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Full-Text Articles in Law

Why Markets? Welfare, Autonomy, And The Just Society, Hanoch Dagan Apr 2019

Why Markets? Welfare, Autonomy, And The Just Society, Hanoch Dagan

Michigan Law Review

Review of Eric A. Posner's Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society.


Remembering Financial Crises: The Risk Implications Of The Rise Of Institutional Investors In Project Finance, David J. Park Nov 2018

Remembering Financial Crises: The Risk Implications Of The Rise Of Institutional Investors In Project Finance, David J. Park

Michigan Law Review

Barely a decade ago, a cascading sequence of market failures threatened to topple the global financial system. Public responses to the recent Financial Crisis were immediate and drastic to resuscitate the global economy while attempting to make the markets safer. Many financial services sectors have since recovered to pre-crisis levels. One such industry is project finance, which comprises various financing arrangements often used to fund long-term infrastructure or industrial projects. Curiously, significant post-crisis banking regulations and other global credit enhancement initiatives are pushing banks out of project finance and giving rise to institutional investors. This Comment argues that animated institutional ...


Assessing The Evolution Of Cryptocurrency: Demand Factors, Latent Value, And Regulatory Developments, Ryan Clements Oct 2018

Assessing The Evolution Of Cryptocurrency: Demand Factors, Latent Value, And Regulatory Developments, Ryan Clements

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The purpose of this Comment is to analyze the roots of this fervor— including that which drove Bitcoin’s initial demand surge—and investigate whether cryptocurrency can survive a market bubble that experienced a significant correction in 2018.


Behavioral Finance Symposium Summary Paper, Michael S. Barr, Annabel Jouard, Andrew Norwich, Josh Wright, Katy Davis May 2018

Behavioral Finance Symposium Summary Paper, Michael S. Barr, Annabel Jouard, Andrew Norwich, Josh Wright, Katy Davis

Other Publications

On September 14-15, 2017, the University of Michigan’s Center on Finance, Law, and Policy and behavioral science research and design lab ideas42 brought together influential leaders from academia, government, nonprofits and the financial sector for a two-day symposium on behavioral finance. Behavioral finance is the study of how behavioral biases and tendencies affect financial decisions, and in turn how those impact financial markets.


Integrating Micro And Macro Policy Levers In Response To Financial Crises, Daniel A. Crane, Markus Kitzmuller, Graciela Miralles May 2018

Integrating Micro And Macro Policy Levers In Response To Financial Crises, Daniel A. Crane, Markus Kitzmuller, Graciela Miralles

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The 2008–09 Global Financial Crisis originated from a poor incentive structure in the asset market derived from subprime mortgages. The ultimate bursting and unwinding of an asset bubble (here highly overvalued real estate prices woven into a complex multilayer network of securitization, so called collateralized debt obligations or CDOs) put enormous stress on the financial system, spreading through the global network economy and ultimately resulting in the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. Economists today agree that the severe economic fallout can be largely attributed to the poor systemic performance of international financial markets. Global macroeconomic imbalances, as ...


Finance And Growth: The Legal And Regulatory Implications Of The Role Of The Public Equity Market In The United States, Ezra Wasserman Mitchell Apr 2017

Finance And Growth: The Legal And Regulatory Implications Of The Role Of The Public Equity Market In The United States, Ezra Wasserman Mitchell

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The important study of the relationship between finance and economic growth has exploded over the past two decades. One of the most significant open questions is the role of the public equity market in stimulating growth and the channels it follows if it does. This paper examines that question from an economic, legal, and historical perspective, especially with regard to its regulatory and corporate governance implications. The US market is my focus.

In contrast to most studies, I follow both economic history and the actual flow of funds in addition to empirics and theory to conclude that the public equity ...


Financial Reform: Making The System Safer And Fairer, Michael S. Barr Jan 2017

Financial Reform: Making The System Safer And Fairer, Michael S. Barr

Articles

In the fall of 2008, the financial crisis crushed the U.S. economy and plunged the country into the Great Recession. The crisis shuttered American businesses, cost millions of Americans their jobs, and wiped out home values and household savings. The macro effects hit hardest and were the longest lasting for those least able to bear the brunt of the crisis. It was devastating to middle-income families and perhaps even more so to low- and moderate-income households, who had little financial buffer (Barr 2012a). Financial stability, never robust for these families, dropped precipitously (Barr and Schaffa 2016). Both in the ...


