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Full-Text Articles in Law

Zoning Law In Michigan And New Jersey: A Comparative Study, Roger A. Cunningham May 1965

Zoning Law In Michigan And New Jersey: A Comparative Study, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

It is one thesis of this article that the "lawyer's view" has generally prevailed in Michigan and that the "planner's view" has generally prevailed in New Jersey. Since the zoning law of these two states is thus fairly representative of the opposing judicial attitudes set forth in the preceding paragraph, they are especially suitable for comparative study. This study begins with a look at the constitutional bases and statutory provisions for zoning. It then proceeds to examine judicial attitudes toward zoning determinations in general and continues by focusing on specific current zoning problems. The conclusions to be drawn ...


Conservation And Rehabilitation Of Housing: An Idea Approaches Adolescence, J. Michael Warren Mar 1965

Conservation And Rehabilitation Of Housing: An Idea Approaches Adolescence, J. Michael Warren

Michigan Law Review

From the time of construction, buildings are subject to the physical elements, the wear and tear of time, and the constant march of progress which transforms yesterday's luxuries into today's necessities. Left unchecked, these forces tend to produce the slums and blight that traditionally have been the curse of urban areas. Private, charitable, and civic organizations were the first to deal with the problem of improving conditions in slum areas. Later, state and local governments joined the effort, and although they were somewhat more successful than the pioneers in the field, without federal assistance the task proved to ...


Purely Economic Justifications Sufficient To Permit Exercise Of Federal Eminent Domain Power--United States V. Certain Parcels Of Land, Michigan Law Review Jan 1965

Purely Economic Justifications Sufficient To Permit Exercise Of Federal Eminent Domain Power--United States V. Certain Parcels Of Land, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

The federal government, pursuant to authorizing statutes, sought to condemn defendant's land, alleging that it was needed as a source of fill for a section of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Defendant offered proof demonstrating that commercial fill could easily be purchased within the immediate area, that it was therefore not necessary for the government to condemn any land in order to complete the construction of the highway, and that his land was zoned "light industrial" and was thus ideally suited for future development. Employing the usual stringent proof requirements, the court granted the government's ...


Latin-American Land Reform: The Uses Of Confiscation, Kenneth L. Karst Dec 1964

Latin-American Land Reform: The Uses Of Confiscation, Kenneth L. Karst

Michigan Law Review

This article examines the legislative techniques for taking land, showing their confiscatory operation. For many lawyers, the analysis would then be easily completed: confiscation is wrongful and must be condemned. Rejecting the implicit absolutism of that conclusion, this article inquires into the justifications that can be pleaded on behalf of selective confiscation as an aid in solving some of Latin America's economic and social ills.


New Values Under Old Oil And Gas Leases: Helium, Who Owns It?, C. Douglas Kranwinkle May 1964

New Values Under Old Oil And Gas Leases: Helium, Who Owns It?, C. Douglas Kranwinkle

Michigan Law Review

It is a well known maxim among oil and gas lawyers that "a producing well always clouds a title and a dry hole cures it." A variation of that maxim might be applied to producing wells which may or may not include, as by-products of the primary mineral, other substances that are extractible and valuable. Of course, once production of by-products begins, conveyancers give special attention to these resources, but many instruments executed before such development may be phrased in general terms without specific mention of substances unimportant when the conveyance was made. Even a recent instrument may lack specificity ...


Eminent Domain-Urban Renewal-Broader Powers To Take Private Property For Public Use, Roger L. Mcmanus Apr 1964

Eminent Domain-Urban Renewal-Broader Powers To Take Private Property For Public Use, Roger L. Mcmanus

Michigan Law Review

Defendant city instituted a comprehensive urban redevelopment plan under which condemnation and purchase of blighted property would be followed by extensive demolition and clearance. This land was then to be sold subject to certain use restrictions to private developers, chiefly for light industry. Plaintiff, an owner of real estate described as "improved and enhanced with . . . a good, sound, sanitary, modem and well-kept building," brought an action in a lower state court seeking a declaratory judgment against the constitutionality of the Washington Urban Renewal Law, and an injunction to prevent defendant city from condemning his property under the statute. The owner ...


