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Civil Rights and Discrimination

William & Mary Law School

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Section 6: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2019

Section 6: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Firearms Law Workshop Mini-Symposium, Part Iii: Framing The Second Amendment: Gun Rights, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties, Timothy Zick Aug 2019

Firearms Law Workshop Mini-Symposium, Part Iii: Framing The Second Amendment: Gun Rights, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties, Timothy Zick

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


To Be Gay And African: Addressing The Gross Human Rights Violations Of Homosexuals In Cameroon And Uganda, And Legislative Remedies For Their Mistreatment, Danielle E. Makia Jun 2019

To Be Gay And African: Addressing The Gross Human Rights Violations Of Homosexuals In Cameroon And Uganda, And Legislative Remedies For Their Mistreatment, Danielle E. Makia

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movements, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard Jun 2019

Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movements, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act At Age 10: Gina’S Controversial Assertion That Data Transparency Protects Privacy And Civil Rights, Barbara J. Evans May 2019

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act At Age 10: Gina’S Controversial Assertion That Data Transparency Protects Privacy And Civil Rights, Barbara J. Evans

William & Mary Law Review

The genomic testing industry is an edifice built on data transparency: transparent and often unconsented sharing of our genetic information with researchers to fuel scientific discovery, transparent sharing of our test results to help regulators infer whether the tests are safe and effective, and transparent sharing of our health information to help treat other patients on the premise that we gain reciprocity of advantage when each person’s health care is informed by the best available data about all of us. Transparency undeniably confers many social benefits but creates risks to the civil rights of the people whose genetic information ...


Qualified Immunity And Constitutional Structure, Katherine Mims Crocker May 2019

Qualified Immunity And Constitutional Structure, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

A range of scholars has subjected qualified immunity to a wave of criticism— and for good reasons. But the Supreme Court continues to apply the doctrine in ever more aggressive ways. By advancing two claims, this Article seeks to make some sense of this conflict and to suggest some thoughts toward a resolution.

First, while the Court has offered and scholars have rejected several rationales for the doctrine, layering in an account grounded in structural constitutional concerns provides a historically richer and analytically thicker understanding of the current qualified-immunity regime. For suits against federal officials, qualified immunity acts as a ...


Black Hair(Tage): Career Liability Or Civil Rights Issue?, Kaili Moss Apr 2019

Black Hair(Tage): Career Liability Or Civil Rights Issue?, Kaili Moss

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen Dec 2018

Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill Dec 2018

The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano Dec 2018

A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Right To Counsel In Criminal Cases: Still A National Crisis?, Mary Sue Backus, Paul Marcus Nov 2018

The Right To Counsel In Criminal Cases: Still A National Crisis?, Mary Sue Backus, Paul Marcus

Faculty Publications

In 1963, Gideon v. Wainwright dramatically changed the landscape of criminal justice with its mandate that poor criminal defendants be entitled to legal representation funded by the government. As scholars and practitioners have noted repeatedly over more than fifty years, states have generally failed to provide the equal access Gideon promised. This Article revisits the questions raised by the authors over a decade ago when they asserted that a genuine national crisis exists regarding the right to counsel in criminal cases for poor people. Sadly, despite a few isolated instances where litigation has sparked some progress, the issues remain the ...


The New Jim Crow’S Equal Protection Potential, Katherine Macfarlane Oct 2018

The New Jim Crow’S Equal Protection Potential, Katherine Macfarlane

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

In 1954, the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education opinion relied on social science research to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson’s separate but equal doctrine. Since Brown, social science research has been considered by the Court in cases involving equal protection challenges to grand jury selection, death penalty sentences, and affirmative action. In 2016, Justice Sotomayor cited an influential piece of social science research, Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, in her powerful Utah v. Strieff dissent. Sotomayor contended that the Court’s holding overlooked the unequal racial impact of ...


Section 7: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2018

Section 7: Civil Rights, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Restoring Fairness To Campus Sex Tribunals, Cynthia Ward Jul 2018

Restoring Fairness To Campus Sex Tribunals, Cynthia Ward

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Embracing The Chinese Exclusion Case: An International Law Approach To Racial Exclusions, Lauri Kai May 2018

Embracing The Chinese Exclusion Case: An International Law Approach To Racial Exclusions, Lauri Kai

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


It's Still Too Easy To Push Blacks, Minorities Off Of Juries, Jeffrey Bellin Dec 2017

It's Still Too Easy To Push Blacks, Minorities Off Of Juries, Jeffrey Bellin

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Walking While Trans: Profiling Of Transgender Women By Law Enforcement, And The Problem Of Proof, Leonore F. Carpenter, R. Barrett Marshall Nov 2017

Walking While Trans: Profiling Of Transgender Women By Law Enforcement, And The Problem Of Proof, Leonore F. Carpenter, R. Barrett Marshall

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The Violent State: Black Women's Invisible Struggle Against Police Violence, Michelle S. Jacobs Nov 2017

The Violent State: Black Women's Invisible Struggle Against Police Violence, Michelle S. Jacobs

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Section 1: Moot Court: Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd., Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2017

Section 1: Moot Court: Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd., Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Boundaries Of Obergefell, Andrew J. Pecoraro May 2017

