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Fictional Pleas, Thea Johnson Jul 2019

Fictional Pleas, Thea Johnson

Indiana Law Journal

A fictional plea is one in which a defendant pleads guilty to a crime he has not committed, with the knowledge of the defense attorney, prosecutor, and judge. With fictional pleas, the plea of conviction is detached from the original factual allegations against the defendant. As criminal justice actors become increasingly troubled by the impact of collateral consequences on defendants, the fictional plea serves as an appealing response to this concern. It allows the parties to achieve parallel aims: the prosecutor holds the defendant accountable in the criminal system, while the defendant avoids devastating noncriminal consequences. In this context, the ...


The Prison To Homelessness Pipeline: Criminal Record Checks, Race, And Disparate Impact, Valerie Schneider Apr 2018

The Prison To Homelessness Pipeline: Criminal Record Checks, Race, And Disparate Impact, Valerie Schneider

Indiana Law Journal

Study after study has shown that securing housing upon release from prison is critical to reducing the likelihood of recidivism,1 yet those with criminal records— a population that disproportionately consists of racial minorities—are routinely denied access to housing, even if their offense was minor and was shown to have no bearing on whether the applicant would be likely to be a successful renter. In April of 2016, the Office of General Counsel for the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) issued much anticipated guidance dealing directly with the racially disparate impact of barring those with ...


Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English Apr 2018

Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English

Indiana Law Journal

Each year, roughly 700,000 prisoners are released from their six-by-eight-foot cells and back into society. Sadly, though, many of these ex-prisoners are not truly free. Upon returning to society, they often encounter several challenges that prevent them from resuming a normal, reintegrated lifestyle. For many, the difficulties associated with reentry prove to be too much, and within a short three years of their release, two-thirds of ex-offenders are rearrested, reconvicted, and thrown back into the familiar six-by-eight-foot cell. Recidivism might appear to be entirely the exoffenders’ fault, but ex-offenders are not solely responsible for these recidivism rates or the ...


Debunked, Discredited, But Still Defended: Why Prosecutors Resist Challenges To Bad Science And Some Suggestions For Crafting Remedies For Wrongful Conviction Based On Changed Science, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2018

Debunked, Discredited, But Still Defended: Why Prosecutors Resist Challenges To Bad Science And Some Suggestions For Crafting Remedies For Wrongful Conviction Based On Changed Science, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Flawed science has significantly contributed to wrongful convictions. Courts struggle with how to address such convictions when the mistaken science (such as bogus expert claims about the differences between accidental fires and intentionally set ones) significantly affected the guilty verdict but there is no DNA evidence to directly exonerate the accused. My short piece explores why prosecutors often defend bad science. Mistakes in science tend to serve the prosecution, but there are other more subtle factors that explain prosecutors’ reluctance to address flawed forensic testimony. Such reluctance may arise from fondness for the status quo and a resistance to subverting ...


Measuring The Creative Plea Bargin, Thea Johnson Jul 2017

Measuring The Creative Plea Bargin, Thea Johnson

Indiana Law Journal

A great deal of criminal law scholarship and practice turns on whether a defendant gets a good deal through plea bargaining. But what is a good deal? And how do defense attorneys secure such deals? Much scholarship measures plea bargains by one metric: how many years the defendant receives at sentencing. In the era of collateral consequences, however, this is no longer an adequate metric as it misses a world of bargaining that happens outside of the sentence. Through empirical re-search, this Article examines the measure of a good plea and the work that goes into negotiating such a plea ...


A Welfarist Perspective On Lies, Ariel Porat, Omri Yadlin Apr 2016

A Welfarist Perspective On Lies, Ariel Porat, Omri Yadlin

Indiana Law Journal

Should a Muslim employee who, in order to avoid discrimination, falsely stated in his job interview that he is Christian be fired for his dishonesty? Should a buyer of a tract of land who, before contracting, conducted an expensive investigation that revealed a high likelihood of mineral deposits be subject to liability for fraud because he told the seller he knew nothing about the land’s mineral potential before purchase? Is a doctor violating her legal duties toward her patient if she convinces him to get vaccinated on the pretext that it is in his best interest when it is ...


Silencing Grand Jury Witnesses, R. Michael Cassidy Apr 2016

Silencing Grand Jury Witnesses, R. Michael Cassidy

Indiana Law Journal

This Article addresses one crucial aspect of the ongoing debate about grand jury transparency. Assuming that well over half the states and the federal government continue to employ the grand jury to investigate felony offenses, and assuming that these proceedings continue to be shielded from public view, should witnesses themselves be allowed to discuss their testimony with the press or with each other? This larger question raises two narrow but very important subsidiary issues. First, does a prosecutor who conditions a written proffer or cooperation agreement with a grand jury witness on the witness’s promise not to inform other ...


