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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 202

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Psychological Foundations Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

The Psychological Foundations Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Over the past decade, psychological research has enjoyed a rapidly expanding influence on legal scholarship. This expansion has established a new field—“Behavioral Law and Economics” (BLE). BLE’s principal insight is that human behavior commonly deviates from the predictions of rational choice theory in the marketplace, the election booth, and the courtroom. Because these deviations are predictable, and often harmful, legal rules can be crafted to reduce their undesirable influence. Ironically, BLE seldom recognizes that its intellectual origins lie with psychology more so than economics. This failure leaves BLE open to criticisms that can be answered only by embracing ...


Is Evolutionary Analysis Of Law Science Or Storytelling?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Is Evolutionary Analysis Of Law Science Or Storytelling?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

In recent years, some legal scholars have argued that legal scholarship could benefit from a greater reliance on theories of human behavior that arise from biological evolution. These scholars contend that reliance on biological evolution would successfully combine the rigor of economics with the scientific aspects of psychology. Complex legal systems, however, are uniquely human. Law has always been the product of cognitive processes that are unique to humans and that developed as a response to an environment that no longer exists. Consequently, the evolutionary development of the cognitive mechanisms upon which law depends cannot be rigorously modeled or studied ...


The Uncertain Psychological Case For Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

The Uncertain Psychological Case For Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

No abstract provided.


Reliability Matters: Reassociating Bagley Materiality, Strickland Prejudice, And Cumulative Harmless Error, John H. Blume, Christopher Seeds Dec 2014

Reliability Matters: Reassociating Bagley Materiality, Strickland Prejudice, And Cumulative Harmless Error, John H. Blume, Christopher Seeds

John H. Blume

No abstract provided.


Racial Politics Of American History And The United Nations: The Impact Of The Cold War On The Civil Rights Movement, Amy C. Cody Dec 2014

Racial Politics Of American History And The United Nations: The Impact Of The Cold War On The Civil Rights Movement, Amy C. Cody

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Thesis research focuses around the Civil Rights Congress' 1951 United Nations Petition charging the United States with genocide against the African American race. This thesis also examines the complexities of global politics and the impact Communism had on the civil rights organization's ability to gain support for reform on the domestic and international level.


An Empirical Evaluation Of The Connecticut Death Penalty System Since 1973: Are There Unlawful Racial, Gender, And Geographic Disparities?, John J. Donohue Dec 2014

An Empirical Evaluation Of The Connecticut Death Penalty System Since 1973: Are There Unlawful Racial, Gender, And Geographic Disparities?, John J. Donohue

John Donohue

This article analyzes the 205 death-eligible murders leading to homicide convictions in Connecticut from 1973–2007 to determine if discriminatory and arbitrary factors influenced capital outcomes. A regression analysis controlling for an array of legitimate factors relevant to the crime, defendant, and victim provides overwhelming evidence that minority defendants who kill white victims are capitally charged at substantially higher rates than minority defendants who kill minorities, that geography influences both capital charging and sentencing decisions (with the location of a crime in Waterbury being the single most potent influence on which death-eligible cases will lead to a sentence of death ...


Maritime Piracy And Armed Robbery Confrontations Across The Globe: Can Crew Action Shape The Outcomes?, Justin Stewart Lewis Dec 2014

Maritime Piracy And Armed Robbery Confrontations Across The Globe: Can Crew Action Shape The Outcomes?, Justin Stewart Lewis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Abstract

The recent tightening of military budget constraints has called into question the feasibility of costly multilateral naval intervention used to combat maritime piracy off the eastern coast of Africa. Though past studies agree that the transformation of the Somali economy and government is crucial for a long-term solution to piracy in this part of the world, short to medium-run solutions are needed to bridge the gap. Such solutions should be fiscally sensible and serve as effective deterrents, as well as be applicable in addressing the problem of piracy and maritime armed robbery in other parts of the globe.

In ...


Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein Nov 2014

Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

American legal realism was committed to examining legal reasoning in terms of the actual experiences of judges. Because the realist project sought to use social science tools to examine human nature, the contemporary rise of cognitive neuroscience provides an occasion for re-examining legal realism’s foundational critique of the law. Realism’s attempt to examine “the actual facts of judicial behavior” and to pursue a “scientific description and prediction of judicial behavior” appears to be a suitable vehicle for considering the relevance of cognitive neuroscience for legal theory. Cognitive neuroscience has provided convincing evidence for rejecting the traditional bifurcation between ...


Visualizing Probabilistic Proof, Enrique Guerra-Pujol Nov 2014

Visualizing Probabilistic Proof, Enrique Guerra-Pujol

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

The author revisits the Blue Bus Problem, a famous thought-experiment in law involving probabilistic proof, and presents Bayesian solutions to different versions of the blue bus hypothetical. In addition, the author expresses his solutions in standard and visual formats, that is, in terms of probabilities and natural frequencies.


Bringing Guns To A Gun Fight: Why The Adversarial System Is Best Served By A Policy Compelling Attorneys To Ethically Mine For Metadata, Justin Fong Nov 2014

Bringing Guns To A Gun Fight: Why The Adversarial System Is Best Served By A Policy Compelling Attorneys To Ethically Mine For Metadata, Justin Fong

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

No abstract provided.


Ethos, Pathos, And Logos: The Benefits Of Aristotelian Rhetoric In The Courtroom, Krista C. Mccormack Nov 2014

Ethos, Pathos, And Logos: The Benefits Of Aristotelian Rhetoric In The Courtroom, Krista C. Mccormack

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

No abstract provided.


On The Conceptual Confusions Of Jurisprudence, Aaron J. Rappaport Nov 2014

On The Conceptual Confusions Of Jurisprudence, Aaron J. Rappaport

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

No abstract provided.


Federal Civil Rights Litigation Pursuant To 42 U.S.C. §1983 As A Correlate Of Police Misconduct, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Theresa M. Lanese, Mallorie A. Wilson Nov 2014

Federal Civil Rights Litigation Pursuant To 42 U.S.C. §1983 As A Correlate Of Police Misconduct, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Theresa M. Lanese, Mallorie A. Wilson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Police officers acting in their official capacity are subject to being sued in federal court pursuant to 42 U.S.C. §1983 for violating constitutional rights under the color of law. Using data obtained in a larger study on police crime in the United States, names of more than 5,500 nonfederal sworn law enforcement officers who were arrested during the years 2005-2011 were checked against the civil case party master name index of the federal courts’ Public Access to Courts Electronic Records (PACER) system. Findings indicate that more than 20% of the police officers who were arrested for committing ...


Federal Civil Rights Litigation Pursuant To 42 U.S.C. §1983 As A Correlate Of Police Misconduct, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Theresa M. Lanese, Mallorie A. Wilson Nov 2014

Federal Civil Rights Litigation Pursuant To 42 U.S.C. §1983 As A Correlate Of Police Misconduct, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Theresa M. Lanese, Mallorie A. Wilson

Philip M Stinson

Police officers acting in their official capacity are subject to being sued in federal court pursuant to 42 U.S.C. §1983 for violating constitutional rights under the color of law. Using data obtained in a larger study on police crime in the United States, names of more than 5,500 nonfederal sworn law enforcement officers who were arrested during the years 2005-2011 were checked against the civil case party master name index of the federal courts’ Public Access to Courts Electronic Records (PACER) system. Findings indicate that more than 20% of the police officers who were arrested for committing ...


A Century Of Patent Litigation In Perspective, Ron D. Katznelson Nov 2014

A Century Of Patent Litigation In Perspective, Ron D. Katznelson

Ron D. Katznelson

When comparing patent litigation rates or “rarity” across decades, one must take into account the proportion to the actual scale of commercial activities that give rise to patent disputes. Such normalizing scales are preferably national metrics of commercial activity such as (a) the number of patents issued in the year, (b) the total number of patents in force over which disputes may arise, (c) the total number of Federal civil suits, or (d) the economic scale of the Gross National Product (GDP) in real dollars. This paper marshals for the first time information on all patent litigation in Federal district ...


