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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Law

The 21st Century Space Arms Race: Curtailing Heavenly Thunderbolts Through The Shield Of The ‘Peaceful Purposes’ Mantra, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland Dec 2008

The 21st Century Space Arms Race: Curtailing Heavenly Thunderbolts Through The Shield Of The ‘Peaceful Purposes’ Mantra, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Because of its uniquely commanding height, outer space has gained even greater military and strategic value in the post-Cold War international strategic environment. This provides for the possibility – some say probability - that outer space will become a platform for warfare. This development can only have negative consequences in the long term. As the United States pursues a policy that incorporates the placing of weapons in outer space, the other major space faring powers have not been idly sitting by. Recent advances in space technologies have put the development of space weapons within the realm of possibility for several other countries ...


Constituting Vanuatu: Societal, Legal And Local Perspectives, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict S Jan 2008

Constituting Vanuatu: Societal, Legal And Local Perspectives, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict S

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Governance in Vanuatu has been a source of concern for Australia as it forms part of Australia’s ‘Arc of Instability.’ Vanuatu has adopted a modified Westminster system as the Westminster system and its constitution are often advocated as the model for constitutions and governance around the world. In various former colonies local populations were expected to simply absorb its liberal democratic principles apparently on some assumption that such principles were an innate part of human nature. Most readings of history would come to a different conclusion. Vanuatu illustrates this error and the complexities of a society that create not ...


From Star Wars To Space Wars—The Next Strategic Frontier: Paradigms To Anchor Space Security, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland Jan 2008

From Star Wars To Space Wars—The Next Strategic Frontier: Paradigms To Anchor Space Security, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Military blueprints by major space-faring powers now encapsulate concepts of ‘space support’ and ‘force enhancement’ which point to a central role of space assets in facilitating military operations while notions of ‘space control’ and ‘force application’ suggest the weaponization of space, and the putative view that space may in the near future be a theatre of military operations. As defence goals increasingly focus on space as the final frontier evident in development of national missile defence systems, anti-satellite weapons and other space-based systems, international peace and security faces a new challenge. Creators of the current legal regime for space failed ...


The Private Military Company—Unravelling The Theoretical, Legal & Regulatory Mosaic, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict Sheehy Jan 2008

The Private Military Company—Unravelling The Theoretical, Legal & Regulatory Mosaic, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict Sheehy

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

As an undeclared arm of the state, the PMC is politically expedient having proved to be highly advantageous in certain circumstances when states wish to engage in surreptitious or unpopular violence, yet easy to condemn when states need to gather political capital. In other words, the PMC has become an integral actor in the system of governance at both national and international levels. Such corporations, at least at one level, represent the evolution, globalization, and corporatization of the age-old mercenary trade. The worry, of course, is that they operate without the public scrutiny appropriate for military actors. Indeed, the matter ...


A People Betrayed-The Darfur Crisis And International Law: Rethinking Westphalian Sovereignty In The 21st Century, Jackson N. Maogoto, Kithure Kindiki Jan 2007

A People Betrayed-The Darfur Crisis And International Law: Rethinking Westphalian Sovereignty In The 21st Century, Jackson N. Maogoto, Kithure Kindiki

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This Article uses the Darfur Crisis in Sudan as a case study. It argues that rather than eliminating sovereignty as a political ideology, a more productive enterprise would be to refocus the discourse away from the traditional structural understanding of the term, which only serves to accentuate the level of discrepancy between the theological and the political definitions of the term and which ultimately leaves the false impression that absolute sovereignty is somehow realizable in the international political sphere. This refocus would constitute a shift toward a functional conception of sovereignty, wherein the purpose that State sovereignty would serve in ...


The Final Frontier: The Laws Of Armed Conflict And Space Warfare, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland Jan 2007

The Final Frontier: The Laws Of Armed Conflict And Space Warfare, Jackson N. Maogoto, Steven Freeland

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This article focuses on the application of the current laws of war to the emerging phenomenon of space weaponization and the increasing likelihood in the next few decades of space becoming a battleground. This predicament requires new ways of thinking and legal regulation, considering that the existing principles of the Laws of Armed Conflict (LOAC) are primarily focused on air, land and terrestrial warfare. This article addresses the special problems arising from applying the LOAC to space warfare. It will also analyze the significant problems posed by space assets dedicated to uses of both a civilian and military nature – the ...


Subcontracting Sovereignty: The Commodification Of Military Force And The Fragmentation Of State Authority, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2006

Subcontracting Sovereignty: The Commodification Of Military Force And The Fragmentation Of State Authority, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This Article has as its central theme the decentralization of the state’s control over legitimate military force with the consequential diffusion of governmental control that stands to fragment state sovereignty. It argues that the increasing centrality of PMFs to the prosecution of war is creating a changed national security landscape with PMFs increasingly influencing governmental policy both overtly and covertly. PMF heads many of whom are former high ranking military and civilian personnel now advise governments and in some cases sit on government advisory boards. Additionally they also offer governments a conduit for pursuing covert foreign policy aims and ...


