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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Economics Of Limited Liability: An Empirical Study Of New York Law Firms, Scott Baker, Kimberly D. Krawiec Dec 2004

The Economics Of Limited Liability: An Empirical Study Of New York Law Firms, Scott Baker, Kimberly D. Krawiec

ExpressO

Since the rapid rise in organizational forms for business associations, academics and practitioners have sought to explain the choice of form rationale. Each form contains its own set of default rules that inevitably get factored into this decision, including the extent to which each individual firm owner will be held personally liable for the collective debts and obligations of the firm. The significance of the differences in these default rules continues to be debated. Many commentators have advanced theories, most notably those based on unlimited liability, profit-sharing, and illiquidity, asserting that the partnership form provides efficiency benefits that outweigh any ...


Evaluating The Role Of Brown Vs. Board Of Education In School Equalization,, Orley C. Ashenfelter, William J. Collins, Albert Yoon Nov 2004

Evaluating The Role Of Brown Vs. Board Of Education In School Equalization,, Orley C. Ashenfelter, William J. Collins, Albert Yoon

Princeton Law and Public Affairs Research Paper Series

In this paper we study the long-term labor market implications of school resource equalization before Brown and school desegregation after Brown. For cohorts born in the South in the 1920s and 1930s, we find that racial disparities in measurable school characteristics had a substantial influence on black males’ earnings and educational attainment measured in 1970, albeit one that was smaller in the later cohorts. When we examine the income of male workers in 1990, we find that southern-born blacks who finished their schooling just before effective desegregation occurred in the South fared poorly compared to southern-born blacks who followed behind ...


Whistle Blowing, Ben Depoorter, Jef De Mot Nov 2004

Whistle Blowing, Ben Depoorter, Jef De Mot

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

For law enforcement purposes corruption and fraud are hard battles. Because of the highly secretive and premeditated nature of these crimes, prime witnesses are themselves often implicated in the fraudulent transaction. Promises of immunity and whistle blowing rewards are often required to resolve these information asymmetries. These insights have set a trend, both in scholarship and law enforcement practice, towards reward-based approaches (carrots), as an alternative or complement to punishment based deterrence (sticks). Applying the U.S. False Claims Act (FCA) as an analytical framework, we provide a critical review of the efficiency limitations of whistle blowing. More specifically, the ...


The Law And Economics Of Cybersecurity: An Introduction, Mark F. Grady, Francesco Parisi Nov 2004

The Law And Economics Of Cybersecurity: An Introduction, Mark F. Grady, Francesco Parisi

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

One of the most controversial theoretical issues of our time is the governance of cybersecurity. Computer security experts, national security experts, and policy analysts have all struggled to bring meaningful analysis to cybersecurity; however, the discipline of law & economics has yet to be fully applied to the issue. This introduction presents work by leading national scholars who examine this complex national security challenge from a law and economics perspective. The focus spans from a discussion of pure market solutions to public-private issue analysis, providing a valuable basis for policy considerations concerning the appropriate governmental role on the issue of cybersecurity.


Putting Humpty Dumpty Back Together: Pricing In Anticommons Property Arrangements, Ben Depoorter, Sven Vanneste Nov 2004

Putting Humpty Dumpty Back Together: Pricing In Anticommons Property Arrangements, Ben Depoorter, Sven Vanneste

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

Recently, a new theory has drawn considerable attention in the literature on common property. A number of scholars have pointed to the danger of excessive propertization in the context of what are termed "anticommons" property regimes. Although this theory has found its way into numerous legal and economic applications, the empirical and cognitive foundations of the theory of fragmentation remain unexplored. Based on experimental data, this Article conducts an investigation into the social and personal processes involved in the anticommons.

The results confirm the theoretical proposition that anticommons deadweight losses increase with the degree of complementarity between individual parts and ...


The Unsolvable Dilemma Of A Paretian Policymaker, Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci, Nuno Garoupa Nov 2004

The Unsolvable Dilemma Of A Paretian Policymaker, Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci, Nuno Garoupa

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

In this paper, we argue that social decisionmaking is subject to a fundamental conflict between consistency and completeness. We show that a consistent welfarist method of policy assessment, that is, one that never violates the Pareto principle, may be incomplete in the sense of being incapable of providing a solution to important social welfare problems.


