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Full-Text Articles in Law

China And Beps, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu Jan 2018

China And Beps, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Haiyan Xu

Articles

This article provides an overview of China’s reaction to the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project. From 2013 to 2015, the OECD developed a series of actions designed to address BEPS activities by multinational enterprises, culminating in a final report of 15 action steps. The article reviews and explains China’s reaction to the BEPS project and its actions in detail, with a particular focus on transfer pricing issues. It shows that China has actively participated in both developing and implementing the BEPS project. The article further suggests that in the post-BEPS era, China is expected ...


Statutory Progress And Obstacles To Achieving An Effective Criminal Legislation Against The Modern Day Forms Of Slavery: The Case Of France, Bénédicte Bourgeois Jan 2017

Statutory Progress And Obstacles To Achieving An Effective Criminal Legislation Against The Modern Day Forms Of Slavery: The Case Of France, Bénédicte Bourgeois

Michigan Journal of International Law

In August 2013, the French Parliament passed a statute meant to bring domestic law into conformity with several European legal instruments recently adopted. The statute explicitly addressed for the first time contemporary forms of slavery, servitude, and forced labor by establishing a set of four offenses that criminalize these three types of severe labor exploitation. For lawmakers as well as for many stakeholders in the fight against modern-day slavery, that achievement marked the culmination of a series of piecemeal amendments to criminal law and narrow advances in case law, which gradually enhanced the penal repression of modern-day slavery over the ...


Bringing Pacific Bluefin Tuna Back From The Brink: Ensuring The Submission Of Operational Data To The Western And Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Chris Wold, Mitsuhiko Takahashi, Siwon Park, Viv Fernandes, Sarah Butler Oct 2016

Bringing Pacific Bluefin Tuna Back From The Brink: Ensuring The Submission Of Operational Data To The Western And Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, Chris Wold, Mitsuhiko Takahashi, Siwon Park, Viv Fernandes, Sarah Butler

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

The Commission of the Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western Pacific Ocean (WCPFC) manages fish stocks of significant financial and ecological value across an area of the Pacific Ocean comprising 20% of Earth. WCPFC members, however, have disagreed sharply over management measures for tuna, sharks, and other species, in part because some WCPFC members have refused to provide the WCPFC with vessel-specific data, known as operational data, which is needed to manage the stocks sustainably. Despite a legal requirement to submit operational data to the WCPFC, these members, including Japan and Korea ...


Targeting And The Concept Of Intent, Jens David Ohlin Jan 2013

Targeting And The Concept Of Intent, Jens David Ohlin

Michigan Journal of International Law

International law generally prohibits military forces from intentionally targeting civilians; this is the principle of distinction. In contrast, unintended collateral damage is permissible unless the anticipated civilian deaths outweigh the expected military advantage of the strike; this is the principle of proportionality. These cardinal targeting rules of international humanitarian law are generally assumed by military lawyers to be relatively well-settled. However, recent international tribunals applying this law in a string of little-noticed decisions have completely upended this understanding. Armed with criminal law principles from their own domestic systems — often civil law jurisdictions — prosecutors, judges and even scholars have progressively redefined ...


Contractualism In The Law Of Treaties, Omar M. Dajani Sep 2012

Contractualism In The Law Of Treaties, Omar M. Dajani

Michigan Journal of International Law

When Henry Sumner Maine famously observed that "the movement of the progressive societies has hitherto been a movement from Status to Contract," he was invoking contract not as a device for binding parties to their commitments but, rather, as a metaphor for freedom. That metaphor lies at the heart of what legal scholars have come to call contractualism (or, sometimes, contractarianism)-the idea that people should be free to decide with whom, for what, and on which terms they enter agreements and that the law should minimize the constraints it places on these decisions. It is a proposition rooted in ...


