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University of Michigan Law School

2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 266

Full-Text Articles in Law

Risk, Rents, And Regressivity: Why The United States Needs Both An Income Tax And A Vat, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2004

Risk, Rents, And Regressivity: Why The United States Needs Both An Income Tax And A Vat, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

In this article, Prof. Avi-Yonah argues that the legal academic debate about fundamental tax reform from 1974 onward has been skewed by the assumption that a consumption tax must replace the income tax. He addresses three of the major issue in recent writings on the income/consumption tax debate, and shows how none of the arguments in favor of the consumption tax are conclusive. Avi-Yonah also addresses the various consumption tax proposals that have been made and shows that they are all deficient in comparison with a VAT, as well as failing to achieve the goals of an income tax ...


Government Corruption And The Right Of Access To Courts, Una A. Kim Dec 2004

Government Corruption And The Right Of Access To Courts, Una A. Kim

Michigan Law Review

This Note addresses the question left unanswered in Harbury: whether these denial of access-to-courts cases, which Justice Souter termed "backward-looking" access claims, are valid exercises of a constitutional right. Backward-looking access claims such as Harbury's differ from traditional denial of access-to-courts claims in that their aim is not to remove impediments to bringing causes of action in the future. Rather, backward-looking access claims allege that a suit that could have been filed in the past was not brought or was not litigated effectively, because access to the courts was at that time denied or obstructed by government officials. These ...


Vol. 55, No. 8, November 23, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 2004

Vol. 55, No. 8, November 23, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Scalia Visit Brings Attention, Constitutional Debate to M-Law •Editorial: Urine Trouble •Too 'Legit': Chomsky Rocks Hutchins •Scalia Faces Student Questions, Reactions •No Monopoly on Closed Mindedness •Actual Useful Information: Exam-Taking Tips from Profs, Students •Eating Crow: A Messy Situation •From the Bookshelf: Recommended Reading for Winter Break •Jenny Runkles Photos •Music Attorney Lays Down Laws of Rock •The Reason for the Season: Things to be Thankful for in the State of Hutchins •Why a Nation No Longer United? •Treat Your Last Like Your First: Recapture the First Semester Magic •Crossword •Question on the Quad


Vol. 55, No. 7, November 9, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 2004

Vol. 55, No. 7, November 9, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Election Provokes Passionate Responses •Editorial: School Should Save Students Seats •Career Services Grows, Gives 1L Job Advice •Take it Back on America Recycles Day •Orange Alert •On Barack Obama: The Colors and Layers of Blackness •All Things Considered: An Interview with Professor Primus •Seeing Red, Feeling Blue •On the Mortality of Minority Morality •Grade Curves •Halloween Party Photos •Date Auction Photos •Win or Lose, Happy or Sad, Home is Where You Make It •Ford's Freestyle is Not a Wack Jam •Why a Nation Divided?


Screening, Plea Bargains And The Innocent Problem, Oren Gazal Nov 2004

Screening, Plea Bargains And The Innocent Problem, Oren Gazal

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Courts in common law countries reject plea-agreements only when the agreed upon sentence is seen as exceedingly lenient. This judicial intervention is designed to ensure that plea-bargaining does not undermine deterrence. Many legal scholars argue against this policy, claiming that courts should prohibit plea-bargaining all together. They argue that the plea-bargaining system increases the risk of wrongful convictions. Economists often criticize this judicial intervention as well, but for a different reason. Rather than advocating the abolition of plea-bargaining, many economists argue that the courts should accept all plea-agreements without review. They claim that plea-bargaining can help ensure an efficient use ...


Plea Bargains Only For The Guilty, Oren Gazal, Oren Bar-Gill Nov 2004

Plea Bargains Only For The Guilty, Oren Gazal, Oren Bar-Gill

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

A major concern with plea bargains is that innocent defendants will be induced to plead guilty. This paper argues that the law can address this concern by providing prosecutors with incentives to select cases in which the probability of guilt is high. By restricting the permissible sentence reduction in a plea bargain the law can preclude plea bargains in cases where the probability of conviction is low (L cases). The prosecutor will therefore be forced to – (1) select fewer L cases and proceed to trial with these cases; or (2) select more cases with a higher probability of conviction (H ...