Judicial Power & Civil Rights Reconsidered, David E. Bernstein, Ilya Somin Nov 2004

Judicial Power & Civil Rights Reconsidered, David E. Bernstein, Ilya Somin

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

Michael Klarman's "From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality" is an important contribution to the scholarly literature on both the history of the civil rights struggle and judicial power more generally. Klarman argues that for much of the twentieth century, the Supreme Court was very reluctant to rule in favor of African American civil rights claimants, and had little impact when it did.

Klarman is right to reject traditional accounts that greatly exaggerated the Supreme Court's willingness and ability to protect minorities. However, he overstates his case. The Court's ...


Does Soft Dollar Brokerage Benefit Portfolio Investors: Agency Problem Or Solution?, Stephen M. Horan, D. Bruce Johnsen Nov 2004

Does Soft Dollar Brokerage Benefit Portfolio Investors: Agency Problem Or Solution?, Stephen M. Horan, D. Bruce Johnsen

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

With soft dollar brokerage, institutional portfolio managers pay brokers “premium” commission rates in exchange for rebates they use to buy third-party research. One hypothesis views this practice as a reflection of the agency problem in delegated portfolio management; another views it as a contractual solution to the agency problem that aligns the incentives of investors, managers, and brokers where direct monitoring mechanisms are inadequate. Using a database of institutional money managers, we find that premium commission payments are positively related to risk-adjusted performance, suggesting that soft dollar brokerage is a solution to agency problems. Moreover, premium commissions are positively related ...


A Culturally Correct Proposal To Privatize The British Columbia Salmon Fishery, D. Bruce Johnsen Nov 2004

A Culturally Correct Proposal To Privatize The British Columbia Salmon Fishery, D. Bruce Johnsen

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

Canada now faces two looming policy crises that have come to a head in British Columbia. The first is long-term depletion of the Pacific salmon fishery by mobile commercial ocean fishermen racing to intercept salmon under the rule of capture. The second results from Canadian Supreme Court case law recognizing and affirming “the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada” under Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982. This essay shows that the economics of property rights provides a joint solution to these crises that would promote the Canadian commonwealth by way of a privatization ...


Bankruptcy Law And Inefficient Entitlements, Irit Haviv-Segal Oct 2004

Bankruptcy Law And Inefficient Entitlements, Irit Haviv-Segal

ExpressO

The question as to the justification of bankruptcy law remains unanswered. The literature tends to emphasize the conflict and inability to compromise between the different normative outlooks of the insolvency law system. A deeper reflection on the existing theories of bankruptcy law reveals, however, that all theories share the same starting point: All theories share the understanding that efficiency considerations justify the enforcement of contractual bankruptcy arrangements. When the social theories call for increased levels of coercion and redistribution, these theories rely on normative considerations of distributive justice and rehabilitation values. They by no means rely on efficiency grounds. This ...


Theory And Practice Of Competition Advocacy At The Ftc, James C. Cooper, Paul A. Pautler, Todd J. Zywicki Oct 2004

Theory And Practice Of Competition Advocacy At The Ftc, James C. Cooper, Paul A. Pautler, Todd J. Zywicki

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

This article was prepared as part of a recent symposium celebrating the Ninetieth Anniversary of the founding of the Federal Trade Commission. In addition, fall 2004 marks the Thirtieth Anniversary of a pivotal moment in the establishment of the modern advocacy program at the FTC, Chairman Lewis Engman’s speech on the economic burden that inefficient transportation regulation policies were imposing on the American economy. Although the FTC has been involved in advocacy activities since its founding, Engman’s speech symbolized a new aggressiveness on the part of the FTC in using its expertise to work with other governmental actors ...


Rents, Dissipation, And Lost Treasures With N Parties, Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci, Eric Langlais, Francesco Parisi Oct 2004

Rents, Dissipation, And Lost Treasures With N Parties, Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci, Eric Langlais, Francesco Parisi

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

The rent-seeking literature is unanimous on the fact that, in a rent-seeking context, the rent dissipation increases with the number of potential participants. In this paper we analyze the participants' choice to enter the game and their levels of efforts. We show that the usual claim - that the total dissipation approaches the entire value of the rent - applies only when participants are relatively weak. In the presence of strong competitors, the total dissipation actually decreases, since participation in the game is less frequent. We also consider the impact of competitors' exit option, distinguishing between redistributive rent-seeking and productive rent-seeking situations ...