Save Our Sharks: Using International Fisheries Law Within Regional Fisheries Management Organizations To Improve Shark Conservation, Stijn Van Osch Feb 2012

Save Our Sharks: Using International Fisheries Law Within Regional Fisheries Management Organizations To Improve Shark Conservation, Stijn Van Osch

Michigan Journal of International Law

Like many fish, sharks are facing unprecedented overfishing. They have been targeted both directly for their fins and caught accidentally (bycaught) in, for instance, tuna fisheries. This has led to collapsing stocks around the world. Overfishing has led to what has been termed a mass extinction among ocean species, and sharks are no exception-they are in fact especially vulnerable. As a result, many species of sharks are now listed on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This problem can only be tackled through coordinated, cooperative action by all states. This Note explores one avenue ...


Equality, Susanne Baer Jan 2012

Equality, Susanne Baer

Book Chapters

This article first discusses key equality guarantees in law today. It then focuses on different understandings of the right to equality: as either a principle or an individually enforceable claim (the status); as an ‘empty idea’, a rationality test, or a ‘substantive’ right (the content); as a right of individuals or for groups (who bears the right?). It next examines equality as categorically distinctly structured as opposed to or as similar to other liberty interests (the test); as a general entitlement or as a specific guarantee to address particular inequalities, either separate or intersecting (the inequalities); and as general or ...


Prohibiting Sex Purchasing And Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law, Max Waltman Oct 2011

Prohibiting Sex Purchasing And Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law, Max Waltman

Michigan Journal of International Law

At the symposium on "Successes and Failures in International Human Trafficking Law" at the University of Michigan Law School in February 2011, I addressed the topic of international sex trafficking law, particularly the Swedish law that prohibits the purchase of sex while simultaneously decriminalizing the prostituted person. Being asked to address trafficking, I was surprised by the name given to my panel: "Kidnapped at Home, Sold Abroad: Sex Trafficking in the International Community." This surprise was owing to the fact that in the most current international instrument defining trafficking, the United Nation's so-called Palermo Protocol, nowhere is the term ...


Exporting Subjects: Globalizing Family Law Progress Through International Human Rights, Cyra Akila Choudhury Feb 2011

Exporting Subjects: Globalizing Family Law Progress Through International Human Rights, Cyra Akila Choudhury

Michigan Journal of International Law

In our popular culture and social consciousness, women are no longer the second-class citizens they used to be. Magazines, television advertisements, and billboards featuring women show us how we have achieved independence, wealth, desirability, and our intelligence. We are no longer the supporting role in movies and entertainment but stars in our own right. For this, we can thank both changing society and the unrelenting work of many women who refused to bring the coffee for the boss. The women's movement in the United States has made large gains for women through the use of social activism and legal ...


Enforcing International Corrupt Practices Law, Paul D. Carrington Oct 2010

Enforcing International Corrupt Practices Law, Paul D. Carrington

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Essay strives to advance the current international movement to deter the transnational corrupt practices that have long burdened the global economy and weakened governments, especially in "developing" nations. Laws made in the last decade to address this longstanding global problem have not been effectively enforced. Described here are the moderately successful efforts in the United States since 1862 to reward private citizens serving as enforcers of laws prohibiting corrupt practices. It is suggested that this American experience might be adapted by international organizations to enhance enforcement of the new public international laws.


Rethinking Treaty Shopping: Lessons For The European Union, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, C. H. Panayi Jan 2010

Rethinking Treaty Shopping: Lessons For The European Union, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, C. H. Panayi

Book Chapters

Whilst treaty shopping is not a new phenomenon, it remains as controversial as ever. It would seem that the more countries try to deal with it, the wider the disagreements as to what is improper treaty shopping and what is legitimate tax planning. In this paper, we reassess the traditional quasi-definitions of treaty shopping in an attempt to delineate the contours of such practices. We examine the various theoretical arguments advanced to justify the campaign against treaty shopping. We also consider the current trends in treaty shopping and the anti-treaty shopping policies under the OECD Model and the US Model ...