The Coordinated Effects Of Mergers In Differentiated Products Market, Kai-Uwe Kuhn Nov 2004

The Coordinated Effects Of Mergers In Differentiated Products Market, Kai-Uwe Kuhn

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.


Dedicated To The Memory Of Lee E. Teiteitelbaum, Carl E. Schneider Nov 2004

Dedicated To The Memory Of Lee E. Teiteitelbaum, Carl E. Schneider

Articles

When I first met Lee Teitelbaum at a conference two decades ago, I was a novice and he a distinguished scholar. Because my colleagues admired him, I rang his room at the hotel and asked him to join me for dinner. He sweetly agreed. When he opened his door to my knock, I realized that he set standards I could never match-sartorial standards. Who was this king of glory? 1 stood there in my Oshkosh khakis and running shoes, agape and abashed. Despite this unpropitious start, our friendship ripened, and soon I realized Lee set standards of a finer and ...


Copyright's Communications Policy, Timothy Wu Nov 2004

Copyright's Communications Policy, Timothy Wu

Michigan Law Review

There is something for everyone to dislike about early twenty-first century copyright. Owners of content say that newer and better technologies have made it too easy to be a pirate. Easy copying, they say, threatens the basic incentive to create new works; new rights and remedies are needed to restore the balance. Academic critics instead complain that a growing copyright gives content owners dangerous levels of control over expressive works. In one version of this argument, this growth threatens the creativity and progress that copyright is supposed to foster; in another, it represents an "enclosure movement" that threatens basic freedoms ...


The Forgotten Constitutional Right To Present A Defense And Its Impact On The Acceptance Of Responsibility-Entrapment Debate, Katrice L. Bridges Nov 2004

The Forgotten Constitutional Right To Present A Defense And Its Impact On The Acceptance Of Responsibility-Entrapment Debate, Katrice L. Bridges

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that Section 3El.1 of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines must be interpreted to allow defendants who claim entrapment at trial to remain eligible for the acceptance-of-responsibility adjustment. To interpret Section 3El.1 in any other way would run afoul of defendants' constitutional right to present a defense. Part I argues that the entrapment defense does not put factual guilt at issue; instead the entrapment defense challenges whether the statute should apply to the defendant's conduct. Part II contends that the legislative intent in creating the sentencing guidelines in general and the acceptance-of-responsibility adjustment in particular are ...


Mitigation And The Americans With Disabilities Act, Jill Elaine Hasday Nov 2004

Mitigation And The Americans With Disabilities Act, Jill Elaine Hasday

Michigan Law Review

It is an open question whether the prohibition on employment discrimination in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects plaintiffs who have not attempted to mitigate the effect of their disability on their ability to work. Suppose, for example, that a job applicant has severely impaired vision because of a corneal disease. He can have corneal transplant surgery that his doctors recommend and expect will allow him to see much more clearly, but he does not want to have the surgery because of the complications sometimes associated with the operation and the possibility that the surgery will not work. He ...


Vol. 55, No. 6, October 24, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2004

Vol. 55, No. 6, October 24, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Robinson Stresses U.S. Human Rights in Bishop Lecture •Editorial: Win or Lose, Be Good on Game Day •Michigan's Proposal 2: Liberties at Risk •Volunteer to Help America Vote •Fachsimpeln (Talking Shop) With Professor Simma •Are You Losing It?: Learn to Make Time Your Friend •Supreme Court May Order Juvenile Death Penalty Executed •Shutting Down: Eulogy to My Laptop •The Liberal Law School? •Trick or Treatise: Halloween as a 3L Parent •Taking a Step Back •Briefs, Suits and Trash Talk: Inside the Life of a Moot Attorney •Antics Isn't Interpol's Finest Shenanigan •Question on the Quad


Vol. 55, No. 5, October, 12, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2004

Vol. 55, No. 5, October, 12, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•New Director, New Direction: Sarosi Brings Both to M-Law •Editorial: Two Lists Should Solve Student Spam •Hard Day's Nights: MBA Alum Describes Show Business •Supreme Court Panel Forecasts More Reading for Con, Crim Law Students •40 Years in the Making: Professor Kahn Talks Tax, Teaching •The Good, the Bad and the LLC: Alums Show How to Distinguish Law Firms •In Their Own Words: Students Comment on the 2004 Presidential Candidates •'The World Needs President Bush' •Bush 'Faced With (an) Impossible Task' •Bush 'Crapped Out' In Iraq •'Think About Bush's Decisions Since 9/11' •Bush 'Practices What He Preaches ...


