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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello Apr 2021

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

This study seeks to determine whether there are any differences in conviction rates or client satisfaction between public defenders and private attorneys in state or federal courts. Although researchers have spent time examining differences between attorney type and client satisfaction or conviction rates, little information exists on the assessment of attorney type in the federal system. The study will consist of a two-part survey with approximately twenty-seven closed-ended questions about client satisfaction, conviction, court, and attorney type. The target population will be any criminal defendant in federal or state court with an attorney. In this study, the sampling method will ...


The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens Apr 2021

The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens

Criminology Student Work

Forensic interrogation is a vital step in the process of criminal investigations in order to extract information about suspects and the crime at hand. However, tunnel vision, artificial time constraints, lack of thorough training, and noble-cause corruption can influence how an investigator decides to interrogate a suspect or witness. When these influences are exerted on an investigator, the need to secure an arrest and conviction overpowers the need for justice - this results in false confessions and wrongful convictions. This is otherwise known as “the end doesn't justify the means” mindset. This causes investigators to engage in unethical interrogations, whether ...


Domestic Violence In Criminal Courts: The Larger Implications For Victims, Jason Johnson Nov 2020

Domestic Violence In Criminal Courts: The Larger Implications For Victims, Jason Johnson

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

Academics have considered the treatment of domestic violence in Canada inadequate (Bell, Perez, Goodman, & Dutton, 2011) and “…an indicator of society's inattentiveness to violence against women…” (Garner & Maxwell, 2009, p. 44). Van Wormer (2009) further notes that there is still “…widespread dissatisfaction by battered women … and their advocates with the current system…” (p. 107). While much of the literature focuses on early aspects of the criminal justice system (police action, decision to prosecute, for e.g.), few authors have sought to understand victims opinions about the trial process (Hare, 2010; Smith, 2001). This paper conducts a literature review to analyse the practical reality of how the trial process of Canadian criminal courts affects victims’ well-being in domestic violence trials. Finding overwhelming literature suggesting courts inadequacy when addressing domestic violence, policy implications are suggested to better serve victim needs.


Cruel And Unusual: Why The Eighth Amendment Bans Charging Juveniles With Felony Murder, Cameron Casey Nov 2020

Cruel And Unusual: Why The Eighth Amendment Bans Charging Juveniles With Felony Murder, Cameron Casey

Boston College Law Review

The intersection of Supreme Court jurisprudence on the Eighth Amendment, felony murder, and juvenile justice supports the conclusion that it is unconstitutional to charge juveniles who did not kill, attempt to kill, or intend to kill with felony murder—a doctrine that allows individuals who unintentionally kill while committing a felony to be charged with murder. The Supreme Court has acknowledged that juveniles are different from adults because they lack maturity and the ability to understand the consequences of their actions. The felony murder doctrine hinges on a defendant’s anticipation of what might occur when carrying out a felony ...


Beyond Compare: A Codefendant's Prison Sentence As A Mitigating Factor In Death Penalty Cases, Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier Nov 2020

Beyond Compare: A Codefendant's Prison Sentence As A Mitigating Factor In Death Penalty Cases, Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier

Florida Law Review

This Article addresses whether the U.S. Constitution requires courts to permit capital defendants to submit, during sentencing, the mitigating factor that a codefendant for the same murder was sentenced to prison instead of to death.

The U.S. Supreme Court has repeatedly stressed the important of mitigating factors in capital cases. For the most part, litigation since the reintroduction of capital punishment in the 1970s has clarified what circumstances are to be weighed as mitigating. But the Court has not addressed the current divide among lower courts regarding whether the Eighth Amendment requires courts to allow juries to consider ...