Lawmaking By Public Welfare Professionals, Margaret F. Brinig Oct 2004

Lawmaking By Public Welfare Professionals, Margaret F. Brinig

ExpressO

In an era of shrinking state and local resources for domestic violence prevention and detection, governments face a critical question of how to best allocate scarce funds. This paper suggests some answers for treating violence by caregivers and presents a model for evaluating other programs. To reach our conclusions, we analyzed data and survey results supplied by more than 1700 county-level adult protective services (APS) authorities.

We found that some expensive programs produce very few results in terms of reporting, investigating, and substantiating elder abuse. For example, requiring a specific education or experience level (and therefore guaranteeing higher salaries) or ...


Seventeen Famous Economists Weigh In On Copyright: The Role Of Theory, Empirics, And Network Effects, Stan Liebowitz, Stephen Margolis Sep 2004

Seventeen Famous Economists Weigh In On Copyright: The Role Of Theory, Empirics, And Network Effects, Stan Liebowitz, Stephen Margolis

ExpressO

The case of Eldred v. Ashcroft, which sought to have the Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA, aka Sonny Bono Copyright Act) declared unconstitutional, was recently decided by the Supreme Court. A remarkable group of seventeen economists including five Noble laureates, representing a wide spectrum of opinion in economics, submitted an amicus curie brief in support of Eldred. The economists condemned CTEA on the grounds that the revenues earned during the extension are so heavily discounted that they have almost no value, while the extended protection of aged works creates immediate monopoly deadweight losses and increases the costs of creating new ...


The Limitations Of Retirement Plan Law, Peter M. Van Zante Sep 2004

The Limitations Of Retirement Plan Law, Peter M. Van Zante

ExpressO

It is widely believed that employers determine whether or not their employees receive retirement benefits and the type and amount of any benefits that are received. This belief is mistaken. While sponsorship of a retirement plan is a voluntary choice on the part of the sponsoring employer and the sponsoring employer directly controls the type of plan and the level of benefits provided, the employer's choices on these matters are controlled by its employees' preferences for different forms of compensation. An employer must spend the funds available for employee compensation so as to provide its employees with those forms ...


The Nomos And Narrative Of Matsushita, Nickolai G. Levin Sep 2004

The Nomos And Narrative Of Matsushita, Nickolai G. Levin

ExpressO

Twenty-one years ago, Robert Cover left an indelible mark on legal scholarship with his epic tale of world formation and development, Nomos and Narrative. He posited the idea that our culture consists of a multitude of insular communities (nomoi), each of whose experiences is guided by those texts and events (narratives) that give its legal precepts normative meaning, thereby connecting the communities’ vision of reality to its ideal. Occasions arose, however, where different community’s visions of the ideal could not be contained within each community alone and thus came into conflict. Resolution required reconciliation of those narratives that provided ...


Virtual Markets For Virtual Goods: The Mirror Image Of Digital Copyright?, Peter D. Eckersley Sep 2004

Virtual Markets For Virtual Goods: The Mirror Image Of Digital Copyright?, Peter D. Eckersley

ExpressO

The Internet and Copyright Law are particularly ill-suited to each other. One is designed to give as much information as possible to everyone who wants it; the other allows authors, artists and publishers to earn money by restricting the distribution of works made out of information. The beneficiaries of copyright law are lobbying for the re-design of computers and the Internet to instate "content control" and "digital rights management" (DRM). These technologies are intended to make copyright workable again by re-imposing limits on access to information goods, but they carry high direct and indirect social costs.

One alternative, which has ...


The Market For Private Dispute Resolution Services--An Empirical Re-Assessment Of Icann-Udrp Performance, Jay P. Kesan, Andres A. Gallo Sep 2004

The Market For Private Dispute Resolution Services--An Empirical Re-Assessment Of Icann-Udrp Performance, Jay P. Kesan, Andres A. Gallo

ExpressO

The impressive growth of the Internet in the 1990s and the boom of the e-economy generated a competition for domain names in the most coveted of the top level domain names, i.e., the .com space. The other original generic top-level domain names (gTLDs) open to commercial use, .org, and .net, were also in demand from businesses. Other types of top-level domain names, especially the country code TLDs (ccTLDs), were of little commercial value, and their registrations were not as important as the gTLDs.

