Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 6705

Full-Text Articles in Law

Covid In Menard, Deandre Banks Oct 2020

Covid In Menard, Deandre Banks

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


Pandemic Thoughts While On Lock, Kevin Dugar Oct 2020

Pandemic Thoughts While On Lock, Kevin Dugar

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


Sick Deal: Injustice And Plea Bargaining During Covid-19, Ryan T. Cannon Oct 2020

Sick Deal: Injustice And Plea Bargaining During Covid-19, Ryan T. Cannon

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


Following Data: The "Defund The Police" Movement's Implications For Elementary And Secondary Schools, Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance Oct 2020

Following Data: The "Defund The Police" Movement's Implications For Elementary And Secondary Schools, Michael Heise, Jason P. Nance

JCLC Online

Nationwide calls to “Defund the Police,” largely attributable to Black Lives Matter demonstrations, have motivated derivative calls for public school districts to consider “defunding” school resource officer (“SRO/police”) programs. To be sure, school districts’ SRO/police programs endure as a subject of persistent scholarly and public scrutiny, particularly relating to how a school’s SRO/police presence influences the school’s student discipline reporting policies and practices. How schools report student discipline and whether the process involves referrals to law enforcement agencies matter, particularly as they may fuel a growing “school-to-prison pipeline.” The “school-to-prison pipeline” research literature features two ...


The Opportunity In Crisis: How 2020'S Challenges Present New Opportunities For Prosecutors, Chesa Boudin Oct 2020

The Opportunity In Crisis: How 2020'S Challenges Present New Opportunities For Prosecutors, Chesa Boudin

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


Crisis And Coercive Pleas, Thea Johnson Oct 2020

Crisis And Coercive Pleas, Thea Johnson

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


A Wrong Without A Right? Overcoming The Prison Litigation Reform Act's Physical Injury Requirement In Solitary Confinement Cases, Maggie Filler, Daniel Greenfield Aug 2020

A Wrong Without A Right? Overcoming The Prison Litigation Reform Act's Physical Injury Requirement In Solitary Confinement Cases, Maggie Filler, Daniel Greenfield

Northwestern University Law Review

This Essay argues against applying the so-called “physical injury” requirement of the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) to deny monetary compensation to solitary confinement survivors. The Essay identifies three ways in which misapplication of the PLRA’s physical injury requirement limits the ability of solitary confinement survivors to receive monetary compensation for psychological harm suffered. First, some courts applying the PLRA wrongly dismiss damages claims for alleging “de minimis” physical injury. Second, some courts have been reluctant to find that physical injury caused by psychological trauma satisfies the PLRA’s physical injury requirement. Third, courts do not distinguish between “garden ...


Is Solitary Confinement A Punishment?, John F. Stinneford Aug 2020

Is Solitary Confinement A Punishment?, John F. Stinneford

Northwestern University Law Review

The United States Constitution imposes a variety of constraints on the imposition of punishment, including the requirements that the punishment be authorized by a preexisting penal statute and ordered by a lawful judicial sentence. Today, prison administrators impose solitary confinement on thousands of prisoners despite the fact that neither of these requirements has been met. Is this imposition a “punishment without law,” or is it a mere exercise of administrative discretion? In an 1890 case called In re Medley, the Supreme Court held that solitary confinement is a separate punishment subject to constitutional restraints, but it has ignored this holding ...


Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health Aug 2020

Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health

Northwestern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Foreword, David M. Shapiro, Emily Mccormick, Annie Prossnitz Aug 2020

Foreword, David M. Shapiro, Emily Mccormick, Annie Prossnitz

Northwestern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Punishment In Prison: Constituting The "Normal" And The "Atypical" In Solitary And Other Forms Of Confinement, Judith Resnik, Hirsa Amin, Sophie Angelis, Megan Hauptman, Laura Kokotailo, Aseem Mehta, Madeline Silva, Tor Tarantola, Meredith Wheeler Aug 2020

