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Filartiga’S Legacy In An Era Of Military Privatization, Laura T. Dickinson Jan 2006

Filartiga’S Legacy In An Era Of Military Privatization, Laura T. Dickinson

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Filartiga v. Pena-Irala established the idea that domestic tort suits might be brought under the Alien Tort Claims Act ("ATCA") against those accused of violating human rights norms. But what is the legacy of this case in an era of military privatization? Are there available legal responses to what we might call the privatization of torture? In the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, where detainees were tortured and abused, the individuals involved in the torture included not only members of the military, but contractors hired from the private sector. Because U.S. constitutional scrutiny traditionally applies only to state actors ...


Coordination, Property & Intellectual Property: An Unconventional Approach To Anticompetitive Effects & Downstream Access, F. Scott Kieff Jan 2006

Coordination, Property & Intellectual Property: An Unconventional Approach To Anticompetitive Effects & Downstream Access, F. Scott Kieff

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Countless high profile cases like the recent patent litigation threatening to shut down the BlackBerry® service have long drawn sharp criticism; and in response, most of the intellectual property (IP) literature argues for the use of weaker, or liability rule, enforcement as a tool for solving the problems of anticompetitive effects and downstream access while still providing sufficient rewards to IP creators. This paper takes an unconventional approach under which rewards don't matter much, but coordination does matter a great deal. The paper shows how stronger, or property rule, enforcement facilitates the good type of coordination that increases competition ...


Vicious Dog Laws Unconstitutional In Ohio, Joan Schaffner, Barbara J. Gislason Jan 2006

Vicious Dog Laws Unconstitutional In Ohio, Joan Schaffner, Barbara J. Gislason

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

On March 3, 2006, an Ohio appeals court issued a landmark decision in City of Toledo v. Tellings, 2006 WL 513946 (Ohio App. 6 Dist), which may affect pit bulls and pit bull "look-a-likes" and their owners nationwide. Tellings was the owner of three pit bulls. The warden killed one of his pit bulls and criminally charged Tellings with two violations of the local Toledo ordinance limiting ownership to one vicious dog per household and two violations of the state statute requiring liability insurance with ownership of a vicious dog. The vicious dog laws on Ohio include pit bulls in ...


A Model Regime Of Privacy Protection, Daniel J. Solove Jan 2006

A Model Regime Of Privacy Protection, Daniel J. Solove

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

A series of major security breaches at companies with sensitive personal information has sparked significant attention to the problems with privacy protection in the United States. Currently, the privacy protections in the United States are riddled with gaps and weak spots. Although most industrialized nations have comprehensive data protection laws, the United States has maintained a sectoral approach where certain industries are covered and others are not. In particular, emerging companies known as "commercial data brokers" have frequently slipped through the cracks of U.S. privacy law. In this article, the authors propose a Model Privacy Regime to address the ...


From Cooperative To Inoperative Federalism: The Perverse Mutation Of Environmental Law And Policy, Robert L. Glicksman Jan 2006

From Cooperative To Inoperative Federalism: The Perverse Mutation Of Environmental Law And Policy, Robert L. Glicksman

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Beginning in 1970, Congress adopted a series of statutes to protect public health and the environment that represented an experiment in cooperative federalism. The operative principle of cooperative federalism is that the federal government establishes a policy - such as protection of public health and the environment and sustainable natural resource use - and then enlists the aid of the states, through a combination of carrots and sticks, in pursuing that policy. The result is a system in which both levels of government work together to achieve a common goal. If the process works well, the synergism of related federal and state ...


Clogs In The Pipeline: The Mixed Data On Women Directors And Continued Barriers To Their Advancement, Lisa M. Fairfax Jan 2006

Clogs In The Pipeline: The Mixed Data On Women Directors And Continued Barriers To Their Advancement, Lisa M. Fairfax

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The longstanding disparity between the percentage of women in the workforce and their membership on corporate boards indicates that women continue to face significant barriers to corporate board membership. Evidence drawn from an empirical study on women directors at Fortune 100 companies demonstrates that the mere passage of time does not eliminate these barriers. This empirical study confirms that women have made considerable progress since 1934, but the aggregate number of women directors is small when compared against their percentages in the workforce and school population.


