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Full-Text Articles in Law

Reflections On Stare Decisis In Michigan: The Rise And Fall Of The "Rezoning As Administrative Act" Doctrine, Roger A. Cunningham May 1977

Reflections On Stare Decisis In Michigan: The Rise And Fall Of The "Rezoning As Administrative Act" Doctrine, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

In an earlier article in this law review, I discussed the new doctrine that in certain municipalities a decision by the local governing body to rezone or not to rezone land should be deemed an "administrative" or "quasi-judicial," rather than a "legislative," act. This doctrine was introduced into Michigan law several years ago in a series of opinions signed by only three justices of the Michigan Supreme Court. The earlier article dealt principally with the merits of the new "rezoning as administrative act" doctrine. The present article discusses troublesome aspects of the Michigan Supreme Court's attitude toward the principle ...


The Legal And Institutional Framework For An Airport Noise-Compatibility Land Use Program, Mark Kantor Apr 1977

The Legal And Institutional Framework For An Airport Noise-Compatibility Land Use Program, Mark Kantor

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This article will assess the constitutionality of zoning to promote noise-compatible development and the problems of establishing an institutional framework for such land use management. Particular attention will be paid to the location of authority to administer a noise-compatibility program and to procedures for enforcing the program's goals.


Proprietary Duties Of The Federal Government Under The Public Land Trust, Michigan Law Review Jan 1977

Proprietary Duties Of The Federal Government Under The Public Land Trust, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note examines one mechanism by which the courts might supervise public land administration: the common-law public land trust. It contends that by implementing this trust, which is a means of enforcing the government's responsibility for property held in a proprietary capacity, the courts can rectify their neglect of the public lands without overstepping the boundaries of permissible judicial involvement. The trust doctrine is particularly valuable in this context because it is a source of substantive standards in situations where statutes provide little guidance. Vitalization of the public land trust, which is distinct from the more commonly known public ...


Helpless Giants: The National Parks And The Regulation Of Private Lands, Joseph L. Sax Dec 1976

Helpless Giants: The National Parks And The Regulation Of Private Lands, Joseph L. Sax

Michigan Law Review

While intrusive private activities have increased all around them, park managers have stood by nervously, sensing that they were caring for helpless giants. The Park Service is aware that Congress has given it very little explicit authority to regulate private lands, but underlying Park Service hesitancy to act is a more profound concern about the constitutional power of the federal government to control private land uses near and within the parks. These constitutional doubts, though largely misconceived, arise out of a complex set of issues that need to be clarified. This article first describes current administrative practice and existing legislation ...


The Role Of The Local Comprehensive Plan In Land Use Regulation, Daniel R. Mandelker Apr 1976

The Role Of The Local Comprehensive Plan In Land Use Regulation, Daniel R. Mandelker

Michigan Law Review

This article will deal with the enlarged role of the comprehensive plan in the local land use control process. Part I examines traditional judicial views of the role of the comprehensive plan as a guide to zoning administration. Part II suggests that innovations in land use control and comprehensive planning techniques evidence a need for mandatory planning. Subsequent sections examine changes in the judicial attitude toward the role of the comprehensive plan in land use control administration, and survey some enacted and proposed state legislation that modifies the early planning acts by requiring comprehensive planning. This legislation is analyzed to ...


The Inadequacy Of Judicial Remedies In Cases Of Exclusionary Zoning, Michigan Law Review Mar 1976

The Inadequacy Of Judicial Remedies In Cases Of Exclusionary Zoning, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note presents and evaluates the possible judicial responses to cases, like Mount Laurel, that involve challenges to entire zoning ordinances on exclusionary grounds. It argues that pragmatic and legal difficulties militate against any judicial imposition of affirmative relief not tailored to specific tracts of land and suggests that the most effective resolution of the problems confronted by low-income housing advocates lies in comprehensive legislative programs.


Standing To Sue Under The Model Land Development Code, Richard L. Epling Jan 1976

Standing To Sue Under The Model Land Development Code, Richard L. Epling

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Model Land Development Code was promulgated by the American Law Institute as the paradigm for state legislatures to follow when enacting land use laws for the future. The Code is not intended to create uniformity among state laws. Instead, states may use the articles of the Code as models in drafting legislation that is more specifically suited to their needs. Article Nine, which states rules of standing to participate in land use disputes, poses a potential obstacle to would-be public interest litigants. This note will explore the effect of Article Nine on citizen plaintiffs and demonstrate how its ambiguous ...


