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When Mental Health Meets “The One-Armed Man” Defense: How Courts Should Deal With Mccoy Defendants, Farid Seyyedi Jan 2021

When Mental Health Meets “The One-Armed Man” Defense: How Courts Should Deal With Mccoy Defendants, Farid Seyyedi

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

The Supreme Court’s opinion in McCoy v. Louisiana held that a defendant has a constitutional right to insist their attorney not concede guilt as to any element of an offense, even if doing so is the only reasonable trial strategy to give the defendant a chance at life imprisonment instead of the death penalty. Under McCoy’s holding, a defendant can insist on maintaining their innocence—even in the face of overwhelming evidence—and force their attorney to pursue a defense that will land them on death row. The Supreme Court’s holding makes clear that a strategic concession ...


Collared—A Film Case Study About Insider Trading And Ethics, Garrick Apollon Jan 2021

Collared—A Film Case Study About Insider Trading And Ethics, Garrick Apollon

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

This Article discusses the visual legal advocacy documentary film, Collared, by Garrick Apollon (author of this Article). Collared premiered in fall 2018 to a sold-out audience at the Hot Docs Cinema in Toronto for the Hot Docs for Continuing Professional Education edutainment initiative. Collared features the story and reveals the testimony of a convicted ex-insider trader who is still struggling with the tragic consequences of “the most prolonged insider trading scheme ever discovered by American and Canadian securities investigators.” The intimate insights shared by former lawyer and reformed white-collar criminal, Joseph Grmovsek, serves as a painful reminder of the unattended ...


Masthead Jan 2021

Masthead

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Editor’S Foreword, Ava Agree Jan 2021

Editor’S Foreword, Ava Agree

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Criminalization Of Homies: Gang Policing Tactics And Community Fragmentation, Juan Flores Jan 2021

Criminalization Of Homies: Gang Policing Tactics And Community Fragmentation, Juan Flores

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

While growing scholarship has been crucial in understanding gang policing’s nature and impacts, there is currently limited research focusing on how policing relies upon fragmenting communities and perpetuating divisions within them. Gang policing claims to respond to conflict and rivalries between “gangs,” but how does this policing produce and perpetuate these community divisions? This paper seeks to understand how gang policing tactics perpetuate divisions and fragment communities while simultaneously producing criminality. This study used a qualitative approach, interviewing eight participants in Berkeley, San Diego, and Los Angeles who are perceived by law enforcement as “gang members” but who self-identify ...


Defunding Prosecutors And Reinvesting In Communities: The Case For Reducing The Power And Budgets Of Prosecutors To Help End Mass Incarceration, Udi Ofer Jan 2021

Defunding Prosecutors And Reinvesting In Communities: The Case For Reducing The Power And Budgets Of Prosecutors To Help End Mass Incarceration, Udi Ofer

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


A Page-Turner With A Social Conscience: Requiem For A Female Serial Killer By Phyllis Chesler, Paula J. Caplan Jan 2021

A Page-Turner With A Social Conscience: Requiem For A Female Serial Killer By Phyllis Chesler, Paula J. Caplan

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Murders In The German Sex Trade: 1920 To 2017, Manuela Schon, Anna Hoheide Jan 2021

Murders In The German Sex Trade: 1920 To 2017, Manuela Schon, Anna Hoheide

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research report is the result of collecting and evaluating data on cases of homicides and attempted homicides in the German sex trade from 1920-2017. The findings show violence against prostituted women and the attitudes of the sex buyers who commit most of the violent acts against the women. The report discusses the media coverage of murder cases, complication of cases, and a critique of methods of criminal evaluation by the police. From 1920 to 2017, 272 victims of murder and attempted murder were identified. Liberalization of prostitution occurred in 2002. From then until 2017, there is a decrease in ...


Acid Attacks In India: A Socio-Legal Report, Vidhik Kumar Jan 2021

Acid Attacks In India: A Socio-Legal Report, Vidhik Kumar

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

India has the highest number of acid attacks globally every year, and despite the actions taken by the Indian Government and the Supreme Court of India, the crime is on the rise. This increase can be attributed to the patriarchal ideology that is prevalent in India and to India’s inadequate legal system, which does not deliver efficient remedies to the victims. This article will discuss the prevalence of acid attacks in India, motives behind the attacks, consequences on victims, and shortcomings in measures adopted to prevent the crime and provide justice to victims.