The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 may have resulted in changes in board composition that ...


Post-Katrina Reconstruction Liability: Exposing The Inferior Risk-Bearer, Steven L. Schooner, Erin Siuda-Pfeffer Jan 2006

Post-Katrina Reconstruction Liability: Exposing The Inferior Risk-Bearer, Steven L. Schooner, Erin Siuda-Pfeffer

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article describes the doctrinal, functional, and moral flaws inherent in the Gulf Coast Recovery Act (GCRA), a United States Senate bill that would provide liability protection to government contractors engaged in disaster relief work in the areas devastated by Hurricane Katrina, as well as in future disaster areas. First, the Article discusses the history of the government contractor defense and finds that the protection provided by the GCRA is quite unlike the traditional government contractor defense. This Article further argues that this doctrinal departure cannot be justified on grounds of efficiency or fairness, as the GCRA allocates risk away ...


Federalism, Instrumentalism, And The Legacy Of The Rehnquist Court, Peter J. Smith Jan 2006

Federalism, Instrumentalism, And The Legacy Of The Rehnquist Court, Peter J. Smith

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This paper starts from the proposition that although the Rehnquist Court imposed limits on federal power in the name of states' rights far more aggressively than did its post-1937 predecessors, it just as often chose not to impose limits in cases that otherwise fairly can be thought to have presented a question of federalism. The article then makes three claims. First, the article argues that any ultimately satisfying account of the Rehnquist Court's federalism doctrine must acknowledge that the decisions have often appeared to be driven as much by the Justices' policy preferences about the underlying substantive matters at ...


Predictive Decisionmaking, Michael B. Abramowicz Jan 2006

Predictive Decisionmaking, Michael B. Abramowicz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In this Article, Professor Abramowicz identifies a regulatory strategy that he calls "predictive decisionmaking" and provides a framework for assessing it. In a predictive decisionmaking regime, public or private decisionmakers make predictions, often of future legal decisions, rather than engage in normative analysis. Several scholars, particularly in recent years, have offered proposals that fit within the predictive decisionmaking paradigm, but have not noted the connection among these proposals. The Article highlights five different mechanisms on which predictive decisionmaking regimes may rely, including predictive standards, enterprise liability, accuracy incentives, partial insurance requirements, and information markets. After identifying several advantages that predictive ...


The Marshall Court And The Originalist's Dilemma, Peter J. Smith Jan 2006

The Marshall Court And The Originalist's Dilemma, Peter J. Smith

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In response to Anti-Federalist complaints that the Constitution was dangerous because it was ambiguous, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton argued that judges would construe the Constitution in the same manner that they construed statutes, and in the process would fix the meaning of ambiguous constitutional provisions. In other words, the original understanding was that constitutional ambiguities would be resolved, among other means, through adjudication. During his lengthy tenure, Chief Justice John Marshall had ample occasion to fix constitutional meaning, and he presided over a Court that resolved many constitutional ambiguities according to a nationalistic view of the relationship between the ...


Rethinking Interest Representation In The European Union. Review Of Law, Legitimacy And European Governance: Functional Participation In Social Regulation, By Stijn Smismans, Francesca Bignami Jan 2006

Rethinking Interest Representation In The European Union. Review Of Law, Legitimacy And European Governance: Functional Participation In Social Regulation, By Stijn Smismans, Francesca Bignami

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article reviews the book, Law, Legitimacy, and European Governance: Functional Participation in Social Regulation, by Stijn Smismans. Law, Legitimacy, and European Governance is part of a movement to reinvent the Economic and Social Committee and the form of interest group politics that originated there—what Smismans calls “functional participation.” Smismans argues that functional participation can contribute to the legitimacy of the Economic and Social Committee and that the constitutional debates concerning the construction of a supranational European polity have largely neglected this European project. The book assesses the full range of European bodies that were originally created to represent ...


