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Sec Investigations And Securities Class Actions: An Empirical Comparison, Stephen Choi, Adam Pritchard Nov 2012

Sec Investigations And Securities Class Actions: An Empirical Comparison, Stephen Choi, Adam Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

We compare investigations by the SEC with securities fraud class action filings involving public companies. Using actions with both an SEC investigation and a class action as our baseline, we compare SEC-only investigations with class action-only lawsuits. We find evidence that the stock market reacts more negatively to the class actions relative to SEC investigations. We also find that institutional ownership and stock turnover decline more for class actions compared with SEC investigations. Lastly, the incidence and magnitude of settlements, as well as the incidence of top officer resignation, are greater for class actions relative to SEC investigations. This evidence ...


Racial Disparity In The Criminal Justice Process: Prosecutors, Judges, And The Effects Of United States V. Booker, Sonja Starr, Marit Rehavi Nov 2012

Racial Disparity In The Criminal Justice Process: Prosecutors, Judges, And The Effects Of United States V. Booker, Sonja Starr, Marit Rehavi

Law & Economics Working Papers

Current empirical estimates of racial and other unwarranted disparities in sentencing suffer from two pervasive flaws. The first is a focus on the sentencing stage in isolation. Studies control for the “presumptive sentence” or closely related measures that are themselves the product of discretionary charging, plea-­‐bargaining, and fact-­‐finding processes. Any disparities in these earlier processes are built into the control variable, which leads to misleading sentencing-­‐disparity estimates. The second problem is specific to studies of sentencing reforms: they use loose methods of causal inference that do not disentangle the effects of reform from surrounding events and trends ...


Double Or Nothing: A Tax Treaty For The 21st Century, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi Nov 2012

Double Or Nothing: A Tax Treaty For The 21st Century, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi

Law & Economics Working Papers

The current tax treaty network was developed in the 1920s and 1930s in order to prevent double residence/source taxation. This kind of double taxation rarely exists any more because most countries have adopted either an exemption system or a foreign tax credit regime in their domestic (non‐treaty) law, which effectively prevents residence/source double taxation even in the absence of a treaty. Instead, as Tsilly Dagan has pointed out, the current treaties serve mostly to transfer revenue from the source country to the residence country. This suggests that treaties may be unnecessary because exemption from withholding taxes by ...


Facebook, The Jobs Act, And Abolishing Ipos, Adam C. Pritchard Oct 2012

Facebook, The Jobs Act, And Abolishing Ipos, Adam C. Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

The market for initial public offerings (IPOs) — the first sale of private firms’ stock to the public — is notorious for its swings from peaks to valleys. This paper argues that these swings reflect serious flaws in the IPO scheme, and that U.S. capital markets should move toward a more stable alternative. Specifically, this paper argues for a two-tier market system in which new stock issuers initially participate in a less-regulated private capital market of accredited investors and then, if they choose, they can move to a more regulated, broader public market. Likewise, firms currently participating in the public market ...


"Perpetual Trusts: The Walking Dead" And "Congress Should Effectively Curb Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts.", Lawrence W. Waggoner, Calvin H. Johnson Sep 2012

"Perpetual Trusts: The Walking Dead" And "Congress Should Effectively Curb Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts.", Lawrence W. Waggoner, Calvin H. Johnson

Law & Economics Working Papers

In separate but complementary letters to the editor of Tax Notes, Calvin Johnson (University of Texas School of Law) and Lawrence Waggoner (University of Michigan Law School) respond to an article by Dennis Belcher and seven other practicing attorneys that defend the GST exemption for perpetual trusts. In Federal Tax Rules Should Not Be Used to Limit Trust Duration, 126 Tax Notes 832 (Aug 13, 2012), the attorneys argue that the duration of a trust is a state law issue. Their article is actually a response to a Shelf Project article: Lawrence W. Waggoner, Effectively Curbing the GST Exemption for ...