In 1997, partly because of the expansion of the Internet to the international sphere, the U ...


Small Business And The False Dichotomies Of Contract Law, Larry Garvin Sep 2004

Small Business And The False Dichotomies Of Contract Law, Larry Garvin

The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law Working Paper Series

The article explores the classic consumer- merchant dichotomy from the vantage of small businesses. Using empirical data and the psychology, economics, and management literature, it shows that small businesses, treated like large businesses throughout most of contract and commercial law, in fact behave more like consumers. Small businesses lack the financial strength of large businesses. They generally lack the information gathering ability of large businesses. Finally, they generally are more prey to cognitive errors than are large businesses. As a result, small businesses lose in two ways. When they deal with consumers, they are presumed to have the power, information ...


Can A Bankrupt Company Assign Its Patent License To The Highest Bidder, Even When The License Itself Forbids Assignment? Why Everex Systems, Inc. V. Cadtrak Corp. Gives An Unconvincing Answer, Matthew D. Siegel Aug 2004

Can A Bankrupt Company Assign Its Patent License To The Highest Bidder, Even When The License Itself Forbids Assignment? Why Everex Systems, Inc. V. Cadtrak Corp. Gives An Unconvincing Answer, Matthew D. Siegel

ExpressO

A patent licensee that declares bankruptcy will often want to assign its rights under the license to another party in exchange for much-needed cash. The Bankruptcy Code generally allows debtors to assign executory contracts, including patent licenses, in this way. Indeed, the Code permits debtors to assign a contract even if the contract itself contains a “no-assign” clause, i.e., a clause expressly forbidding assignment. But there is an exception: The Code will defer to certain kinds of otherwise applicable non-bankruptcy law that would normally prevent the contract from being assigned. In particular, the Code will not allow assignment by ...


Cap And Trade: How The Sulfur Dioxide Allowance Market Works, And How It Could Work Better, Jacob R. Kreutzer Aug 2004

Cap And Trade: How The Sulfur Dioxide Allowance Market Works, And How It Could Work Better, Jacob R. Kreutzer

ExpressO

This Article provides an overview of the sulfur dioxide allowances market, and identifies ways in which could be improved. This information can be used to improve the performance of the sulfur dioxide allowances market, and incorporated into new emissions allowance markets to improve their operation. Part I of this Article provides background information on the creation and operation of the sulfur dioxide allowances market. Part II reports and analyzes data regarding the actual behavior of the market from 1995 to 2003. Part III engages in an economic analysis of the interaction between the allowances market and the power industry. Part ...


Some Antitrust Foundations Of Payment Card Associations, Koki Arai Aug 2004

Some Antitrust Foundations Of Payment Card Associations, Koki Arai

ExpressO

In this study we analyze platforms and rejections in two-sided markets with network externalities, using the specific context of a payment card association. We look at the cooperative antitrust determination of the interchange fee by member banks, using a framework in which banks and merchants may have market power and consumers and merchants decide rationally on whether to buy or accept a payment card developed by Rochet and Tirole (2002). After showing the welfare implications of a cooperative determination of the interchange fee and antitrust conduct, we describe in detail the factors affecting merchant resistance, compare cooperative and for-profit business ...


Good Faith In The Cisg: Interpretation Problems In Article 7, Benedict C. Sheehy Aug 2004

Good Faith In The Cisg: Interpretation Problems In Article 7, Benedict C. Sheehy

ExpressO

ABSTRACT: This article examines the dispute concerning the meaning of Good Faith in the CISG. Although there are good reasons for arguing a more limited interpretation or more limited application of Good Faith, there are also good reasons for a broader approach. Regardless of the correct interpretation, however, practitioners and academics need to have a sense of where the actual jurisprudence is going. This article reviews every published case on Article 7 since its inception and concludes that while there is little to suggest a strong pattern is developing, a guided pattern while incorrect doctrinally is preferable to the current ...