Rehabilitative Justice: The Effectiveness Of Healing To Wellness, Opioid Intervention, And Drug Courts, Majidah M. Cochran, Christine L. Kettel Dec 2020

Rehabilitative Justice: The Effectiveness Of Healing To Wellness, Opioid Intervention, And Drug Courts, Majidah M. Cochran, Christine L. Kettel

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A Quiet War: The Judiciary's Steady And Unspoken Effort To Limit Felony-Murder, Maggie Davis Dec 2020

A Quiet War: The Judiciary's Steady And Unspoken Effort To Limit Felony-Murder, Maggie Davis

Arkansas Law Review

On a Wednesday afternoon a sixteen-year-old boy is hanging out after school with four of his friends. He is your average sixteen-year-old; he has a girlfriend who works at Wendy’s, and his current worry is about passing his driving test. He smokes some weed from time to time with his friends, but he has a clean criminal record. After complaining about being broke and deciding they have nothing better to do, the five friends elect to break into a seemingly vacant home in order to steal some items for resale. He is already thinking about what he will buy ...


The Mere Extinguishment Of [Human] Life, Anthony Cosentino Dec 2020

The Mere Extinguishment Of [Human] Life, Anthony Cosentino

International Social Science Review

Death Penalty scholars and abolitionists have long struggled to find an effective interpretation of the Eighth Amendment to address the failures of the Supreme Court's constitutional regulation of the death penalty. Based in historical and quantitative research, this paper identifies and combines two categories of death penalty abolitionism that argue effectively against capital punishment. The paper works forward from Founding-era primary sources on capital punishment through complex Supreme Court precedents and the challenges of constitutional regulation of the death penalty, culminating in an integration of multiple strains of death penalty abolitionism into an historically informed interpretation of the Eighth ...


Fraudulently Induced Confessions, Michael J. Zydney Mannheimer Dec 2020

Fraudulently Induced Confessions, Michael J. Zydney Mannheimer

Notre Dame Law Review

The jurisprudence on the use of police deception during interrogations is singularly unhelpful. Police may deceive in order to induce a suspect to confess, the courts tell us, unless they go too far. Police are permitted, for example, to feign sympathy for the suspect, lie about the existence of incriminating evidence, and falsely downplay the seriousness of the offense under investigation. But when police engage in other forms of deception, such as by offering false promises of leniency or misrepresenting the suspect’s Miranda rights, courts will balk and declare the resulting confession coerced. Yet neither courts nor commentators have ...


The Problem Of Foreign Convictions In U.S. Immigration Law, Geoff Cebula Dec 2020

The Problem Of Foreign Convictions In U.S. Immigration Law, Geoff Cebula

Notre Dame Law Review

Part I argues that the definition of “conviction” in the INA implicitly leaves room for courts to inquire into the procedural fairness underlying a foreign conviction. Part II surveys the traditional standards for evaluating the sufficiency of foreign convictions in the contexts of extradition and international comity, two areas where U.S. courts have had to decide when to honor foreign judgments for centuries. These longstanding criteria formed the background against which the INA definition was adopted and may provide guidance on how to apply this definition. Accordingly, Part III derives from this analysis suggestions for how the Department of ...


Autonomous Cyber Weapons And Command Responsibility, Russell Buchan, Nicholas Tsagourias Dec 2020

Autonomous Cyber Weapons And Command Responsibility, Russell Buchan, Nicholas Tsagourias

International Law Studies

Autonomous cyber weapons have made their way onto the battlefield, raising the question of whether commanders can be held criminally responsible under command responsibility when war crimes are committed. The doctrine of command responsibility has a long history in international criminal law and comprises three core elements: the existence of a superior-subordinate relationship, the commander’s knowledge of the crime, and the commander’s failure to prevent or repress the subordinate’s criminal actions. This article unpacks the content of these elements and applies them to autonomous cyber weapons by treating them as being analogous to soldiers since they operate ...


America's Paper Prisons: The Second Chance Gap, Colleen Chien Dec 2020

America's Paper Prisons: The Second Chance Gap, Colleen Chien

Michigan Law Review

Over the last decade, dozens of states and the federal government have enacted “second chance” reforms that increase the eligibility of individuals arrested, charged, or convicted of crimes to shorten their sentences, clear their criminal records, and/or regain the right to vote. While much fanfare has accompanied the increasing availability of “second chances,” little attention has been paid to their delivery. This study introduces the concept of the “second chance gap,” which it defines as the difference between eligibility and delivery of second chance relief; explores its causes; and approximates its size in connection with several second chance laws ...


The Problematic Use Of The Kill Zone Theory, Kaitlin R. O’Donnell Dec 2020

The Problematic Use Of The Kill Zone Theory, Kaitlin R. O’Donnell

UC Irvine Law Review

The kill zone theory is a legal doctrine that does not exist in statute but has been used in jury instructions to aid in securing convictions for attempted murder charges. As a result of the kill zone theory, individuals in California have received lengthier sentences and, in some cases, have been convicted of crimes that fail to meet the requisite specific intent for attempted murder cases. The kill zone theory has no purpose in California law but to make the path to conviction easier and to put defendants in jail for longer. The kill zone theory is an unnecessary tool ...