Estimating Gender Disparities In Federal Criminal Cases, Sonja Starr Aug 2012

Estimating Gender Disparities In Federal Criminal Cases, Sonja Starr

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper assesses gender disparities in federal criminal cases. It finds large gender gaps favoring women throughout the sentence length distribution (averaging over 60%), conditional on arrest offense, criminal history, and other pre-charge observables. Female arrestees are also significantly likelier to avoid charges and convictions entirely, and twice as likely to avoid incarceration if convicted. Prior studies have reported much smaller sentence gaps because they have ignored the role of charging, plea-bargaining, and sentencing fact-finding in producing sentences. Most studies control for endogenous severity measures that result from these earlier discretionary processes and use samples that have been winnowed by ...


Sales Between A Partnership And Non-Partners, Douglas A. Kahn Aug 2012

Sales Between A Partnership And Non-Partners, Douglas A. Kahn

Law & Economics Working Papers

Kahn argues that a 1986 amendment to section 707 invalidated several regulatory provisions promulgated under section 267.


University Of Michigan Bar Passage 2004-2006: A Failure To Replicate Professor Sander's Results, With Implications For Affirmative Action, Richard O. Lempert Jul 2012

University Of Michigan Bar Passage 2004-2006: A Failure To Replicate Professor Sander's Results, With Implications For Affirmative Action, Richard O. Lempert

Law & Economics Working Papers

In a recent issue of the Denver Law Review, Professor Richard Sander presents data on race-based affirmative action that purportedly support his theory that any benefits African Americans enjoy from affirmative action are more than offset by detrimental effects of academic mismatch. Specifically, he references a yet unpublished study in which he claims to have found that for the years 2004-2006 the bar passage rate of African-American graduates of the University of Michigan Law School is 62 percent for first time takers rising to only 76 percent after multiple takes. This paper shows that these results are quite implausible given ...


Revisiting 'Truth In Securities Revisited': Abolishing Ipos And Harnessing Private Markets In The Public Good, Adam C. Pritchard Jul 2012

Revisiting 'Truth In Securities Revisited': Abolishing Ipos And Harnessing Private Markets In The Public Good, Adam C. Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

This essay explores the line between private and public markets. I propose a two-tier market system to replace initial public offerings. The lower tier would be a private market restricted to accredited investors; the top tier would be a public market with unlimited access. The transition between the two markets would be based on issuer choice and market capitalization, followed by a seasoning period of disclosure and trading in the public market before the issuer would be allowed to make a public offering. I argue that such system would promote not only efficient capital formation, but also investor protection.


Has Insider Trading Become More Rampant In The United States? Evidence From Takeovers, Laura N. Beny, Nejat Seyhun Jul 2012

Has Insider Trading Become More Rampant In The United States? Evidence From Takeovers, Laura N. Beny, Nejat Seyhun

Law & Economics Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Contribution Of A Built-In Loss To A Partnership, Douglas A. Kahn Jul 2012

Contribution Of A Built-In Loss To A Partnership, Douglas A. Kahn

Law & Economics Working Papers

In 2004 Congress amended the code to prevent the use of a partnership contribution as a means of transferring a deduction for a built-in loss from one person to another. That amendment has undermined the application of the remedial method (and the traditional method with curative allocations) that the regulations provide for the allocation of a contributed built-in gain or loss, Kahn argues. He also asserts that the 2004 amendment distorts income reporting.


Effectively Curbing The Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner Jun 2012

Effectively Curbing The Gst Exemption For Perpetual Trusts, Lawrence W. Waggoner

Law & Economics Working Papers

Current law allows a married couple to transfer up to $10.24 million into a trust that is exempt from the federal generation-skipping transfer tax. The proposal would deny the GST exemption prospectively, unless the trust must terminate within one of three perpetuity periods: (1) 21 years after the death of a life in being; (2) 90 years after creation; or (3) after the death of the last living beneficiary who is no more than two generations younger than the settlor. Atrust now in existence would be allowed a grace period during which it could be modified to terminate within ...


International Taxation And Competitiveness: Introduction And Overview, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Nicola Sartori May 2012

International Taxation And Competitiveness: Introduction And Overview, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Nicola Sartori

Law & Economics Working Papers

The debate about whether to abolish deferral or to adopt territoriality has been going on ever since the Kennedy Administration first proposed ending deferral in 1961. The problem is that neither side has factual support for their argument about whether the U.S. tax system, including Subpart F, as currently enacted or with any of the proposed reforms, in fact negatively impacts the tax burden of US-based MNEs. Even the concept of competitiveness itself is unclear. Despite numerous claims, there has been no rigorous attempt that we are aware of to determine whether MNEs based in our major trading partners ...


