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University of Michigan Law School

2002

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Back To The 1930s? The Shaky Case For Exempting Dividends, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2002

Back To The 1930s? The Shaky Case For Exempting Dividends, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Articles

This article is based in part on the author’s U.S. Branch Report for Subject I of the 2003 Annual Congress of the International Fiscal Association, to be held next year in Sydney, Australia (forthcoming in Cahiers de droit fiscal international, 2003). He would like to thank Emil Sunley for his helpful comments on that earlier version, and Steve Bank, Michael Barr, David Bradford, Michael Graetz, and David Hasen for comments on this version. Special thanks are due to Yoram Keinan for his meticulous work on the EU regimes (see Appendix). All errors are the author’s. In this ...


Vol. 53, No. 6, December 3, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School Dec 2002

Vol. 53, No. 6, December 3, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Clothing Drive Succeeds Again •Faculty Profile: Andy Buchsbaum •Asst. AG, Former Prof. Returns to Speak at UMLS •Law School to Build Big •CrimLaw Society Career Panel •Veteran Defender Gives Talk on Post-9/11 Detainees •Affirmative Action Insider Speaks •Crossword


'A Time To Build' - William W. Cook And His Architects: Edward York And Philip Sawyer, Margaret A. Leary Dec 2002

'A Time To Build' - William W. Cook And His Architects: Edward York And Philip Sawyer, Margaret A. Leary

Articles

The following narrative outlines the role of donor William W. cook and the architects who built the Law Quadrangle 70 years ago. The report is excerpted and adapted from 94 Law Library Journal 395-425 (2002-26). The author is director of the University of Michigan Law School's Law Library.


What Is And Is Not Pathological In Criminal Law, Kyron Huigens Dec 2002

What Is And Is Not Pathological In Criminal Law, Kyron Huigens

Michigan Law Review

In a recent article in this law review, William J. Stuntz argues that criminal law in the United States suffers from a political pathology. The incentives of legislators are such that the notorious overcriminalization of American society is deep as well as broad. That is, not only are remote corners of life subject to criminal penalties - such things as tearing tags off mattresses and overworking animals - but now crimes are defined with the express design of easing the way to conviction. Is proof of a tangible harm an obstacle to using wire and mail fraud statutes to prosecute political misconduct ...


Reply: Criminal Law's Pathology, William J. Stuntz Dec 2002

Reply: Criminal Law's Pathology, William J. Stuntz

Michigan Law Review

I thank Kyron Huigens for devoting his time and his considerable talent to responding to my article, The Pathological Politics of Criminal Law. I also thank editors of the Michigan Law Review for giving me the opportunity to reply. It is best to begin by defining the contested territory. Huigens and I agree (I think) on three propositions. First, American criminal law, both federal and state, is very broad; it covers a great deal more conduct than most people would expect. Second, American criminal law is very deep: that which it criminalizes, it criminalizes repeatedly, so that a single incident ...


Recent Books, Michigan Law Review Dec 2002

Recent Books, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A list of books recenlty received by Michigan Law Review.


Safe, But Not Sound: Limiting Safe Harbor Immunity For Health And Disability Insurers And Self-Insured Employers Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Rachel Schneller Ziegler Dec 2002

Safe, But Not Sound: Limiting Safe Harbor Immunity For Health And Disability Insurers And Self-Insured Employers Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Rachel Schneller Ziegler

Michigan Law Review

When Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA") on July 26, 1990, supporters heralded the Act as a full-scale victory for the 43 million disabled Americans. The Act's protections went far beyond those of its predecessor, the Rehabilitation Act of 1974, which only prohibited discrimination against individuals with disabilities by entities receiving federal funding. The new act was intended to prevent discrimination by private and public employers, public services, and public accommodations. In a bill signing ceremony at the White House, in front of more than two thousand advocates for the disabled, then President George Bush likened the ...