Life In Jail For Misbehavior: Criminal Contempt And The Consequence Of Improper Classification, Kaley Ree Jaslow Nov 2020

Life In Jail For Misbehavior: Criminal Contempt And The Consequence Of Improper Classification, Kaley Ree Jaslow

Florida Law Review

Contempt is a crime that can be traced back to twelfth century England. It was an offense of disobedience that caused the obstruction of justice, and the punishment of such crimes was deeply important to the English justice system. Subsequent to the American Revolution, early American courts retained the use of contempt. Today, in the United States, criminal contempt is a federal crime under 18 U.S.C. § 401. Despite the federal code, actions that exemplify contempt are not specifically defined by statute. Judges are granted broad discretion in determining which actions are contemptuous and which are not. Moreover, federal ...


Reconceptualizing Criminal Justice Reform For Offenders With Serious Mental Illness, E. Lea Johnston Nov 2020

Reconceptualizing Criminal Justice Reform For Offenders With Serious Mental Illness, E. Lea Johnston

Florida Law Review

Roughly 14% of male inmates and 31% of female inmates suffer from one or more serious mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Policymakers and the public widely ascribe the overrepresentation of offenders with serious mental illness in the justice system to the “criminalization” of the symptoms of this afflicted population. The criminalization theory posits that the criminal justice system has served as the primary agent of social control over symptomatic individuals since the closure of state psychiatric hospitals in the 1950s and the tightening of civil commitment laws. The theory identifies untreated mental illness as ...


Coordinating Community Reintegration Services For “Deportable Alien” Defendants: A Moral And Financial Imperative, Amy F. Kimpel Nov 2020

Coordinating Community Reintegration Services For “Deportable Alien” Defendants: A Moral And Financial Imperative, Amy F. Kimpel

Florida Law Review

Recidivism rates for individuals who are convicted of illegal entry and re-entry (U.S.C. §§ 1325 and 1326) are quite high despite post-sentencing deportations. The “holistic defense” model developed in New York City at the Neighborhood Defender Services and Bronx Defenders has been instrumental in achieving better outcomes for criminal defendants and their communities, in large part due to an emphasis on re-entry or reintegration services for defendants being released from incarceration. However, that model is difficult to implement when applied to noncitizen defendants who are to be deported. This Article argues that some attention to re-entry services for deportable ...


Taming Self-Defense: Using Deadly Force To Prevent Escapes, Robert Leider Nov 2020

Taming Self-Defense: Using Deadly Force To Prevent Escapes, Robert Leider

Florida Law Review

The modern fleeing felon rule permits police officers to use deadly force when necessary to prevent the escape of a person who has committed a violent felony. To justify this rule, the Supreme Court has relied on self-defense and defense of others. This Article argues against the self-defense justification. Fleeing felons—even those suspected of violent crimes—are not imminent threats to others solely by virtue of their flight. Stretching self-defense doctrine to justify the fleeing felon rule undermines critical limitations on private self-defense and has not produced an effective set of rules to limit police violence.

This Article further ...


Does Bitcoin Use Affect Crime Rates?, Kevin Keane Nov 2020

Does Bitcoin Use Affect Crime Rates?, Kevin Keane

The Corinthian

Bitcoin is the most widely used cryptocurrency in the world because of its decentralized network that completes user-to-user transactions, eliminating the need for intermediaries. During 2017, the volume of Bitcoin transactions totaled $94.3 trillion. Bitcoin transactions are recorded in a public database called the blockchain. Although the blockchain can keep track of how many transactions there are, it can’t identify the people involved in transactions. The lack of identity increases the anonymity of Bitcoin transactions, making it less detectable when used for crime. Using the Uniform Crime Reporting’s state-level crime rate data and blockchain’s Bitcoin transaction ...


Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse Nov 2020

Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay responds to Hirstein, Sifferd and Fagan’s book, Responsible Brains (MIT Press, 2018), which claims that executive function is the guiding mechanism that supports both responsible agency and the necessity for some excuses. In contrast, I suggest that executive function is not the universal acid and the neuroscience at present contributes almost nothing to the necessary psychological level of explanation and analysis. To the extent neuroscience can be useful, it is virtually entirely dependent on well-validated psychology to correlate with the neuroscientific variables under investigation. The essay considers what executive function is and what the neuroscience adds to ...


