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2006

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Neutral Citation, Court Web Sites, And Access To Case Law, Peter W. Martin Dec 2006

Neutral Citation, Court Web Sites, And Access To Case Law, Peter W. Martin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

In 1994 the Wisconsin Bar and Judicial Council together urged the Wisconsin Supreme Court to take two dramatic steps with the combined aim of improving access to state case law: 1) adopt a new system of neutral citation and 2) establish a digital archive of decisions directly available to all publishers and the public. The recommendations set off a storm, and the Wisconsin court deferred decision on the package. In the years since those events, the background conditions have shifted dramatically. Neutral citation has been endorsed by the AALL and ABA and formally adopted in over a dozen states, including ...


Creative Commons As Conversational Copyright, Michael W. Carroll Dec 2006

Creative Commons As Conversational Copyright, Michael W. Carroll

Michael W. Carroll

Copyright law's default settings inhibit sharing and adaptation of creative works even though new digital technologies greatly enhance individuals' capacity to engage in creative conversation. Creative Commons licenses enable a form of conversational copyright through which creators share their works, primarily over the Internet, while asserting some limitation on user's right with respect to works in the licensed commons. More specifically, this chapter explains the problems in copyright law to which Creative Commons licenses respond, the methods chosen, and why the machine-readable and public aspects of the licenses are specific examples of a more general phenomenon in digital ...


The Idea Of The Law Review: Scholarship, Prestige, And Open Access, Michael J. Madison Dec 2006

The Idea Of The Law Review: Scholarship, Prestige, And Open Access, Michael J. Madison

Michael J. Madison

This Essay was written as part of a Symposium on open access publishing for legal scholarship, held at Lewis & Clark Law School. It makes the claim that “open access” publishing models will succeed, or not, to the extent that they account for the existing “economy of prestige” that drives law reviews and legal scholarship. What may seem like a lot of uncharitable commentary is intended instead as an expression of guarded optimism: Imaginative reuse of some existing tools of scholarly publishing (even by some marginalized members of the prestige economy – or perhaps especially by them) may facilitate the emergence of ...


Creative Commons As Conversational Copyright, Michael Carroll Dec 2006

Creative Commons As Conversational Copyright, Michael Carroll

PIJIP Faculty Scholarship

Copyright law's default settings inhibit sharing and adaptation of creative works even though new digital technologies greatly enhance individuals' capacity to engage in creative conversation. Creative Commons licenses enable a form of conversational copyright through which creators share their works, primarily over the Internet, while asserting some limitation on user's right with respect to works in the licensed commons. More specifically, this chapter explains the problems in copyright law to which Creative Commons licenses respond, the methods chosen, and why the machine-readable and public aspects of the licenses are specific examples of a more general phenomenon in digital ...


Comentarios Al Proyecto De Extensión Del Plazo De Protección Del Derecho De Autor Desde El Aed, Maximiliano Marzetti Nov 2006

Comentarios Al Proyecto De Extensión Del Plazo De Protección Del Derecho De Autor Desde El Aed, Maximiliano Marzetti

Maximiliano Marzetti

No abstract provided.


Bollywood Is Coming! Copyright And Film Industry Issues Regarding International Film Co-Productions Involving India, Timm Neu Nov 2006

Bollywood Is Coming! Copyright And Film Industry Issues Regarding International Film Co-Productions Involving India, Timm Neu

San Diego International Law Journal

These developments and mutual correlating interests underscore the rising trend in the number of international co-productions and cinematographic co-operations with India. Still, the practice of movie making in India differs in many ways from industry structures in the U.S. or Germany, which shall be analyzed as potential co-production partners. Contractual relations, industry regulations, involved parties, and the legal rules are so distinct, that a comparative view from a producer's perspective shall bring into light the frameworks and copyright issues of international film co-productions involving India.


Google Book Search And Fair Use: Itunes For Authors, Or Napster For Books? Oct 2006

Google Book Search And Fair Use: Itunes For Authors, Or Napster For Books?

