and structural issues to be resolved in creation of the FTAA's governing institutions, and proposes an outline for these institutions, drawing upon regime theory's analysis of international organizations, the range of existing trade institutions found among the hemisphere's RTAs, and indications of the Summit countries' present goals and interests. The Article begins by summarizing Kenneth Abbott and Duncan Snidal's concept of "mesoinstitutions," a new regime theory tool for identifying the roles played and benefits conferred by 1Os in international relations. Parts I.B and I.C then apply mesoinstitutions theory to ...


Reformulated Gasoline Under Reformulated Wto Dispute Settlement Procedures: Pulling Pandora Out Of A Chapeau?, Jeffrey Waincymer Jan 1996

Reformulated Gasoline Under Reformulated Wto Dispute Settlement Procedures: Pulling Pandora Out Of A Chapeau?, Jeffrey Waincymer

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of the article begins by outlining existing GATT/WTO provisions concerning trade-related environmental measures which were relevant to the Reformulated Gasoline case. Part II then outlines the facts in the dispute and gives a brief introduction to the decisions at the Panel and Appellate Body stages. Part III deals with the present and potential implications for the appellate process in terms of the substance of the dispute, the methodology and procedure adopted, and the wider issues that the case brings to attention. This Part also addresses some of the theoretical and practical issues that affect the question of ...


Globalisation Of Contract Law: Rules For Commercial Contracts In The 21st Century, Whitmore Gray Jan 1996

Globalisation Of Contract Law: Rules For Commercial Contracts In The 21st Century, Whitmore Gray

Articles

This is a paper given at the Asia-Pacific Lawyers Association meeting held in Bangkok in November 1995. The author describes the principles of international commercial contracts published in 1994 by the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law. Professor Gray sees a new era of harmonisation of contract law. An appendix gives an abstract of a contract law decision given by an Austrian Court in 1994.


The World Trade Organization: A New Legal Order For World Trade?, Thomas J. Dillon Jr. Jan 1995

The World Trade Organization: A New Legal Order For World Trade?, Thomas J. Dillon Jr.

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article will describe in some detail the most dramatic modifications within the framework of the multilateral trading system designed to support the projected trade expansion, namely, the new organizational structure under the WTO and the new dispute settlement procedures. The article will evaluate these changes against the backdrop of the Bretton Woods System as originally conceived and will highlight the debate surrounding whether the nature of the trade regulating body ought to be adjudicatory or negotiatory. Finally, the author offers conclusions, perspectives, and comments regarding the future development of the world trading system.


The Uncitral Framework For Arbitration In Contemporary Perspective, Alyssa A. Grikscheit May 1994

The Uncitral Framework For Arbitration In Contemporary Perspective, Alyssa A. Grikscheit

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The UNCITRAL Framework for Arbitration in Contemporary Perspective by Isaak I. Dore


The Obligation To Negotiate In International Law: Rules And Realities, Martin A. Rogoff Jan 1994

The Obligation To Negotiate In International Law: Rules And Realities, Martin A. Rogoff

Michigan Journal of International Law

Considered in this article is the important question of whether the obligation to negotiate imposes an affirmative obligation on a state to seek actively negotiations with the other interested state or states before it can legally engage in certain activities, or whether the obligation to negotiate simply requires the state subject to the obligation to respond favorably when asked by the other state or states to enter into negotiations.


Old Wine, New Skins: Nafta And The Evolution Of International Trade Dispute Resolution, Andrew Kayumi Rosa Jan 1993

Old Wine, New Skins: Nafta And The Evolution Of International Trade Dispute Resolution, Andrew Kayumi Rosa

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note examines NAFTA's effort in meeting the needs of the moment (i.e., North American integration) and those of the future (i.e., hemispheric integration) regarding the issue of dispute resolution. Dispute resolution is key to any trade agreement; without an effective means of settling specific disputes and enforcing provisions generally, parties will have a little incentive to honor their trade commitments. Moreover, ineffective dispute resolution hurts smaller, less developed countries in agreements with larger, more developed countries, because the larger countries will be tempted to use their economic leverage to solve disputes to the disadvantage of the ...


Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses For Western Investment And Joint Ventures In Eastern Europe, Mary Theresa Kaloupek Jan 1992

Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses For Western Investment And Joint Ventures In Eastern Europe, Mary Theresa Kaloupek

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note discusses issues the practitioner should consider in drafting a dispute resolution provision for a client investing in one of the newly democratizing countries. Part I will discuss arbitration law in Eastern Europe; the dispute resolution provisions in the various foreign investment laws; the applicable national law; and each nation's enforcement procedures for arbitral awards issued in other nations. Part II reviews the dispute resolution provisions in various bilateral and multilateral treaties relating to foreign investment including the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention) and the informal agreements between the American Arbitration Association (AAA) and ...


Strategy And Compliance With Bilateral Trade Dispute Settlement Agreements: Ustr's Section 301 Experience In The Pacific Basin, Michael P. Ryan Jan 1991

Strategy And Compliance With Bilateral Trade Dispute Settlement Agreements: Ustr's Section 301 Experience In The Pacific Basin, Michael P. Ryan

Michigan Journal of International Law

The paper is laid out in five parts. First, the conceptual linkages among strategy, goals, and agreement compliance are developed. Second, the study research design and findings are reported. Third, the strategy of trade dispute settlement negotiation is discussed with regard to bureaucratic politics. Fourth, case evidence that illustrates the key study findings is reviewed. Finally, effective monitoring and the notion of unilateral surveillance within the context of the present GATT-based, multilateral trading system are explored.