Road Work: Racial Profiling And Drug Interdiction On The Highway, Samuel R. Gross, Katherine Y. Barnes Dec 2002

Road Work: Racial Profiling And Drug Interdiction On The Highway, Samuel R. Gross, Katherine Y. Barnes

Michigan Law Review

Hypocrisy about race is hardly new in America, but the content changes. Recently the spotlight has been on racial profiling. The story of Colonel Carl Williams of the New Jersey State Police is a wellknown example. On Sunday, February 28, 1999, the Newark Star Ledger published a lengthy interview with Williams in which he talked about race and drugs: "Today . . . the drug problem is cocaine or marijuana. It is most likely a minority group that's involved with that. " Williams condemned racial profiling - "As far as racial profiling is concerned, that is absolutely not right. It never has been condoned ...


The Principle And Practice Of Women's "Full Citizenship": A Case Study Of Sex-Segregated Public Education, Jill Elaine Hasday Dec 2002

The Principle And Practice Of Women's "Full Citizenship": A Case Study Of Sex-Segregated Public Education, Jill Elaine Hasday

Michigan Law Review

For more than a quarter century, the Supreme Court has repeatedly declared that sex-based state action is subject to heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause. But the Court has always been much less clear about what that standard allows and what it prohibits. For this reason, it is especially noteworthy that one of the Court's most recent sex discrimination opinions, United States v. Virginia, purports to provide more coherent guidance. Virginia suggests that the constitutionality of sex-based state action turns on whether the practice at issue denies women "full citizenship stature" or "create[s) or perpetuate[s) the ...


Vol. 53, No. 5, November 19, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 2002

Vol. 53, No. 5, November 19, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Reading Between the Lines: A Look at Law School Class Offerings •And Down the Stretch They Come! •Recent Graduate Highlights Public Interest Path •More than a 1L: Analyzing the Summer Start Program •Tales from a Swami: NBA 2002-03 Preview •Review: Bowling for Columbine •Music to Learn to •3Ls Challenged to Pledge Money


Internalizing Outsider Trading, Ian Ayres, Stephen Choi Nov 2002

Internalizing Outsider Trading, Ian Ayres, Stephen Choi

Michigan Law Review

Investing in the United States has become a hobby for many. Individual ownership of equity, moreover, has increased over the past decade due in part to the introduction of internet-based trading. While providing the possibility for greater returns compared with bank savings accounts, among other investment alternatives, the public capital markets also pose greater risks for investors. Many individual investors lack both the resources and the incentive to analyze the value of any particular security in the market. Such investors thus trade at a systematic disadvantage relative to more informed parties. In response, regulators have asserted that certain informational disparities ...


Medicaid And The Unconstitutional Dimensions Of Prior Authorization, Jagan Nicholas Ranjan Nov 2002

Medicaid And The Unconstitutional Dimensions Of Prior Authorization, Jagan Nicholas Ranjan

Michigan Law Review

The political outcry over prescription drug costs has been one of the most vociferous in recent memory. From tales depicting renegade seniors sneaking cheap prescriptions of Vioxx out of Tijuana across the border, to the promises of reduced prices made by front-runners during the 2000 Presidential election, the calls for lower drug prices have been forceful and demanding. This war for lower-priced pharmaceuticals fought by consumers, interest groups and politicians against the pharmaceutical industry itself has recently developed yet another front. The latest battle is over Medicaid. The new victims are the poor. Presently, federal statutory provisions in the Medicaid ...


Copyright And Time: A Proposal, Joseph P. Liu Nov 2002

Copyright And Time: A Proposal, Joseph P. Liu

Michigan Law Review

This Article makes a very specific and concrete proposal: it argues that courts should adjust the scope of copyright protection to account for the passage of time by expressly considering time as a factor in fair use analysis. More specifically, this Article argues that the older a copyrighted work is, the greater the scope of fair use should be - that is, the greater the ability of others to re-use, critique, transform, and adapt the copyrighted work without permission of the copyright owner. Conversely, the newer the work, the narrower the scope of fair use. Or, even more concretely, this Article ...


