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Full-Text Articles in Law

Judicial Incentives: Some Evidence From Urban Trial Courts, Greg A. Caldeira Apr 1977

Judicial Incentives: Some Evidence From Urban Trial Courts, Greg A. Caldeira

IUSTITIA

In the following pages, I shall outline the basics of a method for studying the motivations of trial judges - or any public officials, for that matter - that I find particularly interesting and fruitful - "incentive theory". The use of incentive theory is, in my view, a preliminary contribution to an ongoing movement to fill glaring gaps in the literature on judicial motivation and trial judging.


Judicial Review Of Parole Release Decisionmaking, Thomas B. Grier Apr 1976

Judicial Review Of Parole Release Decisionmaking, Thomas B. Grier

IUSTITIA

An inmate at a federal penal institution "is entitled only to be released after full service of his sentence less good time earned during incarceration." He or she is not entitled to parole, for parole is not a right but a privilege, a matter of "legislative grace". The United States Board of Parole has "absolute discretion" in deciding whether and when to grant parole. The judiciary will not interfere with the Board, as "courts are without power to grant a parole or to determine judicially eligibility for parole." And since the Board is statutorily authorized to exercise broad discretion, and ...


Toward A Critical Theory Of Female Criminality, Ann Curry Thompson Apr 1976

Toward A Critical Theory Of Female Criminality, Ann Curry Thompson

IUSTITIA

Twentieth-century theories about female criminality are the weakest link in conventional criminology, representing the most conservative and unscientific thinking about human nature and social organization. Traditional thinking about female criminality reflects the general inability of conventional theorists to examine categories of sex, race, and class oppression as determined by the basic social structure of a particular society and as they relate to deviance and crime. The result has been that female deviance has been analyzed solely in light of assumptions about women's biological nature. Whether there is indeed something distinctive about female crime which can be explained apart from ...


The Street Perspective: A Conversation With The Police, Patrick L. Baude Oct 1975

The Street Perspective: A Conversation With The Police, Patrick L. Baude

IUSTITIA

Professor Baude's purpose in this discussion is to elicit police officers' comments on what members of the legal profession ought to know about the influence of the "street perspective" in shaping those officers' attitudes towards the criminal justice system and the role they play in it. It is police insistence on the broad validity of insights which only "the street" can provide that accounts for the considerable gulf between "front-line" enforcement officers and other functionaries in (and students of) that system. Law students (and no doubt lawyers) seem uncomfortable with the notion that our system cannot adequately be understood ...


Sanctions And Deviance: Another Look, Herbert Kritzer Apr 1975

Sanctions And Deviance: Another Look, Herbert Kritzer

IUSTITIA

In the past several years, there has been an extended dialogue in the literature concerning the question of the efficacy of sanctions as a means of deterring criminal behavior. There is some convincing evidence that threatened sanctions can and do deter some forms of behavior, such as parking violations and income tax evasion. Do these findings extend to other forms of behavior which our society has defined as criminal? This issue is considered by Gibbs in an article which appeared to find a clear link between the certainty and severity of sanctions and the murder rate. Gibbs' article stimulated additional ...


The Abused Child And His Parents, Richard David Young Apr 1975

The Abused Child And His Parents, Richard David Young

IUSTITIA

Children in our society pass through a prolonged period of dependency during which they are taught the complex technological and social skills necessary for successful adult functioning. The child's experiences during this period can have profound effects on the development of his potential for meaningful interpersonal relationships, competency, and creativity. The child's dependence needs are the complement of the caretaker's nurturance. When nurturance fails or is inconsistent, societal loss merges with individual tragedy. Yet nurturance does occasionally fail. Some of those charged with the care of children abdicate their responsibilities, and do not provide the physical and ...


Photo Essay: On The Street, John G. Hopper Oct 1974

Photo Essay: On The Street, John G. Hopper

IUSTITIA

When people speak of crime in the streets, they invariably refer to cold statistics or a report from a governmental agency as a source of information. There is however another source of information on the subject-that of personal experience. It is the unique experience that urban police sometimes refer to as being "on the street". The following is this photographer's impression of spending several winter nights on the streets with an urban police force.


Feminism And The Legalization Of Prostitution: How Far Down The River?, Marilyn C. Zilli Apr 1974

Feminism And The Legalization Of Prostitution: How Far Down The River?, Marilyn C. Zilli

IUSTITIA

One of the most telling issues on the state of the women's movement today is that of the legalization of prostitution. It would be inappropriate to say that the issue has caused a breach in the ranks: the term is inapplicable to a movement which has never claimed coherency and which has, in fact, consistently demonstrated an inability to reconcile the views of its various factions. The prostitution issue is important, rather, precisely because it underscores these differences of analysis and tactics which have appeared in other areas and the splits between white middle class liberal women, radical feminists ...


Correctional System Needs, Susan S. Cole Oct 1973

Correctional System Needs, Susan S. Cole

IUSTITIA

One of the most difficult and pressing problems now facing local, state and national leaders is the failure of the criminal justice system. There is ample evidence of the system's failure: during the years 1960 to 1969, when the population increased by 13%, crime increased 1487,' and it is still increasing. Yet, correctional institutions do not appear to be places where criminal behavior is changed or where offenders are rehabilitated. They appear to be, instead, places where offenders are exposed to the most advanced criminal techniques and the most extreme anti-social behavior. Recidivism rates are estimated as high as ...