An Agenda For The Obama Administration On Gender Equality: Lessons From Abroad, Adrien K. Wing, Samuel P. Nielson Jan 2009

An Agenda For The Obama Administration On Gender Equality: Lessons From Abroad, Adrien K. Wing, Samuel P. Nielson

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

President Barack Obama came into office with a wealth of good will after winning the historic 2008 presidential election to become the first African-American commander-in-chief. Among the many daunting issues we hope he will tackle is one that Abigail Adams mentioned to her husband John in 1776: remember the ladies. How should our President and his new administration affect social justice for women?


Criminal Conspiracy Law In Japan, Chris Coulson Jan 2007

Criminal Conspiracy Law In Japan, Chris Coulson

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part II of this Note describes CATOC's group criminality requirement. Part III outlines the provisions of several versions of Japan's conspiracy bill and compares these provisions to common-law conspiracy. Part IV analyzes Japan's conspiracy law by examining both substantive and procedural laws in Japan related to criminal conspiracy, as well as criticism within Japan of the conspiracy bills.


The New United States Model Income Tax Convention, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Martin B. Tittle Jan 2007

The New United States Model Income Tax Convention, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Martin B. Tittle

Articles

On 15 November 2006, the United States Treasury released its long-awaited new Model Income Tax Convention (“New Model”), which replaced the 1996 US Model (“Old Model”). This article reviews some of the major differences between the New and Old Models, as well as some of the major differences between the New Model and the current (2005) OECD Model Tax Convention. The article also discusses some new trends in US treaty policy which are not reflected in the New Model. The article concludes by evaluating the New Model in light of the emerging trend to use tax treaties not just to ...


Illegal Peace?: An Inquiry Into The Legality Of Power-Sharing With Warlords And Rebels In Africa, Jeremy I. Levitt Jan 2006

Illegal Peace?: An Inquiry Into The Legality Of Power-Sharing With Warlords And Rebels In Africa, Jeremy I. Levitt

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article represents the first conscientious attempt to address these questions, present a conceptual framework for examining the legal and political efficacy of coercing democratically constituted governments into sharing power, and define a lawful basis or approach to sharing power when governments are confronted with the aforementioned scenario. The Article is polemical and questions the dominant logic that political power-sharing is lawful, legitimate, and unequivocally serves the public good, arguing that power-sharing deals that ignore controlling rules are unlawful and not viable.


Inordinate Chill: Bits, Non-Nafta Mits, And Host-State Regulatory Freedom- An Indonesian Case Study, Stuart G. Gross Jan 2003

Inordinate Chill: Bits, Non-Nafta Mits, And Host-State Regulatory Freedom- An Indonesian Case Study, Stuart G. Gross

Michigan Journal of International Law

A number of structural factors, which are beyond the immediate scope of this Note, may influence less wealthy countries to cave in to investor threats of arbitration, as Indonesia appears to have done here. However, their hesitancy to fight may also be based, in part, on an inadequate understanding of the applicable law, which allows investors to inordinately influence host-State decisions through threats of arbitration that have little or no chance of success. In regard to the mining companies' threat, this at least appears to be the case. As this Note will demonstrate, the GOI could have likely beaten the ...


All My Rights, Carl E. Schneider Jul 2002

All My Rights, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

Diane Pretty was an Englishwoman in her early 40s who had been married nearly a quarter of a century. In November 1999, she learned she had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-in Britain, motor neurone disease. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and soon she was "essentially paralysed from the neck downwards." She had "virtually no decipherable speech" and was fed by a tube. She was expected to live only a few months or even weeks. AB a court later explained, however, "her intellect and capacity to make decisions are unimpaired. The final stages of the disease are exceedingly distressing and undignified. AB she is ...


Russian Compliance With Articles Five And Six Of The European Convention Of Human Rights As A Barometer Of Legal Reform And Human Rights In Russia, Jeffrey Kahn May 2002

Russian Compliance With Articles Five And Six Of The European Convention Of Human Rights As A Barometer Of Legal Reform And Human Rights In Russia, Jeffrey Kahn

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note examines two of Russia's obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR): the Article 5 right to liberty and security, and the Article 6 right to a fair trial to gauge Russian compliance with European human rights norms. These articles lie at the heart of systematic legal reform in the Russian Federation. This Note defends the thesis that the agonizingly slow progress of judicial reform and the advancement of human rights in Russia is a function of the inevitable lag of conceptual norms behind institutional reform. Part I explores the weak place of the rule of ...


