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Full-Text Articles in Law

Gatekeeping The Gatekeepers: The Need For A Licensing Requirement For Crowdfunding Portals In The Wake Of The Dreamfunded Decision, Nick Worden Jun 2020

Gatekeeping The Gatekeepers: The Need For A Licensing Requirement For Crowdfunding Portals In The Wake Of The Dreamfunded Decision, Nick Worden

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Most people are familiar with crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter and GoFundMe—sites that allow users to part with their money in exchange for products or donate their capital to organizations they believe in. However, these sites have one trait in common: they do not offer contributors equity or a promise for future profits. For a long time, selling equity meant complying with the costly requirements of federal securities laws, which was cost-prohibitive for many small businesses; it was illegal for businesses to offer equity over a site in the way businesses on Kickstarter offered products. The Jumpstart Our Business ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Jun 2020

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Front matter for Volume 9, Issue 2 of the Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review.


The Siren Song Of Litigation Funding, J.B. Heaton Apr 2020

The Siren Song Of Litigation Funding, J.B. Heaton

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

For an investor, litigation funding is too tempting to resist. Litigation funding promises that most elusive of investment returns: those uncorrelated with an investor’s other investment returns. Litigation funding also invests in a world that seems fraught with possible pricing inefficiencies. It seems plausible—even likely—that a team of smart lawyer-underwriters can identify high-value litigation investments to generate superior returns for litigation funding investors. But more than a decade of experience suggests the promise of litigation funding is a siren song. The promise draws investors into the water, but the payoffs may be meager and rare. While litigation ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Oct 2018

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Front matter for Volume 8, Issue 1 of the Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review.


Assessing The Evolution Of Cryptocurrency: Demand Factors, Latent Value, And Regulatory Developments, Ryan Clements Oct 2018

Assessing The Evolution Of Cryptocurrency: Demand Factors, Latent Value, And Regulatory Developments, Ryan Clements

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The purpose of this Comment is to analyze the roots of this fervor— including that which drove Bitcoin’s initial demand surge—and investigate whether cryptocurrency can survive a market bubble that experienced a significant correction in 2018.


The Rise-And-Fall Of Leading International Financial Centers: Factors And Application, Adam Church May 2018

The Rise-And-Fall Of Leading International Financial Centers: Factors And Application, Adam Church

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This Note will look at the role of four broad factors that correspond with the rise-and-fall cycles among leading international financial centers. The four factors are: trust in a financial center’s abilities; the central banking and monetary policy systems of the center’s home nation; the home nation’s landscape of financial policy and regulation; and the overall stability of the financial center itself. First, this Note will undertake a broad historical survey of the shifts in prominence from Amsterdam to London, from London to New York, and from New York back to London to define the scope of ...


Shock Therapy, Social Engineering, And Financial Discipline: What Does An Increasingly Financialized World Mean For Democratic Participation?, Layan Charara May 2018

Shock Therapy, Social Engineering, And Financial Discipline: What Does An Increasingly Financialized World Mean For Democratic Participation?, Layan Charara

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Over the last several decades, the Bretton Woods Institutions have come to be drivers of policy in the realms of economic liberalization and development, exceeding their original mandates of fostering monetary cooperation and facilitating post-war reconstruction. The structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have engendered mixed results–delivering some countries from financial crises, while inciting riots and compounding state failure in others. Such varied experiences suggest there is some disconnect between the conditions to lending promulgated by these institutions and the realities on the ground. This Note will trace the evolution of high conditionality ...


Integrating Micro And Macro Policy Levers In Response To Financial Crises, Daniel A. Crane, Markus Kitzmuller, Graciela Miralles May 2018

Integrating Micro And Macro Policy Levers In Response To Financial Crises, Daniel A. Crane, Markus Kitzmuller, Graciela Miralles

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The 2008–09 Global Financial Crisis originated from a poor incentive structure in the asset market derived from subprime mortgages. The ultimate bursting and unwinding of an asset bubble (here highly overvalued real estate prices woven into a complex multilayer network of securitization, so called collateralized debt obligations or CDOs) put enormous stress on the financial system, spreading through the global network economy and ultimately resulting in the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. Economists today agree that the severe economic fallout can be largely attributed to the poor systemic performance of international financial markets. Global macroeconomic imbalances, as ...