Municipal Corporations-Master Plans-Power Of Cities To Zone For Future Conditions, Walter A. Urick Nov 1963

Municipal Corporations-Master Plans-Power Of Cities To Zone For Future Conditions, Walter A. Urick

Michigan Law Review

After purchasing land which was subject to a zoning ordinance requiring a minimum lot size of 21,780 square feet, plaintiffs, real estate developers, challenged the ordinance as unreasonable and confiscatory. Defendant city argued that the ordinance was based upon a comprehensive master plan and had the purpose of limiting future density of population in accordance with sewage capacity. On appeal from the circuit court order invalidating the zoning ordinance as applied to plaintiff's property, held, judgment affirmed, three judges dissenting. A city zoning ordinance requiring a minimum lot size for the purpose of limiting future density of population ...


Zoning--Townships--Complete Exclusion Of Trailer Camps And Parks, Rolfe A. Worden S.Ed. Mar 1963

Zoning--Townships--Complete Exclusion Of Trailer Camps And Parks, Rolfe A. Worden S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff challenged the validity of an amendment to the zoning ordinance of the defendant township which barred all trailer camps and parks from its industrial district. As trailer parks had previously been zoned out of the business, residential, and agricultural districts, this amendment had the effect of completely excluding them from the entire township, although approximately half of its twenty-three square miles consisted of open rural area. The parties stipulated that the plans of the plaintiff, who wanted to develop a trailer park on his premises, met all of the applicable health standards. The trial court sustained the amendment, but ...


Mandelker: Green Belts And Urban Growth, Curtis J. Berger Jan 1963

Mandelker: Green Belts And Urban Growth, Curtis J. Berger

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Green Belts and Urban Growth. By Daniel R. Mandelker


Simpson: An Introduction To The History Of The Land Law, Daniel M. Schuyler Jan 1962

Simpson: An Introduction To The History Of The Land Law, Daniel M. Schuyler

Michigan Law Review

A Review of AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE LAND LAW. By A. W. B. Simpson.


Constitutional Law-Eminent Domain-Master Flight Plan As A Taking Of Land Under Approach Area To Municipal Airport, Ralph L. Wright S. Ed Nov 1961

Constitutional Law-Eminent Domain-Master Flight Plan As A Taking Of Land Under Approach Area To Municipal Airport, Ralph L. Wright S. Ed

Michigan Law Review

Plaintiff owned land adjacent to the Greater Pittsburgh Airport which lay under an approach area for one of the runways. Allegheny County, in compliance with rules and regulations of the Civil Aeronautics Authority, drafted a "Master Plan," approved by the CAA, which showed the approach area over part of plaintiff's property. Plaintiff sued to recover damages from the county, owner and operator of the airport, alleging an appropriation of his land because of the substantial interference with its use and enjoyment caused by flights at low altitudes above his land during landings and take-offs. Upon an award of damages ...


Real Property - Easements By Implication - Creation Of Easements By Implied Reservations In Michigan, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1961

Real Property - Easements By Implication - Creation Of Easements By Implied Reservations In Michigan, Ralph W. Aigler

Michigan Law Review

In 1910 K occupied an "old" house located on the westerly portion of her lot fronting on H Street. She built a "new" house on the east side of the lot, moved into it, and rented the "old" house to tenants. As a means of access to the west side and rear of the "new" house, she built and used a sidewalk which led from H Street between the two houses and which was one foot from the west side of the "new" house. This walk "was the only outdoor means of access to the new house's coal chute."


Constitutional Law - Due Process - Zoning Restrictions Requiring Land Owners To Provide Off-Street Parking, Eldon Olson May 1960

Constitutional Law - Due Process - Zoning Restrictions Requiring Land Owners To Provide Off-Street Parking, Eldon Olson

Michigan Law Review

In 1956 the City of Denver passed an ordinance requiring land owners to provide off-street parking if and when they erect new buildings or make structural alterations or change the existing use of the land. The restriction applied to a district adjacent to the traditional downtown district which was in the process of changing from residential to commercial. The ordinance did not specify whether the property owners retained control over parking areas, but the city argued that parking could be restricted to persons using the property. Plaintiff property owners alleged the ordinance was unconstitutional and were granted a declaratory judgment ...


Priorities: Ii, Edgar N. Durfee Mar 1959

Priorities: Ii, Edgar N. Durfee

Michigan Law Review

This is the second part of "Priorities" (also known as "Little Nemo") which was taken from Professor Durfee's teaching materials. The first part was published in the February issue-which was dedicated to the memory of Professor Durfee.