The Impact Of Family Paradigms, Domestic Constitutions, And International Conventions On Disclosure Of An Adopted Person's Identities And Heritage: A Comparative Examination, D. Marianne Brower Blair Jan 2001

The Impact Of Family Paradigms, Domestic Constitutions, And International Conventions On Disclosure Of An Adopted Person's Identities And Heritage: A Comparative Examination, D. Marianne Brower Blair

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article examines the extent to which international law has and will potentially influence the direction of the reform and implementation of adoption disclosure norms. Though it does not yet appear that international law mandates recognition of an absolute right to identifying information when such disclosure is opposed by a birth parent or adoptee, examination of these conventions and the response of the international community underscores the critical importance of identifying information to many adoptees, and a growing movement to afford primacy to their interests.


Warranties Against Infringement In The Sale Of Goods: A Comparison Of U.C.C. § 2-312(3) And Article 42 Of The U.N. Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Joseph J. Schwerha Iv Jan 1995

Warranties Against Infringement In The Sale Of Goods: A Comparison Of U.C.C. § 2-312(3) And Article 42 Of The U.N. Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Joseph J. Schwerha Iv

Michigan Journal of International Law

Gone are the days of simple sales contracts. Today's corporate lawyers must have not only a substantial understanding of basic commercial law, but also of the related intellectual property law. Because of the shrinking global economy, such knowledge must rise to an international level.


Authors' Moral Rights In Non-European Nations: International Agreements, Economics, Mannu Bhandari, And The Dead Sea Scrolls, Jeffrey M. Dine Jan 1995

Authors' Moral Rights In Non-European Nations: International Agreements, Economics, Mannu Bhandari, And The Dead Sea Scrolls, Jeffrey M. Dine

Michigan Journal of International Law

This note undertakes to examine authors' moral rights in non-European countries. Section I will provide a brief comparative description of moral rights. Section II will discuss the treatment of moral rights in the Berne convention and the TRIPS agreement. Section III will then examine moral rights law in India and Israel, and two important cases from these nations, Mannu Bhandari v. Kala Vikas Pictures from India, and Qimron v. Shanks, from Israel. Mannu Bhandari deals with an author's moral right in the film adaptation of her work, Qimron with the moral rights of a scholar in the reconstruction of ...


Participation And Litigation Rights Of Environmental Associations In Europe: Current Legal Situation And Practical Experience, David A. Wirth Jan 1993

Participation And Litigation Rights Of Environmental Associations In Europe: Current Legal Situation And Practical Experience, David A. Wirth

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of the book edited by Martin Führ and Gerhard Roller.


South Korea: Implementation And Application Of Human Rights Covenants, Suk Tae Lee Jan 1993

South Korea: Implementation And Application Of Human Rights Covenants, Suk Tae Lee

Michigan Journal of International Law

Under article 40 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the State Party undertakes to submit reports on the measures it has adopted which give effect to the rights recognized in the ICCPR and demonstrate the progress it has made in granting its citizens the enjoyment of those rights. The report was examined by the HRC in July 1992 and will be discussed in Part I of this article. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) also requires State Parties to submit reports, but the initial report of the South Korean government has not ...


Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses For Western Investment And Joint Ventures In Eastern Europe, Mary Theresa Kaloupek Jan 1992

Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses For Western Investment And Joint Ventures In Eastern Europe, Mary Theresa Kaloupek

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note discusses issues the practitioner should consider in drafting a dispute resolution provision for a client investing in one of the newly democratizing countries. Part I will discuss arbitration law in Eastern Europe; the dispute resolution provisions in the various foreign investment laws; the applicable national law; and each nation's enforcement procedures for arbitral awards issued in other nations. Part II reviews the dispute resolution provisions in various bilateral and multilateral treaties relating to foreign investment including the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention) and the informal agreements between the American Arbitration Association (AAA) and ...