Hannibal Travis

Google plans to digitize the books from five of the world's biggest libraries into a keyword-searchable book-browsing library. Some publishers and authors allege that this constitutes a massive piracy of their copyrights in books not yet in the public domain. But I argue that Google Book Search may be a fair use for two interrelated reasons: it is unlikely to reduce the sales of printed books, and it promises to improve the marketing of books via an innovative book marketing platform featuring short previews. Books are an experience good in economic parlance, or a product that must be consumed ...


Google The Gozerian And Fair Use Slimed: Copyright Again In The Technocrat's Den, Brian Sites Oct 2006

Google The Gozerian And Fair Use Slimed: Copyright Again In The Technocrat's Den, Brian Sites

Faculty Scholarship

This article considers the fair use doctrine as it applies to Google's Library Search Project and both predicts and advocates for a finding of fair use. Part I briefly reviews the past by considering the pertinent history of the fair use doctrine. It also explains the details of the current suit over Google's Library Project. Part II moves on to consider the current state of fair use analysis by reviewing 110 fair use cases and conducting simple statistical analyses. It then explains and applies the fair use doctrine to Google's project. Part III considers cases frequently compared ...


Copyright's Empire: Why The Law Matters , Alina Ng Sep 2006

Copyright's Empire: Why The Law Matters , Alina Ng

ExpressO

Two separate and distinct movements have colonized research in the field of intellectual property. Law and economics has deepened our understanding of the justification for granting monopoly rights over intellectual property. In recent years, economic theories have been used to support the growth of the commons – the free environment, where intellectual property plays little role in generating new creative works and innovation. The second movement is law and technology that has sought to increase understanding of intellectual property through the exploration of how technologies either provide freedoms or impose limitations to how creative works and innovation are created and received ...


Overcoming The Achilles Heel Of Copyright Law, Haochen Sun Sep 2006

Overcoming The Achilles Heel Of Copyright Law, Haochen Sun

ExpressO

With the recent proliferation of international, regional and bilateral treaties associated with copyright protection, the three-step test has been hailed as the panacea for measuring the legality of all limitations on copyright. This article challenges the legitimacy of the three-step test as a one-size-fits-all standard for copyright protection and puts forward a proposal to reshape this test. It further argues that the inquiry into the legitimacy of the three-step test necessitates a careful reexamination of the conventional wisdom of copyright law in general and the nature of copyright limitations in particular. Central to this scrutiny are the inquiries into how ...


Locks & Levies, Jeremy F. De Beer Sep 2006

Locks & Levies, Jeremy F. De Beer

Jeremy de Beer

This paper explores two ways that law can influence the creation and distribution of digital content. Specifically, it looks at the relationship between (1) prohibitions against circumventing technological protection measures (TPMs) and (2) levies on products or services used to reproduce or transmit digital materials. The relationship between digital locks and levies is analyzed through a comparative study of developments in Canada and the United States. Canada has created a broad levy (compared to the United States) to address the issue of private copying. Canada has not, so far, enacted specific anti-circumvention legislation like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA ...


Access To Knowledge As A Bridge Over The Troubled Waters Of Copyright Fair Use -- From Jefferson To Mandela To Google, Douglas L. Rogers Aug 2006

Access To Knowledge As A Bridge Over The Troubled Waters Of Copyright Fair Use -- From Jefferson To Mandela To Google, Douglas L. Rogers

ExpressO

The copyright fair use doctrine is a key to increasing access to knowledge and decreasing the digital divide between information-rich and information-poor countries. Publishers have sued Google for copyright infringement for scanning the copyrighted books of the publishers into a digital database, so Google users can search the database for certain words to determine what books contain words of interest to the user. The Google litigation, however, is only a small piece of the larger access to knowledge puzzle. The larger issue is access to the books themselves, translated into the native languages of citizens of developing countries. Yet copyright ...


Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Aug 2006

Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

ExpressO

Law is contributing to an information security paradox. Consumers are regularly “consenting” to the installation of computer code that makes them more vulnerable to harms such as identity theft. In particular, digital rights management technology accompanying digital music has recently left a wake of compromised user machines. Using the case study of security-invasive digital rights management technology, this article argues that a fundamental tension exists among intellectual property law, computer intrusion law and contract law regarding meaningful consumer consent in digital contexts. This article proposes to ease the noise in consent doctrine through creating an objective “reasonable digital consumer” standard ...


The Twilight Of The Opera Pirates: A Prehistory Of The Exclusive Right Of Public Performance For Musical Compositions, Zvi S. Rosen Aug 2006

The Twilight Of The Opera Pirates: A Prehistory Of The Exclusive Right Of Public Performance For Musical Compositions, Zvi S. Rosen

ExpressO

The exclusive right of public performance of a musical composition now brings to composers and songwriters revenue of approximately one billion dollars a year in the US alone. However, this right was not firmly established until a century after America’s first copyright statute, relying until then on the common-law principles that protected unpublished works. The first effort to create this right by statute was the Ingersoll Copyright Bill, an omnibus revision in 1844 which died quickly in committee. After that 50 years passed, and in the final quarter of the nineteenth century the need for statutory protection for public ...


Defining Fair Use In The Digital Era, Joseph James Raffetto Aug 2006

Defining Fair Use In The Digital Era, Joseph James Raffetto

ExpressO

The increasing prevalence of technology, and the ease with which the public and companies can reproduce, recombine, and reuse copyrighted works, has rendered the once-confusing fair use doctrine a virtual uncertainty. Given limited congressional guidance, courts have relied heavily on the secondary use’s potential effect on the market for the original work. While this reliance is based on the valid concern of maintaining adequate creative incentives, the enormous growth of licensing markets has resulted in an overemphasis on economic concerns. Recent court decisions indicate that fair use now turns not on the protection of creative incentives, but rather the ...


Copyright Distributive Injustice, Daniel Benoliel Aug 2006

Copyright Distributive Injustice, Daniel Benoliel

ExpressO

By design, copyright is a legal field that is not distinctively designed for redistribution. And yet, numerous fairness scholars and other critics of the economics paradigm quite markedly argue that copyright law should be based upon some measure of distribution, not efficiency.

This essay argues that copyright law should not promote distributive justice concerns, subject to narrow exceptions and that other more efficient law such as taxation and welfare laws should do that instead. It does so in accordance to the prevailing welfare economics interpretative approach to copyright jurisprudence, with emphasis on the latest Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing litigation.

It ...


Risk Aversion And Rights Accretion In Intellectual Property Law, James Gibson Aug 2006

Risk Aversion And Rights Accretion In Intellectual Property Law, James Gibson

ExpressO

Intellectual property’s road to hell is paved with good intentions. Because liability is difficult to predict, intellectual property users often seek licenses even when proceeding without one might be permissible. Yet because the existence (vel non) of licensing markets plays a key role in determining the breadth of rights, these seemingly sensible licensing decisions eventually feed back into doctrine; the licensing itself becomes proof that the entitlement covers the use. Over time, then, public privilege recedes and rights expand, moving intellectual property’s ubiquitous gray areas into what used to be virgin territory--where risk aversion again creates licensing markets ...


Rebalancing Section 512 To Protect Fair Users From Herds Of Mice-Trampling Elephants, Or A Little Due Process Is Not Such A Dangerous Thing, Malla Pollack Aug 2006

Rebalancing Section 512 To Protect Fair Users From Herds Of Mice-Trampling Elephants, Or A Little Due Process Is Not Such A Dangerous Thing, Malla Pollack

Malla Pollack

I agree with the basic concept of 17 U.S.C. § 512; to protect Internet functionality, ISPs should have robust safe harbors against liability for their subscribers' copyright infringement. However, the current details of the notice and take down system are both unfair to the general public and unnecessary to the economic health of the United States. I suggest a robust, statutorily established digital fair use right backed by a notice and take down procedure protecting fair users. At a minimum, use of a purchased music file on any of the purchaser's equipment should be fair use. Preferably, all ...