Labor Redemption In Work Law, Andrew Elmore Dec 2020

Labor Redemption In Work Law, Andrew Elmore

UC Irvine Law Review

People with criminal records must find and keep work to reintegrate into society. But private employers often categorically exclude candidates with criminal record histories, especially if the candidate is African American or Latinx. The conventional wisdom is that workplace laws offer little to address this problem. People with criminal records are not a protected class under Title VII, and many employers fear that hiring people with criminal records invites negligent hiring liability. Ban the Box privacy laws delay but may not deter overbroad criminal background checks.

This Article challenges this standard account by shifting focus to the state in imposing ...


Predictable Punishments, Brian Galle, Murat Mungan Dec 2020

Predictable Punishments, Brian Galle, Murat Mungan

UC Irvine Law Review

Economic analyses of both crime and regulation writ large suggest that the subjective cost or value of incentives is critical to their effectiveness. But reliable information about subjective valuation is scarce, as those who are punished have little reason to report honestly. Modern “big data” techniques promise to overcome this information shortfall but perhaps at the cost of individual privacy and the autonomy that privacy’s shield provides.

This Article argues that regulators can and should instead rely on methods that remain accurate even in the face of limited information. Building on a formal model we present elsewhere, we show ...


Criminal Procedure: Sentence And Punishment, Allison Kretovic, Insoo Lee Dec 2020

Criminal Procedure: Sentence And Punishment, Allison Kretovic, Insoo Lee

Georgia State University Law Review

The Act repeals certain provisions regarding the sentencing of defendants for crimes involving bias or prejudice and provides both criteria for punishment for those crimes and required reporting of those crimes.


Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar Dec 2020

Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article discusses the need for greater conceptual clarity of the term survivor. It raises questions about the propriety of the term to refer to the victims of sex trafficking. It points out that in the Indian context, the term victim is legally and operationally defined. It cautions against the hasty incorporation of the term survivor into public policies addressing the trafficked victims' problems. Different social platforms use the term survivor differently, and the difference is not nominal. The use of the term survivor is both casual as well as intentional. The term survivor trivializes the exploitation and makes invisible ...


"If Consent Is Bought, It Is Not Freely Chosen": Compromised Consent In Prostituted Sex In Ireland, Ivana Bacik Dec 2020

"If Consent Is Bought, It Is Not Freely Chosen": Compromised Consent In Prostituted Sex In Ireland, Ivana Bacik

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article offers feminist arguments for the reconsideration of consent as a legal concept, informed by insights gained through the work of the #MeToo movement and other feminist campaigns. It suggests that consent may be seen as legally compromised in certain contexts of structured gender inequality, such as domestic violence, workplace sexual harassment, and prostitution. The legal understanding of consent in such contexts is antithetical to the conception of consent as “freely and voluntarily” given within a mutual sexual relationship. This understanding of consent underpins the recent introduction of the Nordic model approach into Irish law through the Criminal Law ...


Suspects, Cars & Police Dogs: A Complicated Relationship, Brian R. Gallini Dec 2020

Suspects, Cars & Police Dogs: A Complicated Relationship, Brian R. Gallini

Washington Law Review

Officers are searching and arresting vehicle occupants without a warrant with increasing regularity. For justification, this Article demonstrates, lower courts across the country unconstitutionally expand the scope of the Fourth Amendment’s automobile exception—often in the context of a positive dog alert. But Supreme Court jurisprudence specifically limits the scope of the automobile exception to warrantless searches of cars and their containers. In other words, the probable cause underlying the automobile exception allows police to search a vehicle and its containers—nothing more.

Despite that clear guidance, this Article argues that a growing number of lower courts nationwide unconstitutionally ...


Never Mistake Law For Justice: Releasing Indigent Defendants From Legal Purgatory, R.K. Brinkmann Dec 2020

Never Mistake Law For Justice: Releasing Indigent Defendants From Legal Purgatory, R.K. Brinkmann

Washington Law Review

Washington courts impose two mandatory legal financial obligations (LFOs) on almost anyone who pleads guilty to or is convicted of a crime: a $100 DNA sample fee and a crime victim penalty assessment of $250 for misdemeanors and $500 for felonies. These fines run afoul of the Social Security Act, which bars attachment of Social Security benefits to pay debts, including LFOs. As a result, defendants whose sole source of income is Social Security benefits are not obligated to pay their mandatory LFOs. But such defendants cannot obtain certificates of discharge to clear their conviction records and thus complete their ...