Cultural Cognition And Public Policy, Donald Braman, Dan M. Kahan Jan 2006

Cultural Cognition And Public Policy, Donald Braman, Dan M. Kahan

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

People disagree about the empirical dimensions of various public policy issues. It's not surprising that people have different beliefs about the deterrent effect of the death penalty, the impact of handgun ownership on crime, the significance of global warming, the public health consequences of promiscuous sex, etc. The mystery concerns the origins of such disagreement. Were either the indeterminacy of scientific evidence or the uneven dissemination of convincing data responsible, we would expect divergent beliefs on such issues to be distributed almost randomly across the population, and beliefs about seemingly unrelated questions (whether, say, the death penalty deters and ...


The (Neglected) Employment Dimension Of The World Trade Organization, Steve Charnovitz Jan 2006

The (Neglected) Employment Dimension Of The World Trade Organization, Steve Charnovitz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

A key assumption underlying the World Trade Organization (WTO) is that its program of trade negotiations will strengthen the world economy and lead to more trade, investment, employment and income growth throughout the world. In the author's view, the WTO truly is strengthening the world economy and promoting trade and investment in many parts of the world. Yet the rest of the thesis is debatable. Is it necessarily true that the WTO and the trade negotiations it sponsors are increasing employment and income growth throughout the world? Indeed, even aggregating the world economy into one planetary unit, one wonders ...


The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Legal Implications And Research Opportunities, Lawrence A. Cunningham, Stephen Kwaku Asare, Arnold Wright Jan 2006

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Legal Implications And Research Opportunities, Lawrence A. Cunningham, Stephen Kwaku Asare, Arnold Wright

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Congress passed the Sarbanes Oxley Act to restore investor confidence, which had been deflated by massive business and audit failures, epitomized by the demise of the Enron Corporation and Arthur Anderson LLP. The Act altered the roles and responsibilities of auditors, corporate officers, audit committee members, as well as other participants in the financial reporting process. We evaluate the potential legal implications of some of the Act's major provisions and anticipate participants' likely responses. Our evaluation suggests that these provisions will significantly change behavior, increase compliance costs and alter the legal landscape. We also identify promising avenues for future ...


Torture And Contract, Laura T. Dickinson Jan 2006

Torture And Contract, Laura T. Dickinson

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This essay is a contribution to the War Crimes Research Symposium: "Torture and the War on Terror” at Case Western Reserve University School of Law, October 7, 2005. The symposium raised important questions about the problem of torture and the use of torture in the so-called "War on Terror." In considering this problem, this essay focuses on an aspect of the issue that has only recently received popular and scholarly attention, but that is likely to have profound implications: the privatization of military functions, and specifically, the privatization of torture. Such privatization may, at first blush, seem to render it ...


The Jurisdictional Heritage Of The Grand Jury Clause, Roger A. Fairfax Jr. Jan 2006

The Jurisdictional Heritage Of The Grand Jury Clause, Roger A. Fairfax Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

For the first 150 years of our constitutional history, a valid grand jury indictment was deemed to be a mandatory prerequisite to a federal court's exercise of criminal subject matter jurisdiction. Under that view of the Grand Jury Clause, a defendant in a federal felony case could neither waive nor forfeit the right to grand jury indictment. A critical examination of the historical evidence reveals that the legal realist criminal procedure reform project of the early twentieth century advanced a pragmatic critique of the usefulness of the grand jury that culminated in a provision of the Federal Rules of ...


Engineering A Deal: Toward A Private Ordering Solution To The Anticommons Problem, F. Scott Kieff, Troy A. Paredes Jan 2006

Engineering A Deal: Toward A Private Ordering Solution To The Anticommons Problem, F. Scott Kieff, Troy A. Paredes

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The problems of the intellectual property ("IP") anticommons are infamous. Many people fear that the potential for vast numbers of IP rights to cover a single good or service will prevent an enterprise from even attempting to launch a business for fear of being unduly taxed or retarded or simply held up. This Article offers a solution based on private ordering within the context of existing laws. This approach uses a limited liability entity structured so that IP owners are given an actual stake in the operating business and thus an incentive to participate in the enterprise; and yet at ...


Justice Rehnquist And The Dismantling Of Environmental Law, Robert L. Glicksman, James May Jan 2006

Justice Rehnquist And The Dismantling Of Environmental Law, Robert L. Glicksman, James May

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist was uniquely situated to have a profound impact on the development of federal environmental law - both because of the overlap of his tenure with the development of the field of environmental law and because of his four-decade tenure on the U.S. Supreme Court, more than one-half of which was as Chief Justice. Before his death on September 3, 2005, Rehnquist heard the vast majority of the Court`s environmental cases during the modern environmental era, penning opinions in 25% of them, and affording him an opportunity to shape environmental law, especially during its formative ...