The Fable Of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, And Legal Policy, Avishalom Tor Nov 2002

The Fable Of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, And Legal Policy, Avishalom Tor

Michigan Law Review

Legal scholars have recently advanced a behavioral approach to the law and economics school of thought in an attempt to improve its external validity and predictive power. The hallmark of this new approach is the replacement of the perfectly rational actor with a "boundedly rational" decisionmaker who, apart from being affected by emotion and motivation, has only limited cognitive resources. To function effectively in a complex :world, boundedly rational individuals must rely on cognitive heuristics - simplifying mental shortcuts - that inevitably lead people to make some systematic decision errors; as a result, their behavior necessarily deviates from that predicted by rational ...


Towards Tribal Sovereignty And Judicial Efficiency: Ordering The Defenses Of Tribal Sovereign Immunity And Exhaustion Of Tribal Remedies, Kirsten Matoy Carlson Nov 2002

Towards Tribal Sovereignty And Judicial Efficiency: Ordering The Defenses Of Tribal Sovereign Immunity And Exhaustion Of Tribal Remedies, Kirsten Matoy Carlson

Michigan Law Review

In 1985, the Narragansett Indian Tribe ("Tribe") created the Narragansett Indian Wetuornuck Housing Authority ("Authority"). The Authority, which acts on the Tribe's behalf in its housing development and operations, entered into a contract with the Ninigret Development Corporation for the construction of a low-income housing development. After construction began, disputes developed over how to proceed with the construction. When conciliation efforts failed, the Authority cancelled the contract. The Narragansett Tribal Council, the governing body of the Tribe, followed the forum selection clause in the contract and notified the disputants that it would hold a hearing to resolve the dispute ...


Vol. 53, No. 4, October 29, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2002

Vol. 53, No. 4, October 29, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•LSSS Approves Controversial Funding Allocations •Who Are You Supposed to Be? •Horror in the Quad: A Victim Speaks •Faculty Laud Judicial Clerkships •Professor Molly Van Houweling •Alumna On Affirmative Action •When Mr. Caminker Went to Washington •1Ls Get Hands Dirty for Public Service •A Crash Course: Michigan No-Fault Law •Judge Shares Thoughts on ConLaw •Fantasy B-ball Secrets •Crossword


Vol. 53, No. 3, October 15, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 2002

Vol. 53, No. 3, October 15, 2002, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Webcast Classes Could Change Law School Forever •Bottom of the Pile •Fast Times at Small Firms •Student Profile: Meet Maren Norton •Excerpt from the Diary of lawstudents@umich.edu •Lunch for Two •Interpol: Turn on the Bright Lights •Nashville: 1 Part Vegas + 1 Part New Orleans, Shake Vigorously •Crossword


Best Mode: A Plea To Repair Or Sacrifice This Broken Requirement Of United States Patent Law, Steven B. Walmsley Oct 2002

Best Mode: A Plea To Repair Or Sacrifice This Broken Requirement Of United States Patent Law, Steven B. Walmsley

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

An inventor's obligation to disclose the best mode of her invention is strong consideration in the U.S. patent bargain, but the courts paradoxically define the scope of that obligation, thus rendering the enforcement of U.S. patents unreasonably unpredictable. If an inventor cannot reasonably foresee the scope of her obligation to disclose invention details, then she is subjected to the costs and risks of either overcompliance or undercompliance with the best mode requirement. The scope of the best mode requirement should either be reliably defined by an en banc ruling of the Court of Appeals for the Federal ...


Researching Remedies In Intellectual Property Actions Involving Computer Technology: A Research Guide, Daniel N. Kassabian Oct 2002

Researching Remedies In Intellectual Property Actions Involving Computer Technology: A Research Guide, Daniel N. Kassabian

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The purpose of this research guide is not to answer the question "What remedies are available to an owner of computer related technology whose rights have been infringed?" but to provide a methodology by which a legal practitioner can find the answer to this question. This guide sets forth materials and methods of research that can be used for an inquiry that is broad in scope, such as researching which legal scheme's remedial component best suits a client's technology, but that are also capable of being used for a narrow or limited inquiry, such as looking for specific ...