Rezoning By Amendment As An Administrative Or Quasi-Judicial Act: The "New Look" In Michigan Zoning, Roger A. Cunningham Aug 1975

Rezoning By Amendment As An Administrative Or Quasi-Judicial Act: The "New Look" In Michigan Zoning, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

The traditional view in zoning law has been that the enactment of an original zoning ordinance and any amendments thereto by a local governing body is a "legislative" act, as contrasted with the granting of a "special exception" or a "variance" by the zoning board of appeals (or board of adjustment), which is an "administrative" or "quasi-judicial" act. Recently, however, the Oregon and Washington supreme courts have challenged this view, concluding that, under some circumstances at least, the enactment of a zoning amendment should be considered an "administrative" or "quasi-judicial" act, and thus subject to more extensive judicial review. Although ...


Preferential Property Tax Treatment Of Farmland And Open Space Under Michigan Law, Ronald Henry Jan 1975

Preferential Property Tax Treatment Of Farmland And Open Space Under Michigan Law, Ronald Henry

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This note will attempt to explain the new Michigan statute and evaluate the effectiveness of this type of legislation as a means of preserving open space and farmland from conversion to more intensive use.


Condemnation Blight And The Abutting Landowner, Michigan Law Review Jan 1975

Condemnation Blight And The Abutting Landowner, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This note will discuss the plight of abutting landowners, and explore various legal theories that may provide them with some recovery against the government units involved. Because most of the theories offer only limited possibilities of recovery, the final section of the note will argue for the creation of a more appropriate remedy.


Review, David L. Callies Jan 1974

Review, David L. Callies

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Review of Public Planning and Control of Urban and Land Development, Cases and Materials by Donald G. Hagman


Beyond The Eye Of The Beholder: Aesthetics And Objectivity, Michigan Law Review Jun 1973

Beyond The Eye Of The Beholder: Aesthetics And Objectivity, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

The term "aesthetic legislation," as used in this Note, refers only to legislation that bears upon the visual character of the physical environment, rather than to legislation on problems of noise and odor. The legal system has handled problems of the latter sort much better; only the sense of sight has been left unprotected. Perhaps one reason for its neglect is that in order to make an area visually pleasing positive programs, such as zoning, must be used, as well as passive prohibitions of such noxious uses as billboards. Noise and odor problems, which can be resolved by prohibitions alone ...


Billboard Control Under The Highway Beautification Act Of 1965, Roger A. Cunningham Jun 1973

Billboard Control Under The Highway Beautification Act Of 1965, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

Although the advertising control provisions of the Highway Beautification Act of 1965 have been the subject of unremitting controversy from the date of enactment until the present time, only three substantive amendments to title I have been adopted in the intervening years. These are the amendments to subsections ( d) and (j) and the addition of a new subsection (n) all of which were adopted in 1968.


The Interrelationship Between Excusionary Subdivision Control - A Second Look, Roger A. Cunningham Jan 1973

The Interrelationship Between Excusionary Subdivision Control - A Second Look, Roger A. Cunningham

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The thesis of this article is that the conclusion set out above is both oversimplified and inaccurate. Contrary to the author's contention in his Journal article, there are "viable distinctions between zoning and subdivision control," and consequently the major exclusionary techniques available to suburban communities through "zoning" are simply not available in connection with "subdivision control." Dramatic attempts at racial exclusion through subdivision control are likely to be infrequent. Although subdivision regulations, like zoning ordinances and building codes, require expenditures by land developers which increase the cost of housing and thus tend to exclude the poor, the effect of ...


The Interrelationship Between Exclusionary Zoning And Exclusionary Subdivision Control, Robert E. Hirshon Jan 1972

The Interrelationship Between Exclusionary Zoning And Exclusionary Subdivision Control, Robert E. Hirshon

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This article will examine both exclusionary zoning and subdivision control with a view toward analyzing the assumptions common to both types of laws. The operative differences between exclusionary zoning and subdivision control may be non-existent. If this is truly the case, the judicial response to each practice should be the same.


Improved Policy Making For The Multiple Use Of Public Lands, Christopher J. Dunsky Jan 1972

Improved Policy Making For The Multiple Use Of Public Lands, Christopher J. Dunsky

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The purpose of this article is to analyze the failure of past legislative attempts to define public land policy effectively, to examine current proposals for change, and to present an alternative proposal for a clearer statutory definition of policy.