On The Misuse Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Law And Economics, Abraham L. Wickelgren Aug 2004

On The Misuse Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Law And Economics, Abraham L. Wickelgren

ExpressO

Bargaining plays a very important role in a great deal of legal scholarship, particularly in law and economics scholarship. Scholars often assume that the Nash bargaining solution determines the bargaining outcome, where the parties equally split the joint benefit created by the agreement. This solution, however, is inappropriate when parties have outside options, alternatives that only provide a payoff if the bargainer terminates the original bargaining. Most legal bargaining problems involve outside options. This article explains why the Nash bargaining solution generates an inappropriate outcome in this situation. Then, it examines several different prior articles that have used the Nash ...


The Same Side Of Two Coins: The Peculiar Phenomenon Of Bet-Hedging In Campaign Finance, Jason Cohen Aug 2004

The Same Side Of Two Coins: The Peculiar Phenomenon Of Bet-Hedging In Campaign Finance, Jason Cohen

ExpressO

The paper addresses the propensity of large donors to give to competing candidates or competing party organizations during the same election cycle – for example, giving money to both Bush and Kerry during the 2004 presidential race – a practice here termed 'bet-hedging.' Bet-hedging is analyzed in strategic and game-theoretic terms. The paper explores the prevalence of bet-hedging, the possible motivations behind the practice, and the informational concerns surrounding it. The paper argues that bet-hedging, out of all donation practices, carries with it a uniquely strong implication of ex post favor-seeking: if a donor prefers one side over the other, by bet-hedging ...


A Public Choice Theory Of Criminal Procedure, Vikramaditya S. Khanna, Keith N. Hylton Aug 2004

A Public Choice Theory Of Criminal Procedure, Vikramaditya S. Khanna, Keith N. Hylton

ExpressO

We provide a more persuasive justification for the pro-defendant bias in Anglo-American criminal procedure than the most commonly forwarded justifications to date. The most commonly forwarded rationale for the pro-defendant bias is that the costs of false convictions – specifically, the sanctioning and deterrence costs associated with the erroneous imposition of criminal sanctions – are greater than the costs of false acquittals. We argue that this rationale provides at best a partial justification for the extent of pro-defendant procedural rules. Under our alternative justification, pro-defendant protections serve primarily as constraints on the costs associated with improper enforcement or rent seeking in the ...


Media Policy Out Of The Box: Content Abundance, Attention Scarcity, And The Failures Of Digital Markets, Ellen P. Goodman Aug 2004

Media Policy Out Of The Box: Content Abundance, Attention Scarcity, And The Failures Of Digital Markets, Ellen P. Goodman

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Affirmative Action: More Efficient Than Color Blindness, Abraham L. Wickelgren Aug 2004

Affirmative Action: More Efficient Than Color Blindness, Abraham L. Wickelgren

ExpressO

One of the most compelling reasons against affirmative action is the principle of color blindness, that is, the idea that race is an irrelevant characteristic that should not affect higher education admissions or hiring decisions. Despite its intuitive appeal, this paper shows that adherence to this principle impedes economic efficiency when there has been past discrimination based on color. Past discrimination creates inefficiencies in the economy that persist across generations. Because of this persistence, race is not an irrelevant characteristic for firms and universities looking to hire or admit the best candidates. Affirmative action, not color-blindness, is necessary to reduce ...


Evaluating Work: Enforcing Occupational Safety And Health Standards In The United States, Canada And Sweden, Daniel B. Klaff Aug 2004

Evaluating Work: Enforcing Occupational Safety And Health Standards In The United States, Canada And Sweden, Daniel B. Klaff

ExpressO

The United States’ occupational safety and health enforcement system is breaking down. Klaff argues that much of this breakdown has to do with a fundamental lack of worker participation in the United States’ safety and health system. Klaff makes his case by comparing and contrasting the history and enforcement schemes of the United States, Canada, and Sweden. After arguing for economic rights as human rights, Klaff concludes by offering a set of recommendations for the United States’ occupational safety and health system based upon his value-centered analysis.


“Politics As Markets” Reconsidered: Economic Theory, Competitive Democracy And Primary Ballot Access , David N. Schleicher Jul 2004

“Politics As Markets” Reconsidered: Economic Theory, Competitive Democracy And Primary Ballot Access , David N. Schleicher

ExpressO

No abstract provided.