Nongovernmental Organizations And International Law, Steve Charnovitz Jan 2006

Nongovernmental Organizations And International Law, Steve Charnovitz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article examines NGOs and their advocacy activities aimed at influencing international relations. The article addresses longstanding issues such as the legal status of NGOs, as well as new problems such as whether NGO lobbying in intergovernmental forums is democratically legitimate. In doing so, the article draws upon past scholarship to shed light on the guiding ideas in the contemporary debate regarding NGOs. Part I examines issues regarding the identity of NGOs and then catalogs the ways that state practice incorporates NGOs into authoritative decision making. Part II looks at the legal status of NGOs in international law. Part III ...


Language, Deals And Standards: The Future Of Xml Contracts, Lawrence A. Cunningham Jan 2006

Language, Deals And Standards: The Future Of Xml Contracts, Lawrence A. Cunningham

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

eXtensible Markup Language (XML) structures information in documentary systems ranging from financial reports to medical records and business contracts. XML standards for specific applications are developed spontaneously by self-appointed technologists or entrepreneurs. XML's social and economic stakes are considerable, especially when developed for the private law of contracts. XML can reduce transaction costs but also limit the range of contractual expression and redefine the nature of law practice. So reliance on spontaneous development may be sub-optimal and identification of a more formal public standard setting model necessary. To exploit XML's advantages while minimizing risks, this Article envisions creating ...


Public Law Values In A Privatized World, Laura T. Dickinson Jan 2006

Public Law Values In A Privatized World, Laura T. Dickinson

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Although domestic administrative law scholars have long debated privatization within the US, this debate has not confronted the growing phenomenon of privatization in the international realm or its impact on the values embodied in public international law. Yet, with both nation-states and international organizations increasingly privatizing foreign affairs functions, privatization is now as significant a phenomenon internationally as it is domestically. For example, states are turning to private actors to perform core military, foreign aid, and diplomatic functions. Military privatization entered the popular consciousness in 2004, when private contractors working for the US government abused detainees at Abu Ghraib prison ...


A Case Study In Comparative Procurement Law: Assessing Uncitral's Lessons For U.S. Procurement, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2006

A Case Study In Comparative Procurement Law: Assessing Uncitral's Lessons For U.S. Procurement, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) has commissioned a working group, with delegations from many industrialized and developing nations, to reform and update the UNCITRAL Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services. The working group is currently reviewing reforms on a number of fronts. This essay focuses on three areas of reform in particular - electronic communications, electronic reverse auctions, and unrealistically low bidding - to gauge whether lessons from the UNCITRAL debate may be useful for reform in the U.S. procurement system. As the essay reflects, the international debate surrounding UNCITRAL reform does in fact ...


Private Monitoring Of Gatekeepers: The Case Of Immigration Enforcement, Jeffrey Manns Jan 2006

Private Monitoring Of Gatekeepers: The Case Of Immigration Enforcement, Jeffrey Manns

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article shows how the enlistment of private monitors can overcome the limits of public enforcers in overseeing gatekeeper compliance with liability-induced duties. Gatekeepers are private actors who possess skills or advantages that allow them to detect and prevent wrongdoing in a more cost-effective way than the state. The problem enforcers face is that the same skills or advantages that equip gatekeepers with the ability to identify wrongdoing often provide them with the means and incentives to subvert their duties and to evade public oversight. Policymakers have largely attempted to remedy this challenge by increasing sanctions against gatekeepers and have ...


The Corporate Lawyer And 'The Perjury Trilemma', Thomas D. Morgan Jan 2006

The Corporate Lawyer And 'The Perjury Trilemma', Thomas D. Morgan

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This paper extends Monroe Freedman's idea of the criminal lawyer's "perjury trilemma" to current issues faced by corporate lawyers dealing with perceived pressures on the attorney-client privilege. The duties of criminal defense and corporate lawyers are more similar than they often seem. Corporate lawyers' duties of honesty in dealing with third parties are closely analogous to criminal lawyers' duties of honesty in dealing with a court. Both sets of lawyers also have an important interest in fostering open communications with their clients. Where their situations differ is not with respect to lawyer obligations but with respect to their ...