Punishment In Prison: Constituting The "Normal" And The "Atypical" In Solitary And Other Forms Of Confinement, Judith Resnik, Hirsa Amin, Sophie Angelis, Megan Hauptman, Laura Kokotailo, Aseem Mehta, Madeline Silva, Tor Tarantola, Meredith Wheeler

Northwestern University Law Review

What aspects of human liberty does incarceration impinge? A remarkable group of Black and white prisoners, most of whom had little formal education and no resources, raised that question in the 1960s and 1970s. Incarcerated individuals asked judges for relief from corporal punishment; radical food deprivations; strip cells; solitary confinement in dark cells; prohibitions on bringing these claims to courts, on religious observance, and on receiving reading materials; and from transfers to long- term isolation and to higher security levels.

Judges concluded that some facets of prison that were once ordinary features of incarceration, such as racial segregation, rampant violence ...


Mass Solitary And Mass Incarceration: Explaining The Dramatic Rise In Prolonged Solitary In America's Prisons, Jules Lobel Aug 2020

Mass Solitary And Mass Incarceration: Explaining The Dramatic Rise In Prolonged Solitary In America's Prisons, Jules Lobel

Northwestern University Law Review

In the last two decades of the twentieth century, prisons throughout the United States witnessed a dramatic rise in the use of solitary confinement, and the practice continues to be widespread. From the latter part of the nineteenth century until the 1970s and ’80s, prolonged solitary confinement in the United States had fallen into disuse, as numerous observers and the United States Supreme Court recognized that the practice caused profound mental harm to prisoners. The reasons for this dramatic rise in the nationwide use of solitary confinement and the development of new supermax prisons have not been explored in depth ...


The Science Of Solitary: Expanding The Harmfulness Narrative, Craig Haney Aug 2020

The Science Of Solitary: Expanding The Harmfulness Narrative, Craig Haney

Northwestern University Law Review

The harmful effects of solitary confinement have been established in a variety of direct observations and empirical studies that date back to the nineteenth century, conducted in many different countries by researchers with diverse disciplinary backgrounds. This Essay argues that these effects should be situated and understood in the context of a much larger scientific literature that documents the adverse and sometimes life- threatening psychological and physical consequences of social isolation, social exclusion, loneliness, and the deprivation of caring human touch as they occur in free society. These dangerous conditions are the hallmarks of solitary confinement. Yet they are imposed ...


How Do We Reach A National Tipping Point In The Campaign To Stop Solitary?, Amy Fettig Aug 2020

How Do We Reach A National Tipping Point In The Campaign To Stop Solitary?, Amy Fettig

Northwestern University Law Review

The use and abuse of solitary confinement in American prisons, jails, and juvenile detention centers is at epidemic levels. On any given day 80,000 to 100,000 people in prisons are subjected to a practice considered inhumane and degrading treatment—even torture under international human rights standards. Despite widespread international condemnation, decades of research demonstrating the harm it inflicts on human beings, and a growing chorus from the medical community raising alarms about its impact on the brain, solitary confinement remains a routine prison-management strategy in correctional institutions nationwide. In the past decade, however, a growing movement has emerged ...


Incrementalist Vs. Maximalist Reform: Solitary Confinement Case Studies, Margo Schlanger Aug 2020

Incrementalist Vs. Maximalist Reform: Solitary Confinement Case Studies, Margo Schlanger

Northwestern University Law Review

Among criminal justice reformers, it has long been hotly contested whether moderate reform helps or harms more efforts to achieve more thoroughgoing change. With respect to solitary confinement, do partial and ameliorative measures undermine the goal of solitary confinement abolition? Or do reformist campaigns advance—albeit incrementally—that ultimate goal? Call this a debate between “incrementalists” and “maximalists.” I offer this Essay as an appeal for empirical rather than aesthetic inquiry into the question. After summarizing nationwide reform litigation efforts that began in the 1970s, I try to shed some factual light by examining solitary reform efforts in two states ...