Taking Copyright Seriously: Abridging Rights Is More Serious Than Inflating Rights, Alina Ng Jul 2006

Taking Copyright Seriously: Abridging Rights Is More Serious Than Inflating Rights, Alina Ng

ExpressO

The proper balance between private rights and public interests in copyright has always been a heated debate. As communication and information technologies converge and develop to enable authors and users of creative works to create and use works without the physical limitations of the analog world, the debate has become more intense. This paper intends to contribute to the debate by bringing attention to basic ideas about rights and the importance of copyright as an institution to ensure that authors create new literary and artistic works for the benefit of the public. Rights under copyright are rights that define the ...


Design Piracy And Self-Regulation: The Fashion Originators' Guild Of America, 1932-1941, Sara B. Marcketti, Jean L. Parsons Jul 2006

Design Piracy And Self-Regulation: The Fashion Originators' Guild Of America, 1932-1941, Sara B. Marcketti, Jean L. Parsons

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Publications

The concept of copying or “knocking off” another designer's idea is an accepted practice in the apparel industry. Legally, designers and manufacturers have had tenuous success in proving their work “original and novel” as required by U.S. patent laws, and copyright laws often do not apply to apparel. The speed of fashion change and reliance on repetition of ideas at various price points makes design protection difficult and controversial. Historically, arguments for and against measures to control copying of apparel most frequently divided along price lines. The Fashion Originators' Guild of America (FOGA, 1932-1941) developed one of the ...


Reverse Engineering Of Computer Programs Under The Dmca: Recognizing A "Fair Access" Defense, Donna L. Lee Jul 2006

Reverse Engineering Of Computer Programs Under The Dmca: Recognizing A "Fair Access" Defense, Donna L. Lee

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

Courts have consistently held that reverse engineering constitutes fair use under the Copyright Act. When Congress enacted the DMCA, it intended to codify the settled law. Nonetheless, the exemption Congress carved out for reverse engineering in the DMCA is too narrowly crafted to accommodate the many different purposes of reverse engineering. This Comment suggests that courts should develop a fair access defense for reverse engineering undertaken for purposes that do not satisfy the requirements of the DMCA exemption but do enable other, fair use-defensible uses of computer programs. The Comment outlines three factors to consider in applying a fair access ...


All Rights Reserved? Cultural Monopoly And The Troubles With Copyright , Michael Geist Jul 2006

All Rights Reserved? Cultural Monopoly And The Troubles With Copyright , Michael Geist

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

With an increasing ease for one to download, trade and share information, there is also an increasing desire by companies, corporations and private interests to protect their works. In a time where everything can be commoditized and ideas can be bought and sold at a price, a question we must answer is - Who owns our creativity? Must all rights be reserved? This lecture explores the growth of the citizen journalist and the blossoming of independent creativity online. He also examines the concerns with copyright: how lobby groups have consistently pushed for ever stronger rules. Finally, Dr. Geist presents the opportunity ...


Performing Rights Societies And The Digital Environment, Philippe Gilliéron Jun 2006

Performing Rights Societies And The Digital Environment, Philippe Gilliéron

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Fair Use In Independent Documentary Filmmaking, Margaret Hennefeld Jun 2006

Fair Use In Independent Documentary Filmmaking, Margaret Hennefeld

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Copyright law's "fair use" doctrine aims to protect artists' First Amendment-informed rights by establishing the legality of their non-licensed citation or incorporation of copyrighted material of another author's copyrighted work into their own. However, ambiguities surrounding the function and extent of fair use, and the sheer legal expenses of clarifying these uncertainties on a case-by-case basis, frequently deny authors their First Amendment-based fair use rights. In the context of independent documentary filmmaking, a rigidly structured and highly expensive rights clearance culture generates many ethical ambiguities and thereby functions as a significant form of censorship.