The Female Face Of Misogyny: A Review Of Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Policy Approach To Intimate Partner Violence By Leigh Goodmark And The Feminist War On Crime: The Unexpected Role Of Women's Liberation In Mass Incarceration By Aya Gruber, Dianne L. Post Dec 2020

The Female Face Of Misogyny: A Review Of Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Policy Approach To Intimate Partner Violence By Leigh Goodmark And The Feminist War On Crime: The Unexpected Role Of Women's Liberation In Mass Incarceration By Aya Gruber, Dianne L. Post

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


No Longer Innocent Until Proven Guilty: How Ohio Violates The Fourth Amendment Through Familial Dna Searches Of Felony Arrestees, Jordan Mason Nov 2020

No Longer Innocent Until Proven Guilty: How Ohio Violates The Fourth Amendment Through Familial Dna Searches Of Felony Arrestees, Jordan Mason

Cleveland State Law Review

In 2013, the United States Supreme Court legalized DNA collection of all felony arrestees upon arrest through its decision in Maryland v. King. Since then, the State of Ohio has broadened the use of arrestee DNA by subjecting it to familial DNA searches. Ohio’s practice of conducting familial DNA searches of arrestee DNA violates the Fourth Amendment because arrestees have a reasonable expectation of privacy in the information that is extracted from a familial DNA search and it fails both the totality of the circumstances and the special needs tests. Further, these tests go against the intention of the ...


Domestic Violence In Criminal Courts: The Larger Implications For Victims, Jason Johnson Nov 2020

Domestic Violence In Criminal Courts: The Larger Implications For Victims, Jason Johnson

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

Academics have considered the treatment of domestic violence in Canada inadequate (Bell, Perez, Goodman, & Dutton, 2011) and “…an indicator of society's inattentiveness to violence against women…” (Garner & Maxwell, 2009, p. 44). Van Wormer (2009) further notes that there is still “…widespread dissatisfaction by battered women … and their advocates with the current system…” (p. 107). While much of the literature focuses on early aspects of the criminal justice system (police action, decision to prosecute, for e.g.), few authors have sought to understand victims opinions about the trial process (Hare, 2010; Smith, 2001). This paper conducts a literature review to analyse the practical reality of how the trial process of Canadian criminal courts affects victims’ well-being in domestic violence trials. Finding overwhelming literature suggesting courts inadequacy when addressing domestic violence, policy implications are suggested to better serve victim needs.


Cruel And Unusual: Why The Eighth Amendment Bans Charging Juveniles With Felony Murder, Cameron Casey Nov 2020

Cruel And Unusual: Why The Eighth Amendment Bans Charging Juveniles With Felony Murder, Cameron Casey

Boston College Law Review

The intersection of Supreme Court jurisprudence on the Eighth Amendment, felony murder, and juvenile justice supports the conclusion that it is unconstitutional to charge juveniles who did not kill, attempt to kill, or intend to kill with felony murder—a doctrine that allows individuals who unintentionally kill while committing a felony to be charged with murder. The Supreme Court has acknowledged that juveniles are different from adults because they lack maturity and the ability to understand the consequences of their actions. The felony murder doctrine hinges on a defendant’s anticipation of what might occur when carrying out a felony ...


Beyond Compare: A Codefendant's Prison Sentence As A Mitigating Factor In Death Penalty Cases, Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier Nov 2020

Beyond Compare: A Codefendant's Prison Sentence As A Mitigating Factor In Death Penalty Cases, Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier

Florida Law Review

This Article addresses whether the U.S. Constitution requires courts to permit capital defendants to submit, during sentencing, the mitigating factor that a codefendant for the same murder was sentenced to prison instead of to death.

The U.S. Supreme Court has repeatedly stressed the important of mitigating factors in capital cases. For the most part, litigation since the reintroduction of capital punishment in the 1970s has clarified what circumstances are to be weighed as mitigating. But the Court has not addressed the current divide among lower courts regarding whether the Eighth Amendment requires courts to allow juries to consider ...


Life In Jail For Misbehavior: Criminal Contempt And The Consequence Of Improper Classification, Kaley Ree Jaslow Nov 2020

Life In Jail For Misbehavior: Criminal Contempt And The Consequence Of Improper Classification, Kaley Ree Jaslow

Florida Law Review

Contempt is a crime that can be traced back to twelfth century England. It was an offense of disobedience that caused the obstruction of justice, and the punishment of such crimes was deeply important to the English justice system. Subsequent to the American Revolution, early American courts retained the use of contempt. Today, in the United States, criminal contempt is a federal crime under 18 U.S.C. § 401. Despite the federal code, actions that exemplify contempt are not specifically defined by statute. Judges are granted broad discretion in determining which actions are contemptuous and which are not. Moreover, federal ...