The Global Architecture Of Financial Regulatory Taxes, Carlo Garbarino, Giulio Allevato Dec 2015

The Global Architecture Of Financial Regulatory Taxes, Carlo Garbarino, Giulio Allevato

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article endeavors to broaden the analysis of available policy tools to address the problems created by financial crises and discusses how, in addition to direct regulation, certain tax measures having a regulatory nature may operate to address the so-called “negative externalities” often associated with those crises. There is a negative externality when an economic agent making a decision does not pay the full cost of the decision’s consequences. In such cases, the cost to society as a whole is greater than the cost borne by the individuals creating the economic impact. In practice, negative externalities result in market ...


Private Equity & Private Suits: Using 10b-5 Antifraud Suits To Discipline A Transforming Industry, Kenneth J. Black Jan 2013

Private Equity & Private Suits: Using 10b-5 Antifraud Suits To Discipline A Transforming Industry, Kenneth J. Black

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This note demonstrates why private equity will no longer be able to avoid private investor suits as it has (mostly) done in the past and explores the industry’s response to a growing number of investor suits. Notably, the industry has already begun to shift its strategy from regulatory avoidance to regulatory capture, at least in part to avoid investor suits. Given these changes, this note proposes that the best way to maintain discipline in the transforming private equity market is to protect the ability of investors to bring private suits.


The Federal Reserve As Last Resort, Colleen Baker Sep 2012

The Federal Reserve As Last Resort, Colleen Baker

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, is one of the most important and powerful institutions in the world. Surprisingly, legal scholarship hardly pays any attention to the Federal Reserve or to the law structuring and governing its legal authority. This is especially curious given the amount of legal scholarship focused on administrative agencies that do not have anywhere near as critical a domestic and international role as that of the Federal Reserve. At the core of what the Federal Reserve does and should do is to conduct monetary policy so as to safeguard pricing, including that ...


Tax Competition And The Case Of Bank Secrecy Rules: New Trends In International Tax Law, Linneu De Albuquerque Mello Jan 2012

Tax Competition And The Case Of Bank Secrecy Rules: New Trends In International Tax Law, Linneu De Albuquerque Mello

SJD Dissertations

The current integration of world markets has led to an increase in the competition for businesses in addition to the competition for passive investments that already existed. In addition, the current financial crisis led countries to search for additional sources of revenue in order to work within their budget constraints. As tax is an area where such competition is more visible, it has also generated an effort – mainly from industrialized countries and international organizations – to curb tax practices deemed harmful to world economy. Bank secrecy rules and lack of transparency are aspects of these "harmful" tax practices. This dissertation will ...


The Meaning Of The Market Myth, Benjamin Means Jan 2012

The Meaning Of The Market Myth, Benjamin Means

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This Book Review contends that the perfectly rational market may be a myth, not just in the sense of a false or over-simplified account of reality, but also in the deeper, anthropological sense of cultural explanation. Part I describes how rational-market theories were developed by financial economists and applied to Wall Street, sometimes without adequate appreciation for the difference between simplified economic models and real-world behavior. Part II contends that if the rational-market theory has met with acceptance that outstrips its empirical support, the favorable reception may be explained in part by the theory’s congruence with broader normative views ...


Behaviorally Informed Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir Jan 2012

Behaviorally Informed Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir

Book Chapters

Policy makers typically approach human behavior from the perspective of the rational agent model, which relics on normativc, a priori analyses. The model assumes people make insightful, well-planned, highly controlled, and calculated decisions guided by considerations of personal utility. This perspective is promoted in the social sciences and in professional schools and has come to dominate much of the formulation and conduct of policy. An alternative view, developed mostly through empirical behavioral research, and the one we will articulate here, provides a substantially difierent perspective on individual behavior and its policy and regulatory implications. According to the empirical perspective, behavior ...


Too Libor, Too Late: Time To Move To A Market Rate, Michael S. Barr Jan 2012

Too Libor, Too Late: Time To Move To A Market Rate, Michael S. Barr

Articles

Barclays has been fined, the British have issued their report, and now the market is anxious for everything to go on as usual with the London Interbank Offer Rate (“LIBOR”). I think that would be a serious mistake. The U.S. and British investigations into rate-fixing by Barclays revealed a widespread culture of pervasive, deceitful conduct in the setting of the most important private sector benchmark for over $300 trillion in derivative contracts and $10 trillion in adjustable-rate loans. It is highly unlikely that Barclays was the only major bank engaging in this conduct, and public investigations and private lawsuits ...