Exploring The Boundaries Of Obergefell, Andrew J. Pecoraro

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Has The Future Already Been Forgotten? A Post-2007 Transgender Legal History Told Through The Eyes Of The Late, (Rarely) Great Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Katrina C. Rose Apr 2017

Has The Future Already Been Forgotten? A Post-2007 Transgender Legal History Told Through The Eyes Of The Late, (Rarely) Great Employment Non-Discrimination Act, Katrina C. Rose

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Doux Commerce, Religion, And The Limits Of Antidiscrimination Law, Nathan B. Oman Apr 2017

Doux Commerce, Religion, And The Limits Of Antidiscrimination Law, Nathan B. Oman

Faculty Publications

Recent cases involving religious businesses owners who object to providing services for same-sex weddings and resulting lawsuits have generated a vigorous academic and popular debate. That debate centers in part on the proper role of religion in the market. This article develops three theories of the proper relationship between commerce and religion and applies them to these conflicts. The first approach would apply the norms of liberal democratic governments to market actors. The second approach posits that any market outcome is legitimate so long as it results from voluntary contracts. These approaches yield contradictory and indeterminate advice on the conflicts ...


Data-Driven Discrimination At Work, Pauline T. Kim Feb 2017

Data-Driven Discrimination At Work, Pauline T. Kim

William & Mary Law Review

A data revolution is transforming the workplace. Employers are increasingly relying on algorithms to decide who gets interviewed, hired, or promoted. Although data algorithms can help to avoid biased human decision-making, they also risk introducing new sources of bias. Algorithms built on inaccurate, biased, or unrepresentative data can produce outcomes biased along lines of race, sex, or other protected characteristics. Data mining techniques may cause employment decisions to be based on correlations rather than causal relationships; they may obscure the basis on which employment decisions are made; and they may further exacerbate inequality because error detection is limited and feedback ...


“Meaningful Access” Demands Meaningful Efforts: The Need For Greater Access To Virginia State Courts For Limited English Proficient Litigants, Carolyn Harlamert Jan 2017

“Meaningful Access” Demands Meaningful Efforts: The Need For Greater Access To Virginia State Courts For Limited English Proficient Litigants, Carolyn Harlamert

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The Death Knell For The Death Penalty And The Significance Of Global Realism To Its Abolition From Glossip V. Gross To Brumfield V. Cain, Linda A. Malone Oct 2016

The Death Knell For The Death Penalty And The Significance Of Global Realism To Its Abolition From Glossip V. Gross To Brumfield V. Cain, Linda A. Malone

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court’s jurisprudence regarding the death penalty, whether or not cruel, has most certainly been unusual in the annals of criminal punishment. In the short span of four years, the Court foreclosed and then reopened this form of punishment in Furman v. Georgia and Gregg v. Georgia. One year later the Court would categorically exclude the punishment for the rape of an adult. Five years later the Court would again preclude the punishment, for any defendant convicted of felony-murder who did not participate or share in the homicidal act or intent. In 1986 the Court would struggle with ...


The Lawfulness Of The Same-Sex Marriage Decisions: Charles Black On Obergefell, Toni M. Massaro Oct 2016

The Lawfulness Of The Same-Sex Marriage Decisions: Charles Black On Obergefell, Toni M. Massaro

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Section 5: Civil Rights And Liberties, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Sep 2016

Section 5: Civil Rights And Liberties, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


The Trouble With Racial Quotas In Disparate Impact Remedial Orders, Wencong Fa Jun 2016

The Trouble With Racial Quotas In Disparate Impact Remedial Orders, Wencong Fa

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Justice Scalia’s concurring opinion in Ricci v. DeStefano highlighted severe conceptual tensions between the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which protects individuals from racial discrimination, and disparate impact liability, which protects racial groups from adverse effects. Last year’s Supreme Court decision in Texas Department of Housing & Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project, Inc. suggested that disparate impact liability under the Fair Housing Act was constitutionally unproblematic because successful fair housing lawsuits over the past four decades have led to only race-neutral remedial orders enjoining the practice causing the disparate impact.

This Article analyzes the constitutionality of ...


Madonnas And Whores In The Workplace, Jessica Fink Feb 2016

Madonnas And Whores In The Workplace, Jessica Fink

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Much has been written about “lookism”—the preferential treatment given to those who conform to societal standards of beauty. But in a recent case before the Iowa Supreme Court, a sex discrimination plaintiff alleged “reverse-lookism,” claiming that her male employer terminated her long-term employment because she was too physically attractive, thus tempting the employer to consider entering into an extramarital affair. To the great surprise of many who followed this case, the Iowa Supreme Court sided with the employer, declining to find him liable for sex discrimination. As one might expect, uproar ensued, with the media, the public, and the ...


Jack & Jill Take Lots Of Pills, But Jill Comes Tumbling After: Gender Inequality In Privately Funded Early Phase Clinical Trials, Shana F. Oppenheim Feb 2016

Jack & Jill Take Lots Of Pills, But Jill Comes Tumbling After: Gender Inequality In Privately Funded Early Phase Clinical Trials, Shana F. Oppenheim

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.