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2012

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Why Eu Work-Family Reconciliation Policies Fail In Italy: A Feminist Legal Analysis, Chrystal Orozco Dec 2012

Why Eu Work-Family Reconciliation Policies Fail In Italy: A Feminist Legal Analysis, Chrystal Orozco

Master's Theses

Following the establishment of the European Parental Leave Directive (96/34/EC), the female employment rate in Italy is still ranked the third lowest in the European Union (EU) and Italian women continue to do twice as much household work as Italian men. Parents, especially women, struggle to find a balance between professional work and their family lives in a society that encourages the traditional gendered roles of the housewife and the breadwinner. The following study is a theoretical analysis of the Parental Leave Directive and the potential domestic influences that may prevent Italy from progressing socially towards gender equality ...


An Evaluation Of Operation Street Sweeper - 2006, Andrew Giacomazzi, Jeremy D. Ball Dec 2012

An Evaluation Of Operation Street Sweeper - 2006, Andrew Giacomazzi, Jeremy D. Ball

Andrew Giacomazzi

Operation Street Sweeper (OSS) was a multi-level, interagency collaboration with multiple purposes. According to OSS documents, Operation Street Sweeper goals included the following: (1) to reduce gang-related criminal and violent activity in Nampa and Caldwell, Idaho through aggressive, proactive, and coordinated street enforcement between the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and local law enforcement; (2) to deter criminal activity through high profile enforcement activity; (3) to develop and/or increase the number of positive community contacts; (4) to show the community and gang members that law enforcement is serious about reducing gang and violent crime in the area ...


After Privacy: The Rise Of Facebook, The Fall Of Wikileaks, And Singapore’S Personal Data Protection Act 2012, Simon Chesterman Dec 2012

After Privacy: The Rise Of Facebook, The Fall Of Wikileaks, And Singapore’S Personal Data Protection Act 2012, Simon Chesterman

Simon Chesterman

This article discusses the changing ways in which information is produced, stored, and shared — exemplified by the rise of social-networking sites like Facebook and controversies over the activities of WikiLeaks — and the implications for privacy and data protection. Legal protections of privacy have always been reactive, but the coherence of any legal regime has also been undermined by the lack of a strong theory of what privacy is. There is more promise in the narrower field of data protection. Singapore, which does not recognise a right to privacy, has positioned itself as an e-commerce hub but had no law on ...


Transition Relief For Tax Reform’S Third Rail: Reforming The Home Mortgage Interest Deduction After The Housing Market Crash, Nicholaus W. Norvell Dec 2012

Transition Relief For Tax Reform’S Third Rail: Reforming The Home Mortgage Interest Deduction After The Housing Market Crash, Nicholaus W. Norvell

San Diego Law Review

This Comment argues that Congress should—in this order of preference—eliminate the mortgage interest deduction, replace it with a credit, or substantially modify it, and that Congress can adopt any of these policies without substantial short-term fallout in the housing market. Part II of this Comment examines how the mortgage interest deduction works, its history, and its intended benefits. Part III scrutinizes the deduction’s inability to achieve its primary objective—increasing homeownership—and examines its negative effects on housing prices, household indebtedness, the environment, and wealth disparity. Accordingly, this Part argues that Congress should reform the deduction, discusses ...


A Lockean Theory Of Intellectual Property Revisited, Adam D. Moore Dec 2012

A Lockean Theory Of Intellectual Property Revisited, Adam D. Moore

San Diego Law Review

The primary, and perhaps sole, function of government according to Locke was to secure and protect the lives, liberties, and property of individuals who consented, explicitly or tacitly, to a specific political union. The question that I will address in this Article, and one that I took up over fifteen years ago, is: should we consider intellectual works to be the proper subjects of Lockean property claims? My answer then and now is “yes,” with the acknowledgement that such a view may require substantial revisions to Anglo-American systems of intellectual property. I will argue that intellectual property rights are no ...