Debt Bondage: How Private Collection Agencies Keep The Formerly Incarcerated Tethered To The Criminal Justice System, Bryan L. Adamson Apr 2020

Debt Bondage: How Private Collection Agencies Keep The Formerly Incarcerated Tethered To The Criminal Justice System, Bryan L. Adamson

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

This Article examines the constitutionality of statutes which allow courts to transfer outstanding legal financial obligations to private debt collection agencies. In Washington State, the clerk of courts can transfer the legal financial obligation of a formerly incarcerated person if he or she is only thirty days late making a payment. Upon transfer, the debt collection agencies can assess a “collection fee” of up to 50% of the first $100.000 of the unpaid legal financial obligation, and up to 35% of the unpaid debt over $100,000. This fee becomes part of the LFO debt imposed at sentencing, and ...


Learning Facts From Fiction In Jay-Z'S 99 Problems, Karl T. Muth Apr 2020

Learning Facts From Fiction In Jay-Z'S 99 Problems, Karl T. Muth

JCLC Online

No abstract provided.


Stepping Into The Shoes Of The Department Of Justice: The Unusual, Necessary, And Hopeful Path The Illinois Attorney General Took To Require Police Reform In Chicago, Lisa Madigan, Cara Hendrickson, Karyn L. Bass Ehler Jan 2020

Stepping Into The Shoes Of The Department Of Justice: The Unusual, Necessary, And Hopeful Path The Illinois Attorney General Took To Require Police Reform In Chicago, Lisa Madigan, Cara Hendrickson, Karyn L. Bass Ehler

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Replacing Death With Life? The Rise Of Lwop In The Context Of Abolitionist Campaigns In The United States, Michelle Miao Jan 2020

Replacing Death With Life? The Rise Of Lwop In The Context Of Abolitionist Campaigns In The United States, Michelle Miao

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

On the basis of fifty-four elite interviews[1] with legislators, judges, attorneys, and civil society advocates as well as a state-by-state data survey, this Article examines the complex linkage between the two major penal trends in American society during the past decades: a declining use of capital punishment across the United States and a growing population of prisoners serving “life without the possibility of parole” or “LWOP” sentences. The main contribution of the research is threefold. First, the research proposes to redefine the boundary between life and death in relation to penal discourses regarding the death penalty and LWOP. LWOP ...


Families Belong Together: The Path To Family Sanctity In Public Housing, Mckayla Stokes Jan 2020

Families Belong Together: The Path To Family Sanctity In Public Housing, Mckayla Stokes

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

In its 2015 landmark civil rights decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court finally held that the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the United States Constitution guarantee same-sex couples’ marital equality. The Court’s unprecedented declaration that the right to marry is a fundamental right under the Due Process Clause strengthened married couples’ right to privacy because it subjects government actions infringing on marital unions to heightened scrutiny. The Supreme Court has the option to minimize the impact of Obergefell by interpreting the right to marriage very narrowly—as only encompassing the right to enter into a ...


The Prosecutor As A Final Safeguard Against False Convictions: How Prosecutors Assist With Exoneration, Elizabeth Webster Jan 2020

The Prosecutor As A Final Safeguard Against False Convictions: How Prosecutors Assist With Exoneration, Elizabeth Webster

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Prosecutors have helped secure an unprecedented number of recent exonerations. This development, combined with the rapid emergence of district attorney-initiated conviction integrity units (CIUs) raises several questions. How do prosecutors’ offices review postconviction innocence claims? How do they make decisions about the merits of those claims? How do CIU processes differ from non-CIU processes? This study examines the circumstances surrounding prosecutor-assisted exoneration cases through semi-structured interviews with 20 prosecutors and 19 defense attorneys. It draws from a sample of both CIU and non-CIU prosecutors, thereby enabling comparisons. Respondents were asked about their experiences and decision-making structures in specific, post-2005 exoneration ...


An Exoneree's Interrogation Nightmare, Christopher Ochoa Jan 2020

An Exoneree's Interrogation Nightmare, Christopher Ochoa

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


Defining "Special Care", Ben Gifford Jan 2020

Defining "Special Care", Ben Gifford

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

For the better part of the last century, the Supreme Court has held that courts must evaluate the voluntariness of juvenile confessions with “special care.” This special care requirement cautions courts against judging juveniles “by the more exacting standards of maturity” or comparing a juvenile suspect “with an adult in full possession of his senses and knowledgeable of the consequences of his admissions.” It also instructs courts to ensure that a juvenile’s “admission was voluntary, in the sense not only that it was not coerced or suggested, but also that it was not the product of ignorance of rights ...