An Ex-Ante View Of The Battle Of The Forms: Inducing Parties To Draft Reasonable Terms, Omri Ben-Shahar Oct 2004

An Ex-Ante View Of The Battle Of The Forms: Inducing Parties To Draft Reasonable Terms, Omri Ben-Shahar

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This paper focuses on one type of ex-ante effect of the battle of the forms: the incentive to draft reasonable boilerplate terms. It argues that the experience with the battle-of-the-forms rule under the CISG reinforces what we already know, that existing legal solutions do not provide any incentive for the parties to draft reasonable forms. The paper suggests that the goal of inducing parties to draft reasonable terms can be significantly promoted by a third rule, a variant of the “best-shot” rule proposed by Victor Goldberg. Under the version labeled the “reasonable-shot” rule, the court would resolve the battle of ...


Electronic Discovery Sanctions In The Twenty-First Century, Shira A. Scheindlin, Kachana Wangkeo Oct 2004

Electronic Discovery Sanctions In The Twenty-First Century, Shira A. Scheindlin, Kachana Wangkeo

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

At the federal level, the Civil Rules Advisory Committee has responded to the "unique and necessary feature of computer systems--the automatic recycling, overwriting, and alteration of electronically stored information"--with a proposed amendment to Rule 37. The proposed Rule 37(f) would shield litigants from sanctions for the destruction of electronic data if the party "took reasonable steps to preserve the information after it knew or should have known the information was discoverable in the action" and "the failure resulted from the loss of the information because of the routine operation of the party's electronic information system." The safe ...


Fair's Fair: An Argument For Mandatory Disclosure Of Technological Protection Measures, Robert C. Denicola Oct 2004

Fair's Fair: An Argument For Mandatory Disclosure Of Technological Protection Measures, Robert C. Denicola

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Section 1201(a)(1) of the Copyright Act prohibits the act of "circumvent[ing] a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work," including, for example, by-passing password protection or encryption intended to restrict access to paying customers. Section 1201(a)(2) prohibits the manufacture or sale of "any technology, product, service, device, component, or part thereof" primarily designed for the purpose of circumventing access controls on copyrighted works. Additionally, § 1202(b) prohibits the manufacture or sale of products, devices or services primarily designed to circumvent "a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner"--for ...


Better, Faster, Cheaper - Later: What Happens When Technologies Are Suppressed, Kurt M. Saunders, Linda Levine Oct 2004

Better, Faster, Cheaper - Later: What Happens When Technologies Are Suppressed, Kurt M. Saunders, Linda Levine

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Some inventions never see the light of day. Others enter the spotlight after long delays and the factors that slowed the arrival of that innovation are ignored. Technology suppression is a real occurrence involving well known and widely used products. In this Article, we examine the topic of technology suppression, seeking to reveal the tactics of suppression and the patterns and conditions under which it occurs. Current examples of US technologies are used to highlight the significance of this phenomenon. We consider related factors, including market and innovation forces, and we identify suppressive tactics, using illustrative cases where patent nonuse ...


The Experimental Purpose Doctrine And Biomedical Research, Tao Huang Oct 2004

The Experimental Purpose Doctrine And Biomedical Research, Tao Huang

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The experimental use doctrine is a common law rule in patent law that until a few years ago excused accused infringers who made and used patented products or processes on the basis of an experimental, educational, or nonprofit purpose when there was de minimis economic injury to the patent owner and de minimis economic gain to the infringer. While the application of the experimental purpose doctrine was always narrow, two recent Federal Circuit decisions indicate that there is not much left under its aegis. In Madey v. Duke University, the Federal Circuit strictly limited the application of the experimental purpose ...