Going Rogue: Independent Grand Juries Throughout America, Nino Monea Nov 2020

Going Rogue: Independent Grand Juries Throughout America, Nino Monea

Maine Law Review

Grand juries today do little more than passively approve (almost never disapprove) indictments proposed by prosecutors. But this stands in stark contrast to grand juries in the past. They investigated cases themselves and their purview went well beyond criminal matters. This Article looks in-depth at three historical cases where grand juries not only conducted major investigations but took on major additional roles. They ousted corrupt public officials, ran their cities in the interim, or booted prosecutors that failed to do their jobs. These examples demonstrate that grand juries in modern society could have a more robust role in the justice ...


Reimagining Criminal Justice: The Violence Of Incarceration In The Midst Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Tammy Henson Nov 2020

Reimagining Criminal Justice: The Violence Of Incarceration In The Midst Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Tammy Henson

Reimagining Criminal Justice

Six years after the infamous and disturbing elevator video of former NFL player Ray Rice punching his fiancée Janay Palmer in the face, knocking her unconscious and then dragging her out of the elevator, Rice and Palmer remain happily married, both speaking out against domestic violence. Contrast Rice’s story to that of Samuel Lee Scott, a husband charged with murdering his wife hours after a nonprofit group posted his bail in a domestic violence case. The difference in these cases: Rice was given domestic violence counseling in lieu of jail, Scott was incarcerated. Research shows that incarceration actually increases ...


Ai In Adjudication And Administration, Cary Coglianese, Lavi M. Ben Dor Nov 2020

Ai In Adjudication And Administration, Cary Coglianese, Lavi M. Ben Dor

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The use of artificial intelligence has expanded rapidly in recent years across many aspects of the economy. For federal, state, and local governments in the United States, interest in artificial intelligence has manifested in the use of a series of digital tools, including the occasional deployment of machine learning, to aid in the performance of a variety of governmental functions. In this paper, we canvas the current uses of such digital tools and machine-learning technologies by the judiciary and administrative agencies in the United States. Although we have yet to see fully automated decision-making find its way into either adjudication ...


Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie Nov 2020

Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie

Michigan Law Review

In this Article, we provide a new statistical and legal framework to understand the legality and fairness of predictive algorithms under the Equal Protection Clause. We begin by reviewing the main legal concerns regarding the use of protected characteristics such as race and the correlates of protected characteristics such as criminal history. The use of race and nonrace correlates in predictive algorithms generates direct and proxy effects of race, respectively, that can lead to racial disparities that many view as unwarranted and discriminatory. These effects have led to the mainstream legal consensus that the use of race and nonrace correlates ...


Possible Reliance: Protecting Legally Innocent Johnson Claimants, Keagan Potts Nov 2020

Possible Reliance: Protecting Legally Innocent Johnson Claimants, Keagan Potts

Michigan Law Review

The writ of habeas corpus presents the last chance for innocent defendants to obtain relief from invalid convictions and sentences. The writ constitutes a limited exception to the finality of judgments. Given the role finality plays in conserving judicial resources and deterring criminal conduct, exceptions created by habeas must be principally circumscribed. Since the Supreme Court’s invalidation of the Armed Career Criminal Act’s residual clause in Johnson v. United States, the federal courts of appeals have attempted to develop a test that protects the writ from abuse by Johnson claimants.

This Note first contributes a new understanding of ...


Major Reforms For Minors’ Confessions: Rethinking Self-Incrimination Protections For Juveniles, Maxwell J. Fabiszewski Oct 2020

Major Reforms For Minors’ Confessions: Rethinking Self-Incrimination Protections For Juveniles, Maxwell J. Fabiszewski

Boston College Law Review

The right against self-incrimination has been a part of American law since before the enactment of the Fifth Amendment. In the twentieth century, extreme police interrogation methods led the U.S. Supreme Court to institute further protections of this constitutional principle. Most significantly, in 1966, in Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court permanently altered American criminal procedure and culture by extending the now-famous Miranda rights to individuals before custodial interrogation. Over fifty years later, these procedural safeguards to the right against self-incrimination have met virtually universal criticism for their ineffectiveness. Matters are particularly dire for juveniles because the law has ...