Toward A Lockean Moral Justification Of Legal Protection Of Intellectual Property, Kenneth Einar Himma Dec 2012

Toward A Lockean Moral Justification Of Legal Protection Of Intellectual Property, Kenneth Einar Himma

San Diego Law Review

This Article attempts to provide the beginnings of a viable moral justification for recognizing and providing legal protection of intellectual property. The argument follows a line of arguments that is fairly characterized as “inspired” by John Locke’s attempt to justify legal protection of what he took to be a natural, objective, moral right to material property. That is to say, it is Lockean in spirit in the following sense: Locke grounds his argument for original acquisition in the idea that a person is justified in acquiring something from the commons in virtue of an investment he makes of something ...


Traditional Knowledge, Cultural Expression, And The Siren’S Call Of Property, Justin Hughes Dec 2012

Traditional Knowledge, Cultural Expression, And The Siren’S Call Of Property, Justin Hughes

San Diego Law Review

Discussions on international legal norms for the protection of TK/TCE have, in their contemporary form, been ongoing since the late 1990s. In that time, our understanding of key issues for a workable system—subject matter, beneficiaries, rights, or protections—have advanced little, if at all. Indeed, as Michael Brown has observed, “vexing questions of origins and boundaries . . . are commonly swept under the rug in public discussions.” Yet even if all those questions were settled, we also need a clear justification or justifications for a new form of intellectual property on the world stage.


The Relationship Between Foundations And Principles In Ip Law, Robert P. Merges Dec 2012

The Relationship Between Foundations And Principles In Ip Law, Robert P. Merges

San Diego Law Review

In my book Justifying Intellectual Property (JIP), I wrote about what I call the “foundations” of the field of intellectual property (IP) law. I tried to distinguish between a foundational level of discourse and another level, the level of basic principles. In the San Diego conference at which my book was discussed—and in several other settings as well—the most frequent and persistent line of questioning about my book centered on the relationship between these two levels. That is what this brief Article is about.


Managing The Intellectual Property Sprawl, Shubha Ghosh Dec 2012

Managing The Intellectual Property Sprawl, Shubha Ghosh

San Diego Law Review

Professor Merges, despite the centrality of creative persons to his argument, organizes a set of ideas that are conducive to refocusing intellectual property law on users. I present this user-focused argument in this Article through the following five Parts. Part II explains my suggested approach to questions about the design of intellectual property law—an approach based on the new institutional economics and the work of Ronald Coase. Part II also addresses objections to this approach. Part III identifies the user in Professor Merges’s high-level principles grounded in Locke, Kant, and Rawls. Part IV follows this argument with a ...


Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ Surveyed By Percent Of Words In Source, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Nov 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ Surveyed By Percent Of Words In Source, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

In the last of three articles, OCL surveys the deployment of ‘constitution’ through The Federalist Papers, the bank bill debates and the remainder of Madison’s life (post-presidency). Numeric values for hits are computed for the range of semantic values, with the focus being constitution = text (locatable in only one place) competing with constitution = government. A net score is proposed which measures the effort an author has expended to ‘cleanse’ his semantic palette by employing one semantic value over a competing value.


The Legal Challenges Of Networked Robotics: From The Safety Intelligence Perspective, Yueh-Hsuan Weng, Sophie T.H. Zhao Nov 2012

The Legal Challenges Of Networked Robotics: From The Safety Intelligence Perspective, Yueh-Hsuan Weng, Sophie T.H. Zhao

Yueh-Hsuan Weng

One of the reasons that future robots will enhance their intelligence and actions in an unstructured environment is because of their “networked” feature. Current robot designs have difficulty in understanding unstructured environments due to the inherent diversity and unpredictability of phenomena in the real world. However, new developments such as ubiquitous computing, cloud computing, the Internet of things and next-generation internet technologies will make it easier for networked robots to obtain structured information about their physical environment. The formation of cloud-enabled robotics by advanced technology will be tightly integrated into the virtual and real world, and this will strengthen the ...