International Human Rights Law In United States Courts: A Comparative Perspective, Anne Bayefsky, Joan Fitzpatrick Jan 1992

International Human Rights Law In United States Courts: A Comparative Perspective, Anne Bayefsky, Joan Fitzpatrick

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article will catalogue the various contexts in which United States courts have agreed or refused to follow international human rights law, treating separately the larger number of cases concerning customary norms, the relatively small group of cases relating to human rights treaties, and the cases in which international norms are referenced without regard to their status as binding law. In each of these sections we will analyze areas of confusion, disagreement, or under-development in international legal doctrine that impede the productive use of human rights norms by domestic courts. We will also compare the approaches of United States courts ...


The Unification Of Germany And International Law, Frans G. Von Der Dunk, Peter H. Kooijmans Jan 1991

The Unification Of Germany And International Law, Frans G. Von Der Dunk, Peter H. Kooijmans

Michigan Journal of International Law

What role these rights and obligations could have played is the central theme of this article. However, in view of the enormous complexity of the problems involved, this article can do no more than provide a general overview. Sections II through VII will first sketch the outlines of the rights and obligations confronting the two German States before unification. Section VIII will compare those outlines to the actual political outcome of the unification process. The former six Sections will explore a number of different contexts in which legal rights and obligations could have been found.


Demoncratic Institutions Of Industrial Relations: A Polish Perspective, Ludwik Florek Jan 1991

Demoncratic Institutions Of Industrial Relations: A Polish Perspective, Ludwik Florek

Michigan Journal of International Law

This essay addresses three issues. The author first describes the major features of the previous Polish industrial relations system which caused it to be undemocratic. He then presents arguments justifying the need for a democracy in industrial relations in Poland. Second, the indispensable premises and elements of three basic democratic institutions of industrial relations are identified: trade union freedom, collective bargaining and the right to strike. These elements were selected for analysis on the basis of international legal instruments, in particular, conventions of the International Labor Organization ("ILO"), as well as U.S. and West European labor legislation. The author ...


The Czechoslovak Approach To The Draft Convention On Jurisdictional Immunitites Of States And Their Property, Vladimir Balaš, Monika Pauknerová Jan 1991

The Czechoslovak Approach To The Draft Convention On Jurisdictional Immunitites Of States And Their Property, Vladimir Balaš, Monika Pauknerová

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article deals with four issues: (1) The effort of the International Law Commission of the United Nations to codify jurisdictional immunity. (2) The theoretical and practical Czechoslovak approach toward the institution of jurisdictional immunity of States and the Draft Convention, and a prediction of possible change of the Czechoslovak view. (3) The changing views of East European scholars. (4) An analysis of particular provisions of the Draft Convention with respect to their acceptability by States with different socioeconomic systems and especially by Czechoslovakia.


"Federal" Aspects Of The European Convention On Human Rights, Colin Warbrick Jan 1989

"Federal" Aspects Of The European Convention On Human Rights, Colin Warbrick

Michigan Journal of International Law

The inquiry pursued in this paper has been prompted by a paradox. In the United States, the Supreme Court has been reluctant to find any constitutional limitations upon the power of the States to allow the administration of corporal punishment in schools, despite being able to rely on the national Bill of Rights - in the interpretation of which the Court has many times circumscribed the power of the State governments in other contexts. The result has been that some children have been left without redress when they have been subjected to exceptionally severe punishment. Under the system of the European ...


Some Recent Cases Delaying The Direct Effect Of International Treaties In Dutch Law, Henry G. Schermers Jan 1989

Some Recent Cases Delaying The Direct Effect Of International Treaties In Dutch Law, Henry G. Schermers

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article is meant as a comment on some recent Dutch cases concerning the effect within the domestic law of the Netherlands of the prohibition of discrimination laid down in Article 7a(i) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of Article 26 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The cases were decided by the Centrale Raad van Beroep, which is the Dutch supreme court in some fields of administrative law, such as the law on civil servants and several laws on social security. The cases are particularly interesting with respect to the ...