Eric Holder's Recent Curtailment Of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing, Its Implications, And Prospects For Effective Reform, Alan Dahl Nov 2014

Eric Holder's Recent Curtailment Of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing, Its Implications, And Prospects For Effective Reform, Alan Dahl

Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law

No abstract provided.


Essay: Philemon, Marbury, And The Passive-Aggressive Assertion Of Legal Authority, Paul J. Larkin Jr. Nov 2014

Essay: Philemon, Marbury, And The Passive-Aggressive Assertion Of Legal Authority, Paul J. Larkin Jr.

Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law

No abstract provided.


Establishing A Suitable Lay Participation System For The Taiwanese Criminal Justice System, Yi-Lin Lou Nov 2014

Establishing A Suitable Lay Participation System For The Taiwanese Criminal Justice System, Yi-Lin Lou

Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on a recent judicial reform measure proposed by the Taiwanese Judicial Yuan in 2011. The measure’s objective was to improve the criminal justice system via the implementation of a so-called “lay observer system.” The dissertation begins with an analysis regarding whether the Taiwanese criminal justice system needs to reform, and it considers whether the introduction of the proposed lay observer system would be a reasonable means of achieving the Judicial Yuan’s goals and meeting its expectations, which include rebuilding the Taiwanese society’s trust in the professional judges’ credibility and the court’s fairness. The ...


What Color Is The Number Seven? Category Mistakes Analysis And The "Legislative/Non-Legislative" Distinction, John Martinez Nov 2014

What Color Is The Number Seven? Category Mistakes Analysis And The "Legislative/Non-Legislative" Distinction, John Martinez

Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law

No abstract provided.


7 Tips For An Efficient Faculty Bibliography: How To Tackle Faculty Bibliography Challenges With (Relative) Ease, Marcia L. Dority Baker, Stefanie S. Pearlman Nov 2014

7 Tips For An Efficient Faculty Bibliography: How To Tackle Faculty Bibliography Challenges With (Relative) Ease, Marcia L. Dority Baker, Stefanie S. Pearlman

The Marvin and Virginia Schmid Law Library

There are many reasons to compile a faculty bibliography: recording faculty accomplishments, preserving information for future generations, and supporting your institution’s external affairs office, to name a few. Also, it is a potential publication for librarians at a tenure-granting institution. So, why did we decide to create a faculty bibliography? It was a combination of past inquiries from our patrons and the need to publish. Prior to this bibliography, no such compilation of our faculty’s work existed. Although our library hosts a display of current faculty scholarship at the start of each fall semester to promote recent faculty ...


Table Annexed To Article: A Survey Of The Federal Convention's Note-Takers, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Oct 2014

Table Annexed To Article: A Survey Of The Federal Convention's Note-Takers, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Eleven of the fifty-five delegates that attended the Federal Convention took notes during the proceedings. These notes, along with Jackson’s official journal and available committee drafts, are assembled in Farrand’s Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. The best known are Major Wm. Jackson and James Madison, the convention’s official Secretary and its unofficial note-taker, respectively. The efforts of all twelve note-takers are surveyed by output.


Theories And Practices Of Islamic Finance And Exchange Laws: Poverty Of Interest, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Oct 2014

Theories And Practices Of Islamic Finance And Exchange Laws: Poverty Of Interest, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

While Islamic scriptures clearly prohibit profiting from the poor, supposedly sharī'ah-compliant Islamic financial and exchange laws circumvent prohibitions and limitations on ribā, monopolism, debt, and risk while failing to address the fundamental purpose behind the prohibitions—mitigating poverty. This work provides a historical survey of the principles that shape Islamic finance and exchange laws, reviews classical and modern interpretations and practices in the banking and exchange sectors, and suggests a normative model rooted in the interpretation of Islamic sources of law reconstructed from paradigmatic cases. Financial systems that overlook the nexus between poverty and usury harm both the economy ...


Physical Security For Elementary Schools, Tom Foley Oct 2014

Physical Security For Elementary Schools, Tom Foley

National Security and Intelligence Symposium

Presentation to the 10th Annual National Security and Intelligence Symposium on October 23, 2013. This presentation covers techniques for improving physical security in elementary schools.