Metropolitanization And Land-Use Parochialism--Toward A Judicial Attitude, Michael H. Feiler Mar 1971

Metropolitanization And Land-Use Parochialism--Toward A Judicial Attitude, Michael H. Feiler

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of this Article is to explore those situations in which courts have given meaning to the Euclid caveat in operation, and, from those instances, to attempt to evolve a judicial approach to the problems posed by the conflict between purely local interests on the one hand and more comprehensive regional interests on the other. Four basic premises are herein indulged: (1) that strictly local zoning is unsatisfactory; (2) that new and innovative legislation will not be readily forthcoming; (3) that the burden of mediating these conflict situations will continue to fall upon the judiciary; and (4) that present ...


Constitutional Law--Equal Protection--Zoning--Snob Zoning: Must A Man's Home Be A Castle?, Michigan Law Review Dec 1970

Constitutional Law--Equal Protection--Zoning--Snob Zoning: Must A Man's Home Be A Castle?, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note will analyze and evaluate the legal theories that may be employed to attack snob zoning in the courts. First, the feasibility of attacking snob zoning via the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment will be examined. The second part of this Note will delineate alternative judicial responses to snob zoning that are couched in more conventional zoning-law terms.


Preservation Of America's Open Space: Proposal For A National Land-Use Commission, Paul N. Mccloskey Jr. May 1970

Preservation Of America's Open Space: Proposal For A National Land-Use Commission, Paul N. Mccloskey Jr.

Michigan Law Review

Environmental hazards may be divided into four types: those affecting air, those affecting water, those affecting quietude, and those affecting landscape. This Article will focus on the last of these hazards and will analyze a single aspect of it: the continuing loss of open-space lands. I suggest that this loss can be controlled only if we are willing, in the next decade, to review and to overhaul our entire basic system of land use and tax laws, accepting no present law as sacred other than the constitutional guarantee of just compensation for the taking of private property.


The Conservationists And The Public Lands: Administrative And Judicial Remedies Relating To The Use And Disposition Of The Public Lands Administered By The Department Of The Interior, Michigan Law Review May 1970

The Conservationists And The Public Lands: Administrative And Judicial Remedies Relating To The Use And Disposition Of The Public Lands Administered By The Department Of The Interior, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

The scope of the Department's functions is vast, and the statutory and regulatory materials dealing with those functions are overwhelming in their complexity and breadth. For that reason, this Comment will not seek to make an exhaustive examination of the agency's functions and procedures; rather, it will attempt to provide a selective illustration of the agency's procedures and functions and to concentrate on adjudicatory and review procedures, including judicial review. Because recent years have seen a marked increase in attention to resources and to conservation issues by persons and groups not otherwise directly concerned with the disposition ...


Marine: America The Raped: The Engineering Mentality And The Devastation Of A Continent, Owen Olpin May 1970

Marine: America The Raped: The Engineering Mentality And The Devastation Of A Continent, Owen Olpin

Michigan Law Review

A Review of America the Raped: The Engineering Mentality and the Devastation of a Continent by Gene Marine


Sovereign Immunity And Nonstatutory Review Of Federal Administrative Action: Some Conclusions From The Public-Lands Cases, Antonin Scalia Apr 1970

Sovereign Immunity And Nonstatutory Review Of Federal Administrative Action: Some Conclusions From The Public-Lands Cases, Antonin Scalia

Michigan Law Review

The purpose of the present Article is not to propose yet another route toward logical reconciliation of the sovereign-immunity cases; but, on the contrary, to urge general acceptance of the fact that such reconciliation is, and will probably remain, unattainable; to explain why this is so; and to suggest why it is not so bad. This modest goal will be attempted through a detailed examination of two recent Supreme Court cases and their most pertinent antecedents.


The Public Trust Doctrine In Natural Resource Law: Effective Judicial Intervention, Joseph L. Sax Jan 1970

The Public Trust Doctrine In Natural Resource Law: Effective Judicial Intervention, Joseph L. Sax

Michigan Law Review

Public concern about environmental quality is beginning to be felt in the courtroom. Private citizens, no longer willing to accede to the efforts of administrative agencies to protect the public interest, have begun to take the initiative themselves. One dramatic result is a proliferation of lawsuits in which citizens, demanding judicial recognition of their rights as members of the public, sue the very governmental agencies which are supposed to be protecting the public interest. While this Article was being written, several dozen such suits were initiated-to enforce air and water pollution laws in states where public agencies have been created ...