Protecting Menard’S Quixote: A Return To The Strict Originality Standard In Copyright Law, Daniel R. Connolly Jun 2006

Protecting Menard’S Quixote: A Return To The Strict Originality Standard In Copyright Law, Daniel R. Connolly

ExpressO

Copyright protection extends to “original” works. The adjective “original” here means a work that originated with its purported author, and is not meant to impute any novelty requirement to copyright law. However, case law and literature offer up several odd examples where two individuals have independently created identical works of art. The theory underlying copyright law requires that, because each work originated independently from separate authors, each work be independently copyrightable. Applying this strict, objective standard of originality to the transformative arts, we begin to see new possibilities for grounding copyrights in parodies and satires. Under current law, parodies escape ...


Panel Iii: United States V. Martignon - Case In Controversy, William Patry, David Patton, Robert W. Clarida, Marjorie Heins Jun 2006

Panel Iii: United States V. Martignon - Case In Controversy, William Patry, David Patton, Robert W. Clarida, Marjorie Heins

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Movement For Open Access Law, Michael W. Carroll May 2006

The Movement For Open Access Law, Michael W. Carroll

Michael W. Carroll

My claim in this contribution to this important symposium is that the law and legal scholarship should be freely available on the Internet, and copyright law and licensing should facilitate achievement of this goal. This claim reflects the combined aims of those who support the movement for open access law. This nascent movement is a natural extension of the well-developed movement for free access to primary legal materials and the equally well-developed open access movement, which seeks to make all scholarly journal articles freely available on the Internet. Legal scholars have only general familiarity with the first movement and very ...


The Problem Of Freedom Override By Digital Rights Management Technologies: The Market Mechanisms And Possible Legal Options, Yuko Noguchi May 2006

The Problem Of Freedom Override By Digital Rights Management Technologies: The Market Mechanisms And Possible Legal Options, Yuko Noguchi

ExpressO

One of the major problems of copyright regulations in the digital and network era is that the Digital Rights Management (DRM) technologies are overriding the freedom incorporated within the copyright regulations in the analog world. The override problem partly comes from the strict implementation of the DRM systems by the market, and partly from the anti-circumvention regulations that almost blindly protect such implementation. This research reviews the scope of anti-circumvention regulations by introducing Japanese regulations, which are rather modest, and by comparing with the U.S. regulations. It also extensively analyzes the market mechanisms that cause rather strict implementation of ...


Copyright On Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy & Bess And Unfair Use, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa Apr 2006

Copyright On Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy & Bess And Unfair Use, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

Treatment of musical borrowing under current copyright standards is far too often inequitable. This is evident in the works of George Gershwin, who, for a number of reasons, was able to borrow freely from existing traditions, works and artists, copyright the works he produced that reflected such borrowings, and then restrict future borrowings and reinterpretations of his works. The operation and the uses of copyright in the specific instance of George Gershwin’s musical practice reflect actual uses of copyright in the musical arena and demonstrates some ways in which current copyright frameworks may not adequately contemplate actual practices of ...


Copyright On Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy & Bess And Unfair Use, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa Mar 2006

Copyright On Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy & Bess And Unfair Use, Olufunmilayo B. Arewa

ExpressO

Treatment of musical borrowing under current copyright standards is far too often inequitable. This is evident in the works of George Gershwin, who for a number of reasons was able to borrow freely from existing traditions, works and artists, copyright the works he produced that reflected such borrowings and then restrict future borrowings and reinterpretations of his works. Looking at the operation and uses of copyright in the specific instance of George Gershwin’s musical practice reflects uses of copyright in the musical arena and demonstrates some ways in which current copyright rules may not adequately contemplate actual practices of ...