Evaluating Financial Integration And Cooperation In The Asean, Brendan Harvey Nov 2017

Evaluating Financial Integration And Cooperation In The Asean, Brendan Harvey

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Financial integration is less pronounced in the ASEAN than other mea-sures of economic integration. This is particularly apparent when com-pared against other regions that have undergone similar integrative efforts, such as the European Union. Cross-border trade flows, foreign-direct in-vestment, and investment in capital goods outstrip other investment flows. Regional institutional and legal structures governing these investment flows, while limited, present marked achievements towards creating an ASEAN financial community. The gap persists despite suggestions that the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis (or the North Atlan-tic Financial Crisis from the Asian and Stiglitz perspective) would acceler-ate financial regionalism as ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review May 2017

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Finance And Growth: The Legal And Regulatory Implications Of The Role Of The Public Equity Market In The United States, Ezra Wasserman Mitchell Apr 2017

Finance And Growth: The Legal And Regulatory Implications Of The Role Of The Public Equity Market In The United States, Ezra Wasserman Mitchell

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The important study of the relationship between finance and economic growth has exploded over the past two decades. One of the most significant open questions is the role of the public equity market in stimulating growth and the channels it follows if it does. This paper examines that question from an economic, legal, and historical perspective, especially with regard to its regulatory and corporate governance implications. The US market is my focus.

In contrast to most studies, I follow both economic history and the actual flow of funds in addition to empirics and theory to conclude that the public equity ...


Bitcoin's Growing Pains: Intermediation And The Need For An Effective Loss Allocation Mechanism, Andrew Kang Apr 2017

Bitcoin's Growing Pains: Intermediation And The Need For An Effective Loss Allocation Mechanism, Andrew Kang

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This paper examines a phenomenon largely overlooked in existing literature: as Bitcoin matures into a mainstream consumer payments system with the rise of intermediation and hosted wallet services, it is slowly transforming from a purely decentralized peer-to-peer currency into something that (ironically) more closely resembles the bank-intermediated payment systems of the past. This paper explains how this transformation creates complicated issues of loss allocation not anticipated by Bitcoin’s founder. Further, it argues for the need of an effective legal mechanism to efficiently and fairly allocate losses between intermediaries and users. The first section of this paper will explain how ...


Basel Iii And The Future Of Project Finance Funding, Tianze Ma Oct 2016

Basel Iii And The Future Of Project Finance Funding, Tianze Ma

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This paper seeks to analyze the new requirements in the Basel III banking regulatory framework and explore their impact on commercial banks’ project finance portfolio. The paper begins with a general introduction of the Basel Accords, followed by an analysis of the changes in the Basel III requirements and their potential impact on project finance, in particular the effects of the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) and the net stable funding ratio (NSFR). The paper ends with a discussion of alternative sources of project finance funding that emerged as a result of the new regulatory regime.


Audience Participation: Crowdfunding Large Scale Theatrical Productions Through Regulation A+, Christopher Johnson Oct 2016

Audience Participation: Crowdfunding Large Scale Theatrical Productions Through Regulation A+, Christopher Johnson

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Theatrical financing has been conducted in much the same way for the better part of a century. This method, however, has consistently provided only the shows with access to the deepest of pockets a path to Broadway. The advent of Internet-based crowdfunding provides producers access to a potential source of capital that was previously unavailable. Prior to the promulgation of the SEC regulations regarding Title IV of the JOBS Act, this capital could only be accessed through donation or reward based financing campaigns, but with the introduction of Regulation A+, there is finally a practical method for the widespread solicitation ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Sep 2016

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review May 2016

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Systematic Risk Of Private Funds After The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal Sep 2015

The Systematic Risk Of Private Funds After The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) was created under the Dodd-Frank Act with the primary mandate of guarding against systemic risk and correcting perceived regulatory weaknesses that may have contributed to the financial crisis of 2008-2009. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) collects data pertaining to private fund advisers in order to facilitate FSOC’s assessment of non-bank financial institutions’ potential systemic risks. Evidence that the SEC’s data collection encounters accuracy and consistency problems might hamper FSOC’s ability to evaluate the systemic risk of private fund advisers. The author shows that while the SEC’s data plays a ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Sep 2015

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Trust And Control: The Value Effect Of Venture Capital Term Sheet Provisions As Risk Allocation Tools, Jason M. Gordon, David Orozco Sep 2015

Trust And Control: The Value Effect Of Venture Capital Term Sheet Provisions As Risk Allocation Tools, Jason M. Gordon, David Orozco

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The parties to a venture funding agreement are in a state of coopetition. The parties account for perceived risk in the entrepreneur-investor relationship through varying levels of control demanded from and trust afforded to the other party. The level of risk perceived by each party may differ along individual aspects of the prospective equity deal. The provisions of the term sheet delineate the subjective risk perceptions of each party to the transaction by allocating control or trusting a party with decision-making rights. When negotiating term sheet provisions, a party should seek to understand and recognize the risk perceived by the ...