Attica State Correctional Facility: The Causes And Fallout Of The Riot Of 1971, Kathleen E. Slade Nov 2012

Attica State Correctional Facility: The Causes And Fallout Of The Riot Of 1971, Kathleen E. Slade

The Exposition

Everyone has heard the rallying cry “Attica! Attica!” These are words shouted in protest by many in the 1970s including John Lennon in his song “Attica State” in 1971 and Al Pacino in the movie “Dog day Afternoon” in 1975. But what happened at Attica State Correctional Facility in the rural town of Attica, NY in 1971 to cause the bloodiest day in American history up to that time? A prison built to be escape proof and virtually riot proof in 1931 exploded just forty years later in a violent four day riot that ended in a bloody massacre of ...


The Normativity Of Copying In Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Nov 2012

The Normativity Of Copying In Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Not all copying constitutes copyright infringement. Quite independent of fair use, copyright law requires that an act of copying be qualitatively and quantitatively significant enough or “substantially similar” for it to be actionable. Originating in the nineteenth century, and entirely the creation of courts, copyright’s requirement of “substantial similarity” has thus far received little attention as an independently meaningful normative dimension of the copyright entitlement. This Article offers a novel theory for copyright’s substantial-similarity requirement by placing it firmly at the center of the institution and its various goals and purposes. As a common-law-style device that mirrors the ...


The Judicialization Of International Atrocity Crimes: The Kharkov Trial Of 1943, Michael J. Bazyler, Kellyanne Rose Gold Nov 2012

The Judicialization Of International Atrocity Crimes: The Kharkov Trial Of 1943, Michael J. Bazyler, Kellyanne Rose Gold

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article analyzes the Kharkov trial, the first trial of Nazi war criminals undertaken by any Allied Power, as well as the first trial of the Holocaust. It is written on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Kharkov trial. Part II, as background, describes the Holocaust as experienced in Kharkov, Ukraine. Part III discusses the trial that took place in Kharkov: the defendants, the prosecution, the setting, and the testimony. Part IV looks at the Kharkov trial as a typical Stalinist “show trial,” where guilt has been predetermined and a trial is used merely as a show to ...


Tea With The Chief: Ocl Interviews Chief Justice Rehnquist, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Oct 2012

Tea With The Chief: Ocl Interviews Chief Justice Rehnquist, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Annexed to the room in which the justices conference after oral argument, a chamber offers gilt-on-marble in fashion art deco: Rockefeller Center, the steamship Normandie, architectural tastes of futurismo dimension. In short, full on 1930s and architect Cass Gilbert letting his imagination take wing. This interview (re)launched OCL’s career as constitutional historian, following on two years’ study of the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics. This is one of the few interviews not recorded on audiotape. Other interviewees include Michael Foote, J.O. Urmson, and Benson Mates. The interview (in context) continues in the next article. A longer recollection ...


Interpretation And Construction In Altering Rules, Gregory Klass Oct 2012

Interpretation And Construction In Altering Rules, Gregory Klass

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay is a response to Ian Ayres's, "Regulating Opt-Out: An Economic Theory of Altering Rules," 121 Yale L.J. 2032 (2012). Ayres identifies an important question: How does the law decide when parties have opted-out of a contractual default? Unfortunately, his article tells only half of the story about such altering rules. Ayres cares about rules designed to instruct parties on how to get the terms that they want. By focusing on such rules he ignores altering rules designed instead to interpret the nonlegal meaning of the parties' acts or agreement. This limited vision is characteristic of economic ...


Foreword: Academic Influence On The Court, Neal K. Katyal Oct 2012

Foreword: Academic Influence On The Court, Neal K. Katyal

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The months leading up to the Supreme Court’s blockbuster decision on the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were characterized by a prodigious amount of media coverage that purported to analyze how the legal challenge to Obamacare went mainstream. The nation’s major newspapers each had a prominent story describing how conservative academics, led by Professor Randy Barnett, had a long-term strategy to make the case appear credible. In the first weeks after the ACA’s passage, the storyline went, the lawsuit’s prospects of success were thought to be virtually nil. Professor (and former Solicitor General) Charles Fried stated that ...