Reimagining Criminal Justice: The Lasting Effects Of The 3 Strikes Law And Proposition 20, Markie Flores Oct 2020

Reimagining Criminal Justice: The Lasting Effects Of The 3 Strikes Law And Proposition 20, Markie Flores

Reimagining Criminal Justice

Despite many people calling for cuts to police budgets this year, police unions have contributed more than half of the nearly $4 million raised for Proposition 20’s campaign deemed the “Reducing Crime and Keeping California Safe Act.” The proposition would erode the impact of Proposition 36 and 57 and expand the list of crimes for which early release is not an option. Proposition 20 wishes to define 51 crimes and sentence enhancements as violent. Listing them as violent will ensure they are excluded from the early release program Proposition 57 enacted in 2016.


Big Brother Is Watching: Law Enforcement's Use Of Digital Technology In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel D. Hodge Jr. Oct 2020

Big Brother Is Watching: Law Enforcement's Use Of Digital Technology In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel D. Hodge Jr.

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Looking Back, Looking Forward: Women In Criminal Justice Task Force, Maryam Ahranjani Oct 2020

Looking Back, Looking Forward: Women In Criminal Justice Task Force, Maryam Ahranjani

Faculty Scholarship

Since the Criminal Justice Section’s Women in Criminal Justice Task Force launched in November 2018, we have heard from women in criminal law around the country about their experiences with (1) hiring, (2) retention, and (3) promotion of women in criminal justice. We set many goals for ourselves, including hosting listening sessions, publishing columns, and collecting data, and we are proud of all we have accomplished over the past nearly two years.


Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin Oct 2020

Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin

Seattle University Law Review

Ipse Dixit, the podcast on legal scholarship, provides a valuable service to the legal community and particularly to the legal academy. The podcast’s hosts skillfully interview guests about their legal and law-related scholarship, helping those guests communicate their ideas clearly and concisely. In this review essay, I argue that Ipse Dixit has made a major contribution to legal scholarship by demonstrating in its interview episodes that law review articles are neither the only nor the best way of communicating scholarly ideas. This contribution should be considered “scholarship,” because one of the primary goals of scholarship is to communicate new ...


Justice Sonia Sotomayor: The Court’S Premier Defender Of The Fourth Amendment, David L. Hudson Jr. Oct 2020

Justice Sonia Sotomayor: The Court’S Premier Defender Of The Fourth Amendment, David L. Hudson Jr.

Seattle University Law Review

This essay posits that Justice Sotomayor is the Court’s chief defender of the Fourth Amendment and the cherished values it protects. She has consistently defended Fourth Amendment freedoms—in majority, concurring, and especially in dissenting opinions. Part I recounts a few of her majority opinions in Fourth Amendment cases. Part II examines her concurring opinion in United States v. Jones. Part III examines several of her dissenting opinions in Fourth Amendment cases. A review of these opinions demonstrates what should be clear to any observer of the Supreme Court: Justice Sotomayor consistently defends Fourth Amendment principles and values.


Government Tweets, Government Speech: The First Amendment Implications Of Government Trolling, Douglas B. Mckechnie Oct 2020

Government Tweets, Government Speech: The First Amendment Implications Of Government Trolling, Douglas B. Mckechnie

Seattle University Law Review

President Trump has been accused of using @realDonaldTrump to troll his critics. While the President’s tweets are often attributed to his personal views, they raise important Constitutional questions. This article posits that @realDonaldTrump tweets are government speech and, where they troll government critics, they violate the Free Speech Clause. I begin the article with an exploration of President Trump’s use of @realDonaldTrump from his time as a private citizen to President. The article then chronicles the development of the government speech doctrine and the Supreme Court’s factors that differentiate private speech from government speech. I argue that ...