Bilingualism And Equality: Title Vii Claims For Language Discrimination In The Workplace, James Leonard Oct 2004

Bilingualism And Equality: Title Vii Claims For Language Discrimination In The Workplace, James Leonard

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Linguistic diversity is a fact of contemporary American life. Nearly one in five Americans speak a language other than English in the home, and influxes of immigrants have been a constant feature of American history. The multiplicity of languages in American society has touched nearly all aspects of American culture, and specifically has added new and important challenges to the American workplace. Chief among these new concerns are the growing number of legal claims centered around language discrimination in the workplace. The common vehicle for these claims has been Title VII, and there is considerable support in the academic literature ...


An Examination Of Patents, Licensing, Research Tools, And The Tragedy Of The Anticommons In Biotechnology Innovation, Michael S. Mireles Oct 2004

An Examination Of Patents, Licensing, Research Tools, And The Tragedy Of The Anticommons In Biotechnology Innovation, Michael S. Mireles

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The continued development of and affordable access to potentially life saving pharmaceuticals, gene therapies and diagnostics is unquestionably a socially important issue. However, crafting government policy to encourage the development of and allowing affordable access to those services and products is difficult. On one hand, the development of those services and products requires a large investment of funds because of the complexity, collaborative nature, and uncertainty of the development of those products and services. Accordingly, investors require the safety of strong and stable patent rights to ensure a return on their investment in the development of a commercial end-product or ...


Standard Of Review For Prosecutorial Use Of Race Evidence During Trial, Peter Chung Oct 2004

Standard Of Review For Prosecutorial Use Of Race Evidence During Trial, Peter Chung

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that unfettered use of cultural evidence by prosecutors creates the same problems as would the use of evidence of race to show propensity of the accused to act. Using Wisconsin v. Chu as a case study, the author demonstrates that cultural evidence, just as any other evidence to show propensity to act, must rest upon the proper evidentiary foundation and that prosecutors must be sharply constrained in their use of cultural evidence.


Public Nuisance Claims Against Gun Sellers: New Insights And Challenges, Jean Macchiaroli Eggen, John G. Culhane Oct 2004

Public Nuisance Claims Against Gun Sellers: New Insights And Challenges, Jean Macchiaroli Eggen, John G. Culhane

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Gun violence continues unabated. Regulation of these deadly instruments is woefully inadequate, and legislatures are compounding the problem by barring or restricting access to the courts for the death and injuries that guns cause. In short, Congress and state legislators have repeatedly acquiesced to the demands of the gun lobby.

During the past several years, cities have struck back by filing public nuisance claims against those gun sellers whose practices pose a risk to the public's health and safety. After a slow start, public nuisance claims have recently gained traction in state appellate courts, which are increasingly coming to ...


The Inclusive Command: Voluntary Integration Of Sexual Minorities Into The U.S. Military, Jennifer Gerarda Brown, Ian Ayres Oct 2004

The Inclusive Command: Voluntary Integration Of Sexual Minorities Into The U.S. Military, Jennifer Gerarda Brown, Ian Ayres

Michigan Law Review

Many opponents of gays in the military will accept the proposition that gay and lesbian soldiers, most of them closeted, have served their country bravely and well. General Colin Powell has referred to gay service members as "proud, brave, loyal, good Americans" who have "served well in the past and are continuing to serve well." General H. Norman Schwartzkopf agrees: "homosexuals have served in the past and have done a great job serving their country." What these opponents find harder to accept is the proposition that heterosexual people can effectively serve their country if openly gay people are in the ...


Turning The Page On Section 5: The Implication Of Multiracial Coalition Districts On Section 5 Of The Voting Rights Act, Daniel A. Zibel Oct 2004

Turning The Page On Section 5: The Implication Of Multiracial Coalition Districts On Section 5 Of The Voting Rights Act, Daniel A. Zibel

Michigan Law Review

This Note analyzes the use of coalition districts in light of current section 5 and equal protection jurisprudence and argues that, in some circumstances, the Equal Protection Clause compels the use of coalition districts to achieve non retrogression under section 5. Part I examines the use of coalition districts, using the litigation in Page v. Bartels as an example. It then argues that the Supreme Court's opinion in Georgia v. Ashcroft permits jurisdictions to create viable racial coalition districts to comply with section 5. Part II argues that while Georgia v. Ashcroft permits the use of coalition districts to ...