Teaching Tips: Personal Criminal History Analysis Paper, Gordon Crews, Angela Crews Sep 2012

Teaching Tips: Personal Criminal History Analysis Paper, Gordon Crews, Angela Crews

Angela Crews

Students often have difficulty visualizing the practical application of criminological theory. The following activity assists instructors to develop students‘ abilities in evaluating behaviors and determining the theoretical perspectives that potentially could be used to explain those behaviors. It also is designed to assist students in comprehending how their own experiences impact their views on law-violating behavior and its etiology. This exercise facilitates students‘ awareness of how their beliefs about the causes of law-violating behavior inevitably impact their beliefs about potential solutions or responses to this type of behavior. Eventually, students unfailingly begin to realize the artificial dichotomy between us, as ...


Copyright And Personhood Revisited, Christopher S. Yoo Sep 2012

Copyright And Personhood Revisited, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Personhood theory is almost invariably cited as one of the primary theoretical bases for copyright. The conventional wisdom, which typically invokes the work of Immanuel Kant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as its philosophical foundation, views creative works as the embodiment of their creator’s personality. This unique connection between authors and their works justifies giving authors property interests in the results of their creative efforts.

This Essay argues that the conventional wisdom is fundamentally flawed. It is inconsistent both with Kant’s and Hegel’s theories about the relationship between property and personality and with their specific writings about ...


Table Annexed To Article: “The Idea Of Freedom Might Be Too Great A Temptation For Them To Resist,”, Peter Aschenbrenner Sep 2012

Table Annexed To Article: “The Idea Of Freedom Might Be Too Great A Temptation For Them To Resist,”, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

In Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), the Supreme Court passed up a chance to thread George Washington’s experience in transporting household staff across state lines; Washington obeyed Pennsylvania’s predicate: that a human being held to slavery in one state became free after six months in Pennsylvania. Since the features of this species of mobilia varied with the jurisdiction, the Supreme Court should have taken this landscape into account. George Washington did not import, with his household workers, ‘rules and understandings’ from Virginia.


“The Idea Of Freedom Might Be Too Great A Temptation For Them To Resist", Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

“The Idea Of Freedom Might Be Too Great A Temptation For Them To Resist", Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

In Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), the Supreme Court passed up a chance to thread George Washington’s experience in transporting household staff across state lines; Washington obeyed Pennsylvania’s predicate: that a human being held to slavery in one state became free after six months in Pennsylvania. Since the features of this species of mobilia varied with the jurisdiction, the Supreme Court should have taken this landscape into account. George Washington did not import, with his household workers, ‘rules and understandings’ from Virginia.


Table Annexed To Article: Wrongfully ‘Established And Maintained’: A Census Of Congress’S Sins Against Geography, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Wrongfully ‘Established And Maintained’: A Census Of Congress’S Sins Against Geography, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Taney, C.J. opined, for a majority of the Supreme Court, that Congress lacked the power to establish and maintain colonies as a system by which nascent states were groomed by Congress to join an expanding union. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857). Did Congress wrongfully acquire half a continent? And what was the state of the union as of the Dred Scott decision?


Table Annexed To Article: From Treaty To Territory: Ocl Inventories American Expansion, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Table Annexed To Article: From Treaty To Territory: Ocl Inventories American Expansion, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL discusses patterns in state-making including nascent and nearly-nascent states. Divisions in acquisition and organization of land as well as management of territorial boundaries through multiple subdivisions are discussed.


Wrongfully ‘Established And Maintained’: A Census Of Congress’S Sins Against Geography, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Wrongfully ‘Established And Maintained’: A Census Of Congress’S Sins Against Geography, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Taney, C.J. opined, for a majority of the Supreme Court, that Congress lacked the power to establish and maintain colonies as a system by which nascent states were groomed by Congress to join an expanding union. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857). Did Congress wrongfully acquire half a continent? And what was the state of the union as of the Dred Scott decision?