Launching The Insider Trading Revolution: Sec V. Capital Gains Research Bureau, Adam C. Pritchard May 2012

Launching The Insider Trading Revolution: Sec V. Capital Gains Research Bureau, Adam C. Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

Securities and Exchange Commission v. Capital Gains Research Bureau, Inc.1 marked the resurgence of the SEC in the Supreme Court, sparking a decade-long winning streak there. The Capital Gains decision, although turning on an interpretation of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940,2 also gave the green light to the SEC to push the boundaries of its power in other areas. Moreover, Capital Gains suggested that the SEC could expand its power through agency and judicial interpretation of existing statutes and regulation, without resorting to the cumbersome rulemaking process under the Administrative Procedure Act, or still more daunting, seeking ...


Outsourcing Regulation: How Insurance Reduces Moral Hazard, Kyle D. Logue, Omri Ben-Shahar Apr 2012

Outsourcing Regulation: How Insurance Reduces Moral Hazard, Kyle D. Logue, Omri Ben-Shahar

Law & Economics Working Papers

This article explores the potential value of insurance as a substitute for government regulation of safety. Successful regulation of behavior requires information in setting standards, licensing conduct, verifying outcomes, and assessing remedies. In some areas, the private insurance sector has technological advantages in collecting and administering the information relevant to setting standards, and could outperform the government in creating incentives for optimal behavior. The paper explores several areas in which regulation and other government-oriented forms of control are replaced by private insurance schemes. The role of the law diminishes to the administration of simple rules of absolute liability or of ...


The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos Feb 2012

The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Law & Economics Working Papers

Two conflicting stories have consumed the academic debate regarding the impact of deinstitutionalization litigation. The first, which has risen almost to the level of conventional wisdom, is that deinstitutionalization was a disaster. The second story does not deny that the results of deinstitutionalization have in many cases been disappointing. But it challenges the suggestion that deinstitutionalization has uniformly been unsuccessful, as well as the causal link critics seek to draw with the growth of the homeless population. This dispute is not simply a matter of historical interest. The Supreme Court’s 1999 decision in Olmstead v. L.C., which held ...


U.S. Treaty Anti-Avoidance Rules: An Overview And Assessment, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi Jan 2012

U.S. Treaty Anti-Avoidance Rules: An Overview And Assessment, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi

Law & Economics Working Papers

In this article, the authors provide a summary of the anti-avoidance rules in the United States that relate to bilateral tax treaties. Specifically, they focus on treaty-based anti-avoidance rules and discuss whether or not a General Anti-Avoidance Rule would be appropriate in this context.


Wisdom Of The Ages Or Dead-Hand Control? Patentable Subject Matter For Diagnostic Methods After In Re Bilski, Rebecca Sue Eisenberg Jan 2012

Wisdom Of The Ages Or Dead-Hand Control? Patentable Subject Matter For Diagnostic Methods After In Re Bilski, Rebecca Sue Eisenberg

Law & Economics Working Papers

For a quarter century following the landmark 1980 decision of the Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabarty, inventions and discoveries in biotechnology research appeared to be eligible for patent protection, assuming they meet the statutory standards for patent protection. The Supreme Court reopened the issue of patentable subject matter in 2005 when it granted certiorari in Laboratory Corporation v. Metabolite on the question of whether a method of diagnosing vitamin deficiency by observing a biomarker was unpatentable as a “basic scientific relationship.” Although the Court later dismissed the case without reaching a decision on the merits, since that time the ...


Us Subpart F Legislative Proposals: A Comparative Perspective, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi Jan 2012

Us Subpart F Legislative Proposals: A Comparative Perspective, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Oz Halabi

Law & Economics Working Papers

This article reviews recent US proposals to amend the US Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) rules, also known as Subpart F. It places the US debate in a comparative perspective by describing how the US proposals fit in with developments in other countries that have CFC rules.