Inaccuracy And The Involuntary Confession: Understanding Rogers V. Richmond Rightly, Dean A. Strang Jan 2020

Inaccuracy And The Involuntary Confession: Understanding Rogers V. Richmond Rightly, Dean A. Strang

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


Eyewitness Identification And The Problematics Of Blackstonian Reform Of The Criminal Law, Lawrence Rosenthal Jan 2020

Eyewitness Identification And The Problematics Of Blackstonian Reform Of The Criminal Law, Lawrence Rosenthal

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

A substantial number of wrongful convictions are attributable to inaccurate identifications of perpetrators, stemming from the difficulties that eyewitnesses can experience in accurately perceiving and later recalling faces. Many have argued that courts should employ prophylactic rules to prevent the admission of unreliable identification evidence. Yet, most jurisdictions continue to follow the deferential approach to the admission of eyewitness identification evidence taken by the United States Supreme Court in Manson v. Brathwaite. Commentators have universally condemned this state of affairs.

This Article offers a departure from the existing commentary by taking seriously the possibility that courts have good reason for ...


“You May Be Down And Out, But You Ain’T Beaten”: Collective Bargaining For Incarcerated Workers, Keith Armstrong Jan 2020

“You May Be Down And Out, But You Ain’T Beaten”: Collective Bargaining For Incarcerated Workers, Keith Armstrong

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The Supreme Court’s sweeping 1977 decision in Jones v. North Carolina Prisoners’ Labor Union determined that a state’s reasonable interest in maintaining security in a correctional facility outweighed prisoners’ freedom of association in seeking to unionize. This decision had a chilling effect on a burgeoning prisoners’ union movement which had risen to prominence over the course of the 1970s. Since Jones, prison labor has increased and changed form: the Prison Industry Enhancement (PIE) Act of 1979 authorized private firms to sell prisoner-made goods on the open market. At the same time, prisoners continue to work in more traditional ...


Considering A Domestic Terrorism Statute And Its Alternatives, Francesca Laguardia Jan 2020

Considering A Domestic Terrorism Statute And Its Alternatives, Francesca Laguardia

Northwestern University Law Review

Recent years have seen an increase in right-wing extremist violence within the United States, which has highlighted the disparities in law enforcement’s handling of “international” as opposed to “domestic” terrorism. Public, legal, and law enforcement commenters have begun calling for a “domestic terrorism statute,” arguing that the lack of such a statute is the largest hurdle in prosecuting domestic terrorists. This Essay explains that the primary cause of the disparity in prosecutions between domestic and international terrorists is not a lack of a domestic terrorism statute but rather the lack of a generalized terrorism statute and the failure to ...


Innocent Juvenile Confessions, Seth P. Waxman Jan 2020

Innocent Juvenile Confessions, Seth P. Waxman

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


Protecting Crime Victims In State Constitutions: The Example Of The New Marsy's Law For Florida, Paul G. Cassell, Margaret Garvin Jan 2020

Protecting Crime Victims In State Constitutions: The Example Of The New Marsy's Law For Florida, Paul G. Cassell, Margaret Garvin

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

A majority of states have adopted state constitutional amendments protecting crime victims’ rights. Most of those amendments were adopted long ago and many fail to comprehensively address crime victims’ interests. In response to these shortcomings, the nation is seeing a new wave of state constitutional amendments protecting crime victims’ rights. Among these states is Florida, where in November 2018 Florida voters approved significantly expanded protections for crime victims in Florida’s Constitution—Marsy’s Law for Florida.

This Article explains in detail how Marsy’s Law for Florida provides important new protections for crime victims in the Florida criminal justice ...


Federal Detention And “Wild Facts” During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabriel A. Fuentes Jan 2020

Federal Detention And “Wild Facts” During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Gabriel A. Fuentes

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.