Private Equity Investments In Microfinance In India, Hugh Manahan Sep 2015

Private Equity Investments In Microfinance In India, Hugh Manahan

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

A trail connects a skyscraper in Manhattan’s Financial District to a tiny food stand in a village in the southeast Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Initially wild and overgrown, the trail now resembles a well-developed road, cleared and shaped. The trail does not connect customers to call centers or raw materials to laborers; the path connects lenders seeking abnormal returns on their investments to borrowers living in poverty. This is the path of private equity investments in microfinance. Microfinance is a powerful financial innovation that has changed personal finance in many parts of the world. While microfinance began as ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review May 2015

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Risk Of Money Laundering Through Crowdfunding: A Funding Portal's Guide To Compliance And Crime Fighting, Zachary Robock Dec 2014

The Risk Of Money Laundering Through Crowdfunding: A Funding Portal's Guide To Compliance And Crime Fighting, Zachary Robock

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

With the recent passage of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) and proposed regulations, equity crowdfunding is poised to play an important role in fundraising for many types of emerging growth companies. A fundamental purpose of crowdfunding is to reduce economic barriers to capital markets for emerging growth companies, in part by relaxing rigorous information disclosure requirements currently mandated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Relaxed regulation should help reduce the cost of fundraising, but it will also present certain risks. Investor fraud is a common concern, which is addressed at length in the JOBS Act and ...


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Sep 2014

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Michigan Journal Of Environmental & Administrative Law May 2014

Front Matter, Michigan Journal Of Environmental & Administrative Law

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review Sep 2013

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review May 2013

Front Matter, Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

No abstract provided.


Incubator Cities: Tomorrow's Economy, Yesterday's Start-Ups, Abraham J.B. Cable Jan 2013

Incubator Cities: Tomorrow's Economy, Yesterday's Start-Ups, Abraham J.B. Cable

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Venture development funds (“VDFs”) are products of state and local government law that use public funds to invest in local start-ups, in the hope that these companies will then attract venture capital investment. Existing analysis by legal scholars largely assumes that establishing a private venture capital market is essential to encouraging entrepreneurship. This article challenges that assumption. It argues that VDFs and other policies focused on encouraging venture capital are outmoded and inconsistent with the ultimate economic development goals of state and local governments. In many industries, entrepreneurs can now get by with less capital because the cost of developing ...


Regulation Of Private Equity In Brazil: Policy Questions Presented And Critique, Shannon Guy Jan 2013

Regulation Of Private Equity In Brazil: Policy Questions Presented And Critique, Shannon Guy

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

In this note, I explore some of the policy questions affecting Brazil’s private equity industry that the country must tackle. In Part II, Section A, I begin by asking the threshold question of whether the Brazilian government should play an active role in encouraging the growth of the private equity industry. I resolve that Brazil should play an active role in encouraging the industry’s growth to encourage several possible benefits to the real economy. Private equity may benefit the economy by providing job growth and job preservation, improved access to credit for firms that would not otherwise have ...


Should Angel-Backed Start-Ups Reject Venture Capital?, Darian M. Ibrahim Jan 2013

Should Angel-Backed Start-Ups Reject Venture Capital?, Darian M. Ibrahim

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The conventional wisdom is that entrepreneurs seek financing for their high-growth, high-risk start-up companies in a particular order. They begin with friends, family, and “bootstrapping” (e.g., credit card debt). Next they turn to angel investors, or accredited investors (and usually ex-entrepreneurs) who invest their own money in multiple, early-stage start-ups. Finally, after angel funds run dry, entrepreneurs seek funding from venture capitalists (VCs), whose deep pockets and connections lead the startup to an initial public offering (IPO) or sale to a larger company in the same industry (trade sale). That conventional wisdom may have been the model for start-up ...


Private Equity & Private Suits: Using 10b-5 Antifraud Suits To Discipline A Transforming Industry, Kenneth J. Black Jan 2013

Private Equity & Private Suits: Using 10b-5 Antifraud Suits To Discipline A Transforming Industry, Kenneth J. Black

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

This note demonstrates why private equity will no longer be able to avoid private investor suits as it has (mostly) done in the past and explores the industry’s response to a growing number of investor suits. Notably, the industry has already begun to shift its strategy from regulatory avoidance to regulatory capture, at least in part to avoid investor suits. Given these changes, this note proposes that the best way to maintain discipline in the transforming private equity market is to protect the ability of investors to bring private suits.