Table Annexed To Article: Taney’S Complaint: This Country’S Too Darn Big For Moveables, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Taney’S Complaint: This Country’S Too Darn Big For Moveables, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Taney’s Dred Scott decision complains that Dred Scott’s freedom’s a federal taking of private property without compensation, a Fifth Amendment violation. How should mobilia be governed, given the nearly four dozen law-making jurisdictions, which, of 1857, are in the business of regulating attributes of mobilia; that is, assigning predicates to objects? A schema for tracking the claims teased out of Taney’s opinion is proposed. Can predicates in motion be made permanent?


The Role Tax Preparers Play In Taxpayer Compliance - An Empirical Investigation With Policy Implications, Sagit Leviner Dr. Aug 2012

The Role Tax Preparers Play In Taxpayer Compliance - An Empirical Investigation With Policy Implications, Sagit Leviner Dr.

Sagit Leviner Dr.

In January 2010, the IRS published its Return Preparer Review Final Report, recommending extensive increases in oversight of the tax return preparer industry. The IRS suggests achieving these increases in oversight through numerous measures, including preparer registration, competency testing, continuing professional education, ethical standards, and enforcement. Effective August, 2011, new paid preparer regulation requires all tax return preparers who offer their services for a fee to register and obtain a unique Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN) that must be used to sign all returns they prepare. Given that additional preparer regulation is expected to come into effect within the next ...


The Parable Of The Generous Pasha (And The Presumption Of Rejection), Peter Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

The Parable Of The Generous Pasha (And The Presumption Of Rejection), Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

How can assemblies, that is, gatherings in venue, take action? Whether writing rules or taking decisions, assemblies oblige themselves to follow procedures; those assembled must prove that three presumptions of rejection have been overcome. A Pasha learns this lesson when he offers a gift to his people: Process matters. The Grand Vizier survives the lesson, proving that a sense of humor also matters.


Table Annexed To Article: Mr. Taney’S ‘Capital Gap’: Charting The Growth Of The Federal Colony System, 1789-1960, Peter Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Mr. Taney’S ‘Capital Gap’: Charting The Growth Of The Federal Colony System, 1789-1960, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

When Chief Justice Roger Taney conceded the existence of ‘colonies … established and maintained’ by the federal government, albeit denying ‘power given’ in the Constitution, he had the corpus of American history to contend with. The ‘capital gap,’ as OCL defines it, supplies several measures: the balance of power between regions, the remaining inventory of nascent (ready to be made) states (=territories), the remaining inventory of available territories in gross or subdividable, and for the latter two, the net of these inventories on a regional basis. Taney’s opinion, in this fourth in a series, rises or falls on the historical ...


Chart Annexed To Article: The War Between The Stats: An Introduction To Taney’S Regrets, Peter Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Chart Annexed To Article: The War Between The Stats: An Introduction To Taney’S Regrets, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The decade of the 1850’s, leading up to Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), saw Americans debate the ‘war between the stats.’ OCL presents the third in its series of articles analyzing the mathematical logic of new state-making. Taney’s focus on the war between the stats explains Dred Scott, OCL suggests, as much as his inveterate racism, and, therefore, grounds any scholarly explanation of the coming war between the states.


Chart Annexed To Article: Crafting The Northwest Ordinance: Tracking The Paths Of Four Delegates, Peter Aschenbrenner Aug 2012

Chart Annexed To Article: Crafting The Northwest Ordinance: Tracking The Paths Of Four Delegates, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Tracking Paths of Four Men Who were Delegates and attendees at both the 1787 Federal Convention and the 1787 Session of the Continental / Confederation Congress, when combined with internal quorum requirements of the Congress, yields significant information about the adoption of the Northwest Ordinance. First in a series.