Best Practices In Campus Threat Assessment & Management – An Overview, Sigma Threat Assessment Group Oct 2014

Best Practices In Campus Threat Assessment & Management – An Overview, Sigma Threat Assessment Group

National Security and Intelligence Symposium

No abstract provided.


Safe Havens Or Dangerous Waters? A Phenomenological Study Of Abused Women's Experiences In The Family Courts Of Ontario, Lois Shereen Winstock Oct 2014

Safe Havens Or Dangerous Waters? A Phenomenological Study Of Abused Women's Experiences In The Family Courts Of Ontario, Lois Shereen Winstock

PhD Dissertations

This qualitative, interdisciplinary research study explores the experiences of women abused by their intimate partners who appear as litigants in family court proceedings in Ontario, and the responses of judges presiding over those proceedings.

Domestic violence and abuse affects families from all social, economic and cultural groups. Women have been overwhelmingly identified as the victims of domestic violence and abuse. Children exposed to domestic violence and abuse, either directly or indirectly, are also negatively impacted. The term woman abuse has been employed to denote the gendered nature of the phenomena.

Studies of abused womens interactions with the legal system across ...


Confessions And Culture: The Interaction Of Miranda And Diversity, Floralynn Einesman Oct 2014

Confessions And Culture: The Interaction Of Miranda And Diversity, Floralynn Einesman

Floralynn Einesman

No abstract provided.


The Homicide Survivors’ Fairness-For-Victims Manifesto, Lester Jackson Oct 2014

The Homicide Survivors’ Fairness-For-Victims Manifesto, Lester Jackson

LESTER JACKSON

Murderer advocates place a far greater value on the lives of the most savage murderers than on the lives of their victims. Let them deny it; their words and deeds conclusively give the lie to that denial. The critical question is this: Whose concept of justice is going to prevail? The concept of a small but vocal well-financed minority with influence and power out of all proportion to its numbers, or that of the large but poorly financed and disorganized majority. In recent decades, the former have dominated. Tragically, compared to media-dominant murderer advocates, victims have been virtually voiceless. Yes ...


An Ntsb For Capital Punishment, Adam M. Gershowitz Oct 2014

An Ntsb For Capital Punishment, Adam M. Gershowitz

Faculty Publications

When a fatal traffic accident happens, we expect the local police and prosecutors to handle the investigation and criminal charges. When afatal airplane crash occurs, however, we turn instead to the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The reason is that air crashes are complicated and the NTSB has vast expertise. Without that expertise, investigations falter. We need look no further than the mess made by Malaysian authorities in the search for Flight 370 to see the importance of expertise in handling complicated investigations and processes. It is easy to point to a similar series of mistakes by local prosecutors and ...


Rethinking The Timing Of Capital Clemency, Adam M. Gershowitz Oct 2014

Rethinking The Timing Of Capital Clemency, Adam M. Gershowitz

Faculty Publications

This Article reviews every capital clemency over the last four decades. It demonstrates that in the majority of cases, the reason for commutation was known at the conclusion of direct appeals—years or even decades before the habeas process ended. Yet when governors or pardon boards actually commuted the death sentences, they typically waited until the eve of execution, with only days or hours to spare. Leaving clemency until the last minute sometimes leads to many years of unnecessary state and federal habeas corpus litigation, and this Article documents nearly 300 years of wasted habeas corpus review. Additionally, last-minute commutations ...


From Intent To Effect: Richmond, Virginia, And The Protracted Struggle For Voting Rights, 1965–1977, Julian Maxwell Hayter Oct 2014

From Intent To Effect: Richmond, Virginia, And The Protracted Struggle For Voting Rights, 1965–1977, Julian Maxwell Hayter

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Twelve years after the ratification of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 [VRA], Richmond, Virginia elected a historic majority black city council. The 5-4 majority quickly appointed an African American lawyer named Henry Marsh, III to the mayoralty. Marsh, a nationally celebrated civil rights litigator, was not only the city’s first black mayor, but the council election of 1977 was also Richmond’s first since 1970. In 1972, a federal district court used the VRA’s preclearance clause in Section 5 to place a moratorium on council contests. This moratorium lasted until the Supreme Court and the Department of ...