Vol. 55, No. 4, September 28, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 2004

Vol. 55, No. 4, September 28, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Demolition Shapes School Office Space •Question on the Quad •How to Pass the Ann Arbor Bar Exam •Alumnus Offers Refreshing Insight on How to Succeed with "Economy Grades" •Hanging with Professor Cooper •NYU vs. U-Mich? •Grade Curves •Jobless and Worry-Free: A 3L's Story of Hope and Redemption •Okay, So Maybe I Was Wrong... •It's Okay to Play Games in the Quad, and With Your Life, but Not if You Suck •Student Wonders What Was Accomplished •Burned to a Crip: The Arcade Fire Releases a Classic •Response to "What Would Jesus Do?" •Environmental Law Students Hit the Sticks at ...


Corporate Defendants And The Protections Of Criminal Procedure: An Economic Analysis, Vikramaditya S. Khanna Sep 2004

Corporate Defendants And The Protections Of Criminal Procedure: An Economic Analysis, Vikramaditya S. Khanna

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Corporations are frequently treated as “persons” under the law. One of the fundamental questions associated with this treatment is whether corporations should receive the same Constitutional protections and guarantees as natural persons. In particular, should corporations receive the Constitutional protections of Criminal Procedure? After all, corporations cannot be sent to jail so the sanctions they face are essentially the same as in civil proceedings. If so, then why not have the same procedural protections for corporate defendants in civil and criminal cases? Little scholarly analysis has focused on this issue from an economic perspective and this article aims to fill ...


Vol. 55, No. 3, September 14, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 2004

Vol. 55, No. 3, September 14, 2004, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Large and Taking Charge: A Class of 2007 Profile •Student Org Fair Should Last All Year Long •Ann Arbor's Edible Delights Revealed •An M-Law Welcome to New Students from LSSS •Thirty Minutes with Professor Friedman •Law Students Hit the Streets for Kerry •First Year Students: Don't Panic! Use These Lifestyle Tips •Got a Fly-Back? Voucher it, and Fund a Fellowship •OCI: It's Not Just for Breakfast Anymore •A Survey of Summer Music Releases •Saved by the Bell: Reflections on (Finally) Growing Up •Pro-Life Students Should Organize •Shoot to Kill: The First Week from a Trigger Happy 1L ...


Sex, Shame, And The Law: An Economic Perspective On Megan's Law, Doron Teichman Sep 2004

Sex, Shame, And The Law: An Economic Perspective On Megan's Law, Doron Teichman

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article focuses on the question, how should policymakers aiming to minimize the cost of sanctioning utilize legal and nonlegal sanctions when designing a system of criminal sanctions. After presenting the general economic case for the use of nonlegal sanctions the article turns to present a model of shaming, which unlike existing models, incorporates the endogenous effects of legal and nonlegal sanctions. This model demonstrates that tailoring an efficient regime that combines legal and nonlegal sanctions might be more difficult than previously perceived by law and economics scholars. A specific case study presented in this article is of the current ...


The Market For Criminal Justice: Federalism, Crime Control And Jurisdictional Competition, Doron Teichman Sep 2004

The Market For Criminal Justice: Federalism, Crime Control And Jurisdictional Competition, Doron Teichman

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

For the most part, the United States has a decentralized criminal justice system. State legislatures define the majority of crimes and set out the punishments for those crimes. In addition, the enforcement of criminal laws lies, in most cases, in the hands of local law enforcement agencies. This article points out how this decentralized structure drives local jurisdictions to harshen their criminal justice system in order to displace crime to neighboring jurisdictions. More precisely, local jurisdictions can attempt to displace crime in two distinct ways. First, they can raise the expected sanction to a level that is higher than that ...


Economic Theories Of Bundling And Their Policy Implications In Abuse Cases: An Assessment In Light Of The Mircrosoft Case, Kai-Uwe Kuhn Sep 2004

Economic Theories Of Bundling And Their Policy Implications In Abuse Cases: An Assessment In Light Of The Mircrosoft Case, Kai-Uwe Kuhn

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.