Priorities, Edgar N. Durfee Feb 1959

Priorities, Edgar N. Durfee

Michigan Law Review

Among those of Edgar Durfee's colleagues who were familiar with this paper it came to be known as "Little Nemo," for a reason that will become apparent to the reader. It is taken from his mimeographed Cases on Security, third edition, published in 1938. Possibly it was published earlier but there is a gap in the evidence. It did not appear in the first edition published in 1934 but no copy of the second edition has been located. In a few places its age shows, for example in the reference to Walsh as the author of the most recent ...


Taxation - Federal Income Tax - Involuntary Conversion Treatment Afforded Sale Of Remaining Property After Partial Condemnation, Stevan Uzelac Feb 1959

Taxation - Federal Income Tax - Involuntary Conversion Treatment Afforded Sale Of Remaining Property After Partial Condemnation, Stevan Uzelac

Michigan Law Review

Petitioner owned two parcels of real estate across the street from each other which were used as one "economic unit" for purposes of a trucking terminal. One parcel was improved with a terminal building from which trucks would pick up and deliver their shipments, while the other was used as a parking lot for trucks not in use. Petitioner was forced to sell the parking lot under threat of condemnation. Since it was economically unfeasible to operate his business without a nearby parking lot, petitioner subsequently sold the terminal facilities and reinvested the proceeds from the sales of both properties ...


Municipal Corporations - Zoning - Disqualification Of Councilman For Personal Interest, Joel N. Simon Jan 1959

Municipal Corporations - Zoning - Disqualification Of Councilman For Personal Interest, Joel N. Simon

Michigan Law Review

An amendatory zoning ordinance was enacted by the city council of Miami Beach for the purpose of changing the zoning of an extensive area fronting on the Atlantic Ocean from a private residential to a hotel district. The amendment received the required affirmative votes of five of the seven members of the council, including the vote of one councilman who owned land in the area affected by the amendment which would be increased in value by $500,000 because of the zoning change. Plaintiffs, owners of near-by property, filed suit in the circuit court to have the amendatory ordinance declared ...


Acquisition And Protection Of Water Supplies By Municipalities, Wilbert L. Ziegler Jan 1959

Acquisition And Protection Of Water Supplies By Municipalities, Wilbert L. Ziegler

Michigan Law Review

Among the prime functions of a municipal government is the furnishing of a potable supply of water for its inhabitants. In view of the increasing demand for water and the shortage of available supply, a number of problems have been or will be encountered by municipalities in fulfilling that function, apart from the problem of financing.


Law Of Oil And Gas, Iv, James A. Veasey Dec 1920

Law Of Oil And Gas, Iv, James A. Veasey

Michigan Law Review

This clause follows the grant, and is one of the most distinctive features of the modern oil and gas lease. Occasionally the duration of the lease is fixed by the granting clause; some times by a miscellaneous provision appearing therein. But generally speaking, the habenduin defines the term of the present-day oil and gas lease. At any rate a discussion of the legal effect of the habendum clause which now characterizes these instruments will involve the treatment of every important question which arises under this heading. At the outset we should observe that the clause is the direct result of ...


Law Of Oil And Gas, James E. Veasey Jun 1920

Law Of Oil And Gas, James E. Veasey

Michigan Law Review

The lessor hereby grants to the lessee, his heirs and assigns, the exclusive right to mine and produce from the following described land petroleum and natural gas, with possession of so much of such land as may be necessary for such purpose.


Law Of Oil And Gas, James A. Veasey May 1920

Law Of Oil And Gas, James A. Veasey

Michigan Law Review

The questions heretofore considered are general in their scope, and were treated for the purpose of providing a background for the more intensive study upon which we must now enter. While commentators refer to this branch of jurisprudence as the "Law of Oil and Gas," it is more exact to say that .we are dealing with the law pertaining to oil and gas leases. This is true because the oil and gas lease characterizes and distinguishes the subject throughout. For reasons which inhere in the very nature of the business a lease yielding the lessor a royalty on the quantity ...


Law Of Oil And Gas, James A. Veasey Apr 1920

Law Of Oil And Gas, James A. Veasey

Michigan Law Review

No thoughtful observer will presume to gainsay the all-important part which the oil business plays and will continue to play in the industrial, commercial and social life of the civilized world. Long before the great war this fact was deeply impressive, and was generally recognized. At the end of that conflict it was said with much truth that the Allies had floated to victory upon a sea of oil. Now, standing as we are at the threshold of a new era rich in industrial and commercial promise, no man can foresee nor even approximate the mighty expansion which will characterize ...