Addressing Gaps In The Dodd-Frank Act: Directors' Risk Management Oversight Obligations, Kristin N. Johnson Sep 2011

Addressing Gaps In The Dodd-Frank Act: Directors' Risk Management Oversight Obligations, Kristin N. Johnson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In the years leading to the recent financial crisis, finance theorists introduced innovative methods, including quantitative financial models and derivative instruments, to measure and mitigate risk exposure. During the financial crisis, financial institutions facing insolvency revealed pervasive misunderstandings, misapplications, and mistaken assumptions regarding these complex risk management methods. As losses in financial markets escalated and caused liquidity and solvency crises, commentators sharply criticized directors and executives at large financial institutions for their risk management decisions. By adopting the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Congress directly and indirectly addresses certain risk management oversight concerns at large, complex financial ...


Populist Retribution And International Competition In Financial Services Regulation, Adam C. Pritchard Jan 2010

Populist Retribution And International Competition In Financial Services Regulation, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

The pattern of regulatory reform in financial services regulation follows a predictable pattern in democratic states. A hyperactive market generates a bubble, the bubble deflates, and much financial pain ensues for those individuals who bought at the top of the market. The financial mess brings the scrutiny of politicians, who vow "Never again!" A political battle ensues, with representatives of the financial services industry fighting a rearguard action to preserve its prerogatives amidst cries for the bankers' scalps. Regulations, carefully crafted to win the last war, are promulgated. Memories fade of the foolish enthusiasm that fed the last bubble. Slowly ...


The Case For Behaviorally Informed Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir Jan 2009

The Case For Behaviorally Informed Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir

Book Chapters

Policymakers approach human behavior largely through the perspective of the “rational agent” model, which relies on normative, a priori analyses of the making of rational decisions. This perspective is promoted in the social sciences and in professional schools, and has come to dominate much of the formulation and conduct of policy. An alternative view, developed mostly through empirical behavioral research, provides a substantially different perspective on individual behavior and its policy implications. Behavior, according to the empirical perspective, is the outcome of perceptions, impulses, and other processes that characterize the impressive machinery that we carry behind the eyes and between ...


Behaviorally Informed Financial Services Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir Jan 2008

Behaviorally Informed Financial Services Regulation, Michael S. Barr, Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir

Other Publications

Financial services decisions can have enourmous consequences for household well-being. Households need a range of financial services - to conduct basic transactions, such as receiving their income, storing it, and paying bills; to save for emergency needs and long-term goals; to access credit; and to insure against life's key risks. But the financial services system is exceedingly complicated and often not well-designed to optimize house-hold behavior. In response to the complexity of out financial system, there has been a long running debate about the appropriate role and form of regulation. Regulation is largely stuck in two competing models - disclosure, and ...


States, Markets, And Gatekeepers: Public-Private Regulatory Regimes In An Era Of Economic Globalization, Christopher M. Bruner Jan 2008

States, Markets, And Gatekeepers: Public-Private Regulatory Regimes In An Era Of Economic Globalization, Christopher M. Bruner

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article illuminates the spectrum of international economic regimes through discussion of an under-theorized regulatory structure in which traditional distinctions between State and market, public and private power, hard and soft law, and international and domestic policy realms, essentially collapse-the "public-private gatekeeper."


Impediments To Financial Development In The Banking Sector: A Comparison Of The Impact Of Federalism In The United States And Germany, Khalil Nicholas Maalouf Jan 2007

Impediments To Financial Development In The Banking Sector: A Comparison Of The Impact Of Federalism In The United States And Germany, Khalil Nicholas Maalouf

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note examines how differences in U.S. and German variants of federalism have contributed to the formation and development of the dual banking system in the United States and the three-pillar banking system in Germany. Specifically, this Note considers the manner in which federalism has informed the respective banking systems' reactions to dynamic changes in the global banking industry and analyzes the role federalism has played in contributing to or impeding reform efforts in the United States and Germany.


Contract As Statute, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati Mar 2006

Contract As Statute, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati

Michigan Law Review

The traditional model of contract interpretation focuses on the "meeting of the minds." Parties agree on how to structure their respective obligations and rights and then specify their agreement in a written document. Gaps and ambiguities are inevitable. But where contract language exists for the point in contention and a dispute arises as to the meaning of this language, courts attempt to divine what the parties intended. Among the justifications for deferring to the intent of the parties is the assumption that parties know what is best for themselves. Deference also arguably furthers autonomy values. Not all contracts and contract ...