Voter Identification, Spencer A. Overton Jan 2006

Voter Identification, Spencer A. Overton

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In the wake of closely contested elections, calls for laws that require voters to present photo identification as a condition to cast a ballot have become pervasive. Advocates tend to rely on two rhetorical devices: (1) anecdotes about a couple of elections tainted by voter fraud; and (2) common sense arguments that voters should produce photo identification because the cards are required to board airplanes, buy alcohol, and engage in other activities. This Article explains the analytical shortcomings of anecdote, analogy, and intuition, and applies a cost-benefit approach generally overlooked in election law scholarship. Rather than rushing to impose a ...


A Place At The Table: Creating Presence And Voice For Teenagers In Dependency Proceedings, Catherine J. Ross Jan 2006

A Place At The Table: Creating Presence And Voice For Teenagers In Dependency Proceedings, Catherine J. Ross

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This comment argues that lawyers for youth in foster care too often fail to include their clients in judicial hearings and that foster youth are entitled to appear at hearings where critical decisions affecting their lives will be made. The article reviews studies showing that foster children complain that they have little or no opportunity to be heard, and discusses the interplay between foster care and problems at school.


Linking Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, And Animal Cruelty, Joan Schaffner Jan 2006

Linking Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, And Animal Cruelty, Joan Schaffner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

For years social science has demonstrated a link between animal abuse and human violence but the legal system has been slow to recognize this link. This article discusses the link among domestic violence, child abuse and animal abuse in the home and how one jurisdiction, the District of Columbia, is addressing this complex and integrated cycle of abuse as family abuse. The legal proposals include mandatory cross-reporting of abuse between child services and animal protection services, recognizing pet abuse with the intent of injuring a human family member as grounds for an intra-family abuse protective order, providing companion animal protection ...


A Grand Slam Of Professional Irresponsibility And Judicial Disregard, Stephen A. Saltzburg Jan 2006

A Grand Slam Of Professional Irresponsibility And Judicial Disregard, Stephen A. Saltzburg

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Many examples of bad lawyering and indifferent judicial responses to bad lawyering concern those who seek to raise the standards of professional conduct and assure adequate legal representation for all clients. This article discusses one case (a death penalty prosecution of William Charles Payton for rape, murder and attempted murder in 1981) to illustrate just how poor the performance of lawyers can be and how largely indifferent judges often are to such performances. With the defendant's life on the line, it appears that none of the legally trained professionals at trial did what professional standards required of them. The ...


Guilt Assuming Hypotheticals: Basic Character Evidence Rules, Stephen A. Saltzburg Jan 2006

Guilt Assuming Hypotheticals: Basic Character Evidence Rules, Stephen A. Saltzburg

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The accused in a criminal case has the right to offer evidence of a pertinent character trait in order to cast doubt on whether he or she would commit the crime charged by the government. This right gives the accused an opportunity to offer predisposition evidence that is otherwise generally inadmissible. Calling a character witness is not without risk, however. The principal risk is that the witness may be cross-examined about specific acts that are inconsistent with the character to which the witness attests. This article discusses Michelson v. United States, and United States v. Pirani, the latter which reminds ...


Trial Tactics: Reverse Rule 404(B) Evidence: Parts I And Ii, Stephen A. Saltzburg Jan 2006

Trial Tactics: Reverse Rule 404(B) Evidence: Parts I And Ii, Stephen A. Saltzburg

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Defendants have the same right to offer Rule 404(b) evidence as prosecutors, and they are not required to give pretrial notice under the Federal Rules of Evidence. When defendants offer this evidence, they attempt to prove that someone else is guilty of the crime attributed to them. This often is referred to as reverse Rule 404(b) evidence. Some defense evidence will be admitted - indeed the Confrontation Clause or Compulsory Process Clause may require admission in some cases - but not all defense evidence will be admitted. The issue is where to draw the line between admissible and inadmissible evidence ...