Overcoming Barriers To Scattered-Site Low-Cost Housing, Darrel J. Grinstead Apr 1969

Overcoming Barriers To Scattered-Site Low-Cost Housing, Darrel J. Grinstead

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The effect of most zoning devices which have been used in suburban and non-ghetto city planning in the past few decades has been to erect substantial economic barriers around entire cities. These devices include minimum lot size requirements, density zoning, frontage requirements, single family restrictions, and minimum living space requirements. While such zoning practices may not be exclusionary in purpose, exclusion of minority groups has been the result. Moreover, since most minorities are heavily concentrated in low income groups, economic segregation will bring about a high degree of racial and ethnic segregation. Indeed, it has been suggested that these economic ...


Commonwealth Of Puerto Rico V. Rosso: Land Banking And The Expanded Concept Of Public Use, David L. Callies Dec 1968

Commonwealth Of Puerto Rico V. Rosso: Land Banking And The Expanded Concept Of Public Use, David L. Callies

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

As the supply of vacant land on which to expand dwindles, the economic, social and cultural blight attendant upon the rapid but relatively unplanned growth of metropolitan areas increasingly becomes a subject of grave concern throughout the world. The two most common traditional approaches to land use problems are now proving inadequate, given the nature of urban sprawl. The first is zoning, basically an exercise of the police power whereby a governmental body restricts the use of land by appropriate regulation without compensating the owner. The restriction must be for the purpose of promoting the health, morals, safety or welfare ...


Lefcoe: Land Development Law: Cases And Materials, Roger A. Cunningham Feb 1968

Lefcoe: Land Development Law: Cases And Materials, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Land Development Law: Cases and Materials by George Lefcoe


Public Control Of Land Subdivision In Michigan: Description And Critique, Roger A. Cunningham Nov 1967

Public Control Of Land Subdivision In Michigan: Description And Critique, Roger A. Cunningham

Michigan Law Review

Michigan seems to be unique in having three separate subdivision control statutes. The Plat Act of 1929, like the Subdivision Control Act of 1967 which will soon replace it, is largely mandatory, prescribing standards and procedures required in all cases of land subdivision (as defined in the statute), whether the municipality in which the land is located has a planning commission or not. The Municipal Planning Act, on the other hand, is simply an enabling act, permissive both with respect to establishment of a planning commission and with respect to the exercise by that commission, once established, of the power ...


Evolving Judicial Attitudes Toward Local Government Land Use Control, Terrance Sandalow Jan 1967

Evolving Judicial Attitudes Toward Local Government Land Use Control, Terrance Sandalow

Articles

The year 1967 begins the second half-century of zoning in the United States. The first comprehensive zoning ordinance was adopted by New York City in 1916. In the fifty years that have elapsed, zoning has become, notwithstanding a growing disenchantment with it on the part of planners, the most widely employed technique of land use control in the United States. At the present time only Houston, of all the major cities in the United States, lacks a zoning ordinance. And, though I have not obtained precise figures, we are all familiar with the increasingly large per centage of small municipalities ...


Standing To Appeal Zoning Determinations: The "Aggrieved Person" Requirement, Alfred V. Boerner Apr 1966

Standing To Appeal Zoning Determinations: The "Aggrieved Person" Requirement, Alfred V. Boerner

Michigan Law Review

During the twentieth century the states have increasingly utilized their police power to control the use of land. All fifty states have now enacted zoning enabling legislation, much of which is based in whole or in part on the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act. Typically, these zoning acts, like the Standard Act, empower municipalities to promulgate land use regulations by dividing the municipality "into districts of such number, shape, and area as may be deemed best suited to carry out the purposes of this act ..." Most zoning acts specify that "all such regulations shall be uniform for each class or ...


Statute Prohibiting Maintenance Of Billboards Adjacent To Interstate Highway Is Valid As Applied To Existing Billboards- Ghaster Properties, Inc. V. Preston, Michigan Law Review Jun 1965

Statute Prohibiting Maintenance Of Billboards Adjacent To Interstate Highway Is Valid As Applied To Existing Billboards- Ghaster Properties, Inc. V. Preston, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

In order to qualify for additional aid under the 1958 Federal-Aid Highway Program, the Ohio legislature prohibited the erection or maintenance of billboards for advertising purposes within 660 feet of an interstate highway and declared billboards in violation of the statute to be public nuisances subject to abatement. As the owner of seven signs which violated the statute, plaintiff sought an injunction against the enforcement of the statute on the ground that it bore no substantial relation to the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare. The trial court granted the injunction and the court of appeals affirmed, holding the ...