The New Rules On Cross-Border Tender And Exchange Offers, Business Combinations And Rights Offerings: Competition Or Harmonization?, Julian T. Perlmutter Jan 2000

The New Rules On Cross-Border Tender And Exchange Offers, Business Combinations And Rights Offerings: Competition Or Harmonization?, Julian T. Perlmutter

Michigan Journal of International Law

This note introduces the Cross-Border Rules in the context of the rapidly changing securities markets and highly competitive regulatory systems noted above. It addresses the elements and impact of internationalization on cross-border tender offers and the modern U.S. regulatory response. The SEC has avoided any public moves to harmonize the U.S. system with those of other major capital markets and has instead made incremental changes aimed at maintaining the system's perceived strengths. The Cross-Border Rules represent a somewhat ungainly attempt to placate U.S. investors by bending the Williams Act tender offer rules using exemptions for certain ...


Foreign Affairs Powers And "The First Crisis Of The 21st Century": Congressional Vs. Executive Authority And The Stabilization Plan For Mexico, James D. Humphrey Ii Jan 1995

Foreign Affairs Powers And "The First Crisis Of The 21st Century": Congressional Vs. Executive Authority And The Stabilization Plan For Mexico, James D. Humphrey Ii

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note discusses whether the United States can meet such a crisis under current legal arrangements. Can officials respond quickly, forcefully, and effectively? The Mexican Peso Crisis was the first test of this ability, and therefore is examined as a case study. As the United States attempted to respond to the crisis on its border, several questions about the practical and constitutional propriety of the effort emerged. There is clearly no longer a basic consensus surrounding security issues as existed in the Cold War years. Indeed, for the first time since the end of the Cold War, circumstances forced a ...


International Investment And The Prudent Investor Rule: The Trustee's Duty To Consider International Investment Vehicles, Stephen M. Penner Jan 1995

International Investment And The Prudent Investor Rule: The Trustee's Duty To Consider International Investment Vehicles, Stephen M. Penner

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this note will begin with a background of trust and trustees, focusing on the historical development of the trust and the present role of the trustee. Part II presents the Prudent Investor Rule. The problems in trust management which lead to the necessity of the Rule will be explored, as will the evolution of the Rule up to the recent adoption by the American Law Institute of the Third Restatement of Trusts, which is devoted solely to the Prudent Investor Rule. In Part III, the various investment opportunities available to the modern investor will be presented, first ...


Laws Separating Commercial Banking And Securities Activities As An Impediment To Free Trade In Financial Services: A Comparative Study Of Competitiveness In The International Market For Financial Services, Sarah A. Wagman Jan 1994

Laws Separating Commercial Banking And Securities Activities As An Impediment To Free Trade In Financial Services: A Comparative Study Of Competitiveness In The International Market For Financial Services, Sarah A. Wagman

Michigan Journal of International Law

By comparing U.S., Japanese, and European institutions' competitiveness in the international market for financial services, this Note focuses on the possible implications of the Glass-Steagall Act in the international trade context as a means of exploring some of the additional arguments which have emerged in favor of reforming U.S. bank regulation.


Competition And Antitrust Law In Central Europe: Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia, And Hungary, Carolyn Brezezinski Jan 1994

Competition And Antitrust Law In Central Europe: Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia, And Hungary, Carolyn Brezezinski

Michigan Journal of International Law

First, this article briefly introduces the antimonopoly laws and competition authorities created in the four post-communist Central European countries of Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. Second, this article outlines the obligations and harmonization programs of the competition authorities under the Europe Agreements recently signed by each country. Third, this article assesses the role and importance of the antimonopoly laws and competition authorities in the post-socialist economic reforms currently underway. Fourth, this article describes proposals to amend the antimonopoly laws based on the initial period of their implementation. Finally, this article attempts to assess the post-reform role of both ...


Capital Neutrality And Coordinated Supervision: Lessons For International Securities Regulation From The Law Of International Taxation And Banking, Charles Thelen Plambeck Jan 1988

Capital Neutrality And Coordinated Supervision: Lessons For International Securities Regulation From The Law Of International Taxation And Banking, Charles Thelen Plambeck

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this article provides some background on the legal forces which have influenced globalization and internationalization of the world's securities markets. Part II focuses on the international tax law principle of capital neutrality. Fundamentally, the principle of capital neutrality requires that regulations should not unintentionally direct the movement of capital. Part II analyzes the bases and parameters of the principle of capital neutrality, the experiences of international taxation in applying the principle to a globalizing economy, and the possibilities for applying the principle to international securities regulation. Part III focuses on the international banking law principle of ...


Industrial Policy: Diverting Resources From The Winners, Edwin L. Harper, Lehmann K. Li Jr. Jan 1984

Industrial Policy: Diverting Resources From The Winners, Edwin L. Harper, Lehmann K. Li Jr.

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article argues that the various forms of industrial policy currently being proposed are inappropriate for the United States (U.S.). They would fail not only on economic grounds, but on political grounds as well. The article outlines the appropriate role for government in the economy.