Quibbles'n Bits: Making A Digital First Sale Doctrine Feasible, Victor F. Calaba Oct 2002

Quibbles'n Bits: Making A Digital First Sale Doctrine Feasible, Victor F. Calaba

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Whereas the first sale doctrine historically permitted the transfer and resale of copyrighted works, license agreements used by software companies and the DMCA's strict rules prohibiting tampering with access control devices frustrate exercise of the first sale doctrine with respect to many forms of digital works[...] This article explores the first sale doctrine as it pertains to digital works and proposes ways to make a digital first sale doctrine feasible. Part II describes the first sale doctrine as it has traditionally been applied to non-digital works. Part III discusses modern technology's impact on the distribution and use of ...


Constitutional Issues In Information Privacy, Fred H. Cate, Robert Litan Oct 2002

Constitutional Issues In Information Privacy, Fred H. Cate, Robert Litan

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The U.S. Constitution has been largely ignored in the recent flurry of privacy laws and regulations designed to protect personal information from incursion by the private sector despite the fact that many of these enactments and efforts to enforce them significantly implicate the First Amendment. Questions about the role of the Constitution have assumed new importance in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Recent efforts to identify and apprehend terrorists and to protect against future attacks threaten to weaken constitutional protections against government intrusions into personal privacy. However ...


Business Method Patents And Their Limits: Justifications, History, And The Emergence Of A Claim Construction Jurisprudence, Nicholas A. Smith Oct 2002

Business Method Patents And Their Limits: Justifications, History, And The Emergence Of A Claim Construction Jurisprudence, Nicholas A. Smith

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Scholars, practitioners, and even popular media spilled much ink over business method patents in the late 1990s, eager to discuss the shift in jurisprudence that enabled patent holders to enforce business method patents for the first time. Since that initial period of excitement--during which businesses filed record numbers of applications for business method patents, and numerous articles tracing the doctrinal shift were published--commentators have written little on the topic. Various patent holders, however, have since litigated business method patent claims. During these first few years after judicial endorsement of business method patents, such litigation has focused on the scope of ...


One For A, Two For B, And Four Hundred For C: The Widening Gap In Pay Between Executives And Rank And File Employees, Susan J. Stabile Oct 2002

One For A, Two For B, And Four Hundred For C: The Widening Gap In Pay Between Executives And Rank And File Employees, Susan J. Stabile

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article, focuses on executive pay in relation to that of rank and file workers. It examines the standard justifications for the vast and increasing pay gap between executives (particularly CEOs) and rank and file workers and finds that such arguments do little more than attempt to justify in economic terms a situation that exists for a very different reason. Instead, the author argues, the real reason such a huge and widening gap in pay between executive and rank and file workers exists is market failure in the mechanisms of setting executive pay, aggravated by the shareholder primacy norm, which ...


Regret Theory - Explanation, Evaluation And Implications For The Law, Grant B. Gelberg Oct 2002

Regret Theory - Explanation, Evaluation And Implications For The Law, Grant B. Gelberg

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note discusses regret theory, which offers an alternative explanation of rational behavior in risky or uncertain situations. Unlike traditional law and economics, which is based on expected utility theory, regret theory posits that individuals either rejoice or experience regret after making a decision, and that the anticipation of these feelings influences choices ex ante. In recent years, studies have shown the robustness of regret theory, particularly when individuals compare action to inaction, in disparate feedback environments, and when decisional agency is altered. These, and other factors, influence regret theory's impact on litigant behavior, as well as on the ...


Behavioral Genetics And The Best Interests Of The Child Decision Rule, David J. Herring Oct 2002

Behavioral Genetics And The Best Interests Of The Child Decision Rule, David J. Herring

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article proposes that modern child custody law should be reassessed in light of recent scientific findings. Judicial determinations of custody use the "best interests of the child" rule. The rule is justified to a large extent by the goal of maximizing child developmental outcomes. The assumption is that a child whose "best interests" are protected stands a better chance of becoming a socially well-adjusted, productive and prosperous citizen.