The Weaponization Of The “Alien Harboring” Statute In A New-Era Of Racial Animus Towards Immigrants, Hannah Hamley Oct 2020

The Weaponization Of The “Alien Harboring” Statute In A New-Era Of Racial Animus Towards Immigrants, Hannah Hamley

Seattle University Law Review

Federal law 8 U.S.C. § 1324(a)(1)(A)(iii), commonly referred to as the “Alien Harboring” statute, was passed sixty-eight years ago and has been used as a weapon against immigrants and their allies. Spanning back decades, numerous scholars, alarmed by the dangerous use of the statute, have written about its muddled congressional intent and the unclear definition of “harboring.” These issues continue to be relevant and are foundational concerns with the enforcement of the harboring statute. However, in the era of President Donald J. Trump, we are faced with a new danger. We are confronted with an ...


“Don’T Move”: Redefining “Physical Restraint” In Light Of A United States Circuit Court Divide, Julia Knitter Oct 2020

“Don’T Move”: Redefining “Physical Restraint” In Light Of A United States Circuit Court Divide, Julia Knitter

Seattle University Law Review

To reduce sentencing disparities and clarify the application of the sentencing guide to the physical restraint enhancement for a robbery conviction, this Comment argues that the United States Sentencing Commission (USSC) must amend the USSC Guidelines Manual to provide federal courts with a clearer and more concise definition of physical restraint. Additionally, although there are many state-level sentencing systems throughout the United States, this Comment only focuses on the federal sentencing guidelines for robbery because of the disparate way in which these guidelines are applied from circuit to circuit.


Defending Bridgegate, George D. Brown Oct 2020

Defending Bridgegate, George D. Brown

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The Supreme Court’s decision in the “Bridgegate” controversy has been the subject of intense debate. It has received strong support. However, some critics assail the decision as representative of a pattern of recent cases in which the Court has shown itself as indifferent to political corruption, if not supportive of it. Somewhat lost in the discussion is the decision’s potential to be the foundation for a seismic re-alignment of anti-corruption enforcement in the United States. The current model—with federal prosecution as the norm—is not cast in stone.


Analysis Of Criminal Law Literature A Bibliometric Study From 2010-2019, Jibran Jamshed Mr., Salman Naeem Dr., Khurshid Ahmad Oct 2020

Analysis Of Criminal Law Literature A Bibliometric Study From 2010-2019, Jibran Jamshed Mr., Salman Naeem Dr., Khurshid Ahmad

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The purpose of this research paper is to present a quantitative analysis of the Criminal Law Literature published from 2010 to 2019.

Design/Methodology: The Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database was used as a source for extracting the data of published documents during the period 2010-2019. The analysis of the published literature was based on the following indicators: research productivity of each country, annual publications, annual citations, highly cited articles, highly cited law journals, most productive institutions in the field of criminal law, and most prolific authors. Research articles, conference proceeding papers, book reviews and editorials ...


Determining The Perspective Of A Reasonable Police Officer: An Evidence -Based Proposal, Mitch Zamoff Oct 2020

Determining The Perspective Of A Reasonable Police Officer: An Evidence -Based Proposal, Mitch Zamoff

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


No Path To Redemption: Evaluating Texas’S Practice Of Sentencing Kids To De Facto Life Without Parole In Adult Prison, Lindsey Linder, Justin Martinez Oct 2020

No Path To Redemption: Evaluating Texas’S Practice Of Sentencing Kids To De Facto Life Without Parole In Adult Prison, Lindsey Linder, Justin Martinez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


It Is Time To Get Back To Basics On The Border, Donna Coltharp Oct 2020

It Is Time To Get Back To Basics On The Border, Donna Coltharp

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.