Gaming For “Good Governance” And The Democratic Ideal: From Universalist Rhetoric To Pacific Realities Seen Through A Fijian Microscope*, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2006

Gaming For “Good Governance” And The Democratic Ideal: From Universalist Rhetoric To Pacific Realities Seen Through A Fijian Microscope*, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This Article canvasses the international rubric and dynamic that informs the democracy and good governance crusade before moving the discussion to a regional setting targeting Pacific Island Countries with Fiji as a case study. It seeks to argue that democratic experimentalism, not the so-called “McDonaldization” (globalization as homogenization) of the world, is important. This is based on the premise that “McDonaldization” minimizes the complex way in which the local interacts with the international. The efficacy of democratic experimentalism is that it acknowledges that rights are not based on first principles, but that, they are inevitably socially constructed and historically contingent ...


Contemporary Private Military Firms Under International Law: An Unregulated “Gold Rush”, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict Sheehy Dec 2005

Contemporary Private Military Firms Under International Law: An Unregulated “Gold Rush”, Jackson N. Maogoto, Benedict Sheehy

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Clearly, the issues raised by the ascendance of contemporary PMFs would be suitable for a book length treatment; however, in light of the pressing nature of the present situation expediency dictates a shorter but timelier piece. This article has as its modest aim an exploration of the thorny legal issues raised by the commodification of force. It discusses the nature of the contemporary PMF noting that it bears vestiges of yester year mercenaries. It then grapples with their uncertain status under international law despite the fact that they potentially pose problems for state authority and the direct control of states ...


The Final Balance Sheet? The International Criminal Court’S Challenges And Concessions To The Westphalian Model, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2004

The Final Balance Sheet? The International Criminal Court’S Challenges And Concessions To The Westphalian Model, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This Article examines the organization and operating principles of the Court. Many aspects of the Rome Statute challenge fundamental tenets of the structure of international law existing heretofore. No analysis could address all the aspects of this new international institution and the Article seeks to focus attention on some of its major features impacting on State sovereignty--the focus of this Article. Part II of the Article explores the structure and competence of the Court and in particular the powers of the prosecutor, general principles underlying the jurisdiction of the Court, the formulation of the complementarity principle in the Court’s ...


The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda: A Paper Umbrella In The Rain? Initial Pitfalls And Brighter Prospects, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2003

The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda: A Paper Umbrella In The Rain? Initial Pitfalls And Brighter Prospects, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

The tragedy which befell Rwanda in 1994 deserves a special place in the bloodstained pages of history. The Rwandan genocide merits distinction primarily because of its shocking efficiency, its scale and its proportional dimensions among the victim population. The Security Council's resolution establishing the ICTR articulates a set of decisions, assumptions, wishes, and objectives. Primarily, the States that voted in favour of the creation of the ICTR indicated that the root of the problem was individual violations of international criminal law. Only one State that voted for the resolution did not equate ipso facto ICTR actions with justice. That ...


Rushing To Break The Law? “The Bush Doctrine” Of Pre-Emptive Strikes And The Un Charter Regime On The Use Of Force, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2003

Rushing To Break The Law? “The Bush Doctrine” Of Pre-Emptive Strikes And The Un Charter Regime On The Use Of Force, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

The issues that the Article tackles are obviously complex and lengthy, however the Article has as its modest goal the exploration of the general arguments that the use of force to counter terrorism raises under the UN Charter regime on the use of force. In Part II, the Article gives an overview of the UN and terrorism noting the ambivalence in addressing the issue that has contributed to the confusion over a precise definition in large part reflective of the basic disagreement over the elements of terrorism itself. Part II then adopts a definition for the purposes of this Article ...


Democratic Governance: An Emerging Customary Norm?, Jackson N. Maogoto Dec 2002

Democratic Governance: An Emerging Customary Norm?, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Democratic entitlement as a universal human right is a complex and multifaceted issue. The Article has as its modest aim a general reflection on the enshrinement of democracy as a universal entitlement and the movement of international law in a pro-democratic direction The Article will seek to highlight the general uncertainties that continue to plague the democratic entitlement. The Article deliberately focuses on the United Nations system with reference also being given to regional efforts. The Article does not discuss the legal justifications and nature of measures to address undemocratic regimes. While such measures are significant in pro-democratic discourse, it ...


Presiding Over The Ex-President: A Look At Superior Responsibility In The Light Of The Kosovo Indictment, Jackson N. Maogoto Jan 2002

Presiding Over The Ex-President: A Look At Superior Responsibility In The Light Of The Kosovo Indictment, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

Individual criminal responsibility, and command responsibility in particular, are important because, to deter human rights abuses, potential perpetrators must perceive prosecution as a possible consequence of their actions. Historically, the doctrine of command responsibility has been an important tool to hold accountable leaders who plan, participate in, or acquiesce in large-scale human rights abuses. The scope of the command responsibility doctrine remains one of the most important issues in prosecuting human rights atrocities. The scope of the doctrine determines the degree to which a leader can insulate himself from criminal culpability when the criminal acts were committed by others but ...


Revisiting The Balkan Crisis: A Un Question; The European Connection And The Us Solution, Jackson N. Maogoto Dec 2001

Revisiting The Balkan Crisis: A Un Question; The European Connection And The Us Solution, Jackson N. Maogoto

Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto

This Article examines the conflict in the former Yugoslavia which gave birth to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTFY). The ICTFY established the beginning of a new pattern in the genuine international implementation of international criminal and humanitarian law and the move back to the international model inaugurated at Nuremberg which had in the Cold War era been boldly supplanted by national prosecutions. The Article seeks to show that even this ad hoc tribunal was the by-product of international realpolitik. It was born out of a political desire to redeem the international community’s conscience rather than ...