Recent child development studies have shown that so-called "shared environment, "or home environment factors have little effect on child development so long as the shared environment is minimally adequate. Genetics and ...


Who's Talking? Disentangling Government And Private Speech, Leslie Gielow Jacobs Oct 2002

Who's Talking? Disentangling Government And Private Speech, Leslie Gielow Jacobs

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Several different constitutional rules apply to government actions that influence the content of speech. The government has far more discretion to determine speech content when the government itself is the speaker than when it regulates private speakers. Specifically, in the former circumstance, the government can discriminate according to viewpoint, whereas in the latter circumstance it cannot. While the application of the rules may be obvious when either the government or private entities speak alone, increasingly, through various different types of interactions, government and private groups or individuals are speaking together. This circumstance complicates the crucial constitutional determination, which is: who ...


Theorizing Behavioral Law And Economics: A Defense Of Evolutionary Analysis And The Law, Neel P. Parekh Oct 2002

Theorizing Behavioral Law And Economics: A Defense Of Evolutionary Analysis And The Law, Neel P. Parekh

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Behavioral law and economics (BLE) provides a steady stream of empirical evidence that counters the predictions of law and economics. Despite this research and data, however, many theorists argue that BLE ultimately fails because it posits no underlying theory. This Note argues that perspectives from evolutionary biology, evolutionary psychology, and the brain sciences can provide the missing motivational theory for BLE's empirical findings. The Note also examines the implications a more consistent and reasoned consideration of evolutionary analysis and the law (EA) has for our legal regime. In theorizing BLE and defending EA, this Note aims to show how ...


The Fourth Amendment In The Hallway: Do Tenants Have A Constitutionally Protected Privacy Interest In The Locked Common Areas Of Their Apartment Buildings?, Sean M. Lewis Oct 2002

The Fourth Amendment In The Hallway: Do Tenants Have A Constitutionally Protected Privacy Interest In The Locked Common Areas Of Their Apartment Buildings?, Sean M. Lewis

Michigan Law Review

One afternoon, a police officer spots a man driving a Cadillac through a run·down neighborhood. His interest piqued, the officer decides to follow the vehicle. The Cadillac soon comes to rest in front of an apartment building, and the driver, Jimmy Barrios-Moriera, removes a shopping bag from the trunk and enters the building. The moment Barrios-Moriera disappears within the doorway, the officer sprints after him because he knows that the door to the apartment building will automatically lock when it closes. He manages to catch the door just in time and rushes in. Barrios-Moriera is already halfway up a ...


Legal Orientalism, Teemu Ruskola Oct 2002

Legal Orientalism, Teemu Ruskola

Michigan Law Review

Fifty years ago comparative law was a field in search of a paradigm. In the inaugural issue of the American Journal of Comparative Law in 1952, Myres McDougal remarked unhappily, "The greatest confusion continues to prevail about what is being compared, about the purposes of comparison, and about appropriate techniques." In short, there seemed to be very little in the field that was not in a state of confusion. Two decades later, referring to McDougal's bleak assessment, John Merryman saw no evidence of progress: "few comparative lawyers would suggest that matters have since improved." And only a few years ...


Suspecting The States: Supreme Court Review Of State-Court State-Law Judgments, Laura S. Fitzgerald Oct 2002

Suspecting The States: Supreme Court Review Of State-Court State-Law Judgments, Laura S. Fitzgerald

Michigan Law Review

At the Supreme Court these days, it is unfashionable to second-guess states' fealty to federal law without real proof that they are ignoring it. As the Court declared in Alden v. Maine: "We are unwilling to assume the States will refuse to honor the Constitution or obey the binding laws of the United States. The good faith of the States thus provides an important assurance that 'this Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof ... shall be the supreme Law of the Land.'" Accordingly, without proof that a state has "systematic[ally]" shirked ...