The Eighth Amendment’S Lost Jurors: Death Qualification And Evolving Standards Of Decency, Aliza Plener Cover Jan 2016

The Eighth Amendment’S Lost Jurors: Death Qualification And Evolving Standards Of Decency, Aliza Plener Cover

Indiana Law Journal

The Supreme Court’s inquiry into the constitutionality of the death penalty has over-looked a critical “objective indicator” of society’s “evolving standards of decency”: the rate at which citizens are excluded from capital jury service under Witherspoon v. Illinois due to their conscientious objections to the death penalty. While the Supreme Court considers the prevalence of death verdicts as a gauge of the nation’s moral climate, it has ignored how the process of death qualification shapes those verdicts. This blind spot biases the Court’s estimation of community norms and dis-torts its Eighth Amendment analysis.

This Article presents ...


Method Of Attack: A Supplemental Model For Hate Crime Analysis, Angela D. Moore Oct 2015

Method Of Attack: A Supplemental Model For Hate Crime Analysis, Angela D. Moore

Indiana Law Journal

On October 28, 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama. Two years later, between September and November of 2011, members of a Bergholz, Ohio, Amish community allegedly carried out five attacks in which they forcibly restrained, and cut the hair and beards of, members of other Amish communities. In September of 2012, a jury rendered a verdict in United States v. Mullet and found sixteen members of the Bergholz community—including Samuel Mullet, bishop of the community—guilty of HCPA violations. These were the first convictions ...


Are Indiana’S Newly Expunged Convictions Still Available For Impeachment?, Graham Polando Jan 2015

Are Indiana’S Newly Expunged Convictions Still Available For Impeachment?, Graham Polando

Indiana Law Journal

During trial, a litigant can, of course, impeach a witness with certain criminal convictions. However, Indiana Evidence Rule 609(c), like its federal counterpart, prohibits parties from introducing such evidence when “the conviction has been the subject of a pardon, annulment, certificate of rehabilitation, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding that the person has been rehabilitated . . . .” Indiana, however, has no procedure for annulment or certificates of rehabilitation—and, until recently, had nothing resembling one.

To some fanfare, the General Assembly has recently enacted an expungement provision. As courts begin to grant these expungements, it is only a matter ...


Police Violence And Ferguson: (En)Racing Criminal Procedure, Jeannine Bell Jan 2015

Police Violence And Ferguson: (En)Racing Criminal Procedure, Jeannine Bell

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Forfeiture Of Confrontation Rights And The Complicated Dynamics Of Domestic Violence: Some Thoughts Inspired By Myrna Raeder, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2015

Forfeiture Of Confrontation Rights And The Complicated Dynamics Of Domestic Violence: Some Thoughts Inspired By Myrna Raeder, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In this essay and memorial to my friend and colleague, Myrna Raeder, I examine forfeiting the right of confrontation in the context of domestic violence cases. In 2004, Crawford v. Washington the United States Supreme Court reinterpreted the Sixth Amendment, requiring that for “testimonial statements” to be offered against the accused, the speaker must appear in court, or, if unavailable, must have been subject to cross-examination previously. The practical effect of Crawford was to exclude many out-of-court statements that had previously been admissible. Nowhere was the effect of Crawford more striking than in domestic violence cases, where victims often make ...


In Defense Of The Finality Of Criminal Sentences On Collateral Review, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2014

In Defense Of The Finality Of Criminal Sentences On Collateral Review, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Skeptic's Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2013

The Skeptic's Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The “information sharing model,” a leading method of structuring judicial discretion at the sentencing stage of criminal cases, has attracted broad support from scholars and judges. Under this approach, sentencing judges should have access to a robust body of information, including written opinions and statistics, about previous sentences in similar cases. According to proponents, judges armed with that information can conform their sentences to those of their colleagues or identify principled reasons for distinguishing them, reducing inter-judge disparity and promoting rationality in sentencing law.

This Article takes a skeptical view of the information sharing model, arguing that it suffers from ...


The Skeptic’S Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2013

The Skeptic’S Guide To Information Sharing At Sentencing, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The “information sharing model,” a leading method of structuring judicial discretion at the sentencing stage of criminal cases, has attracted broad support from scholars and judges. Under this approach, sentencing judges should have access to a robust body of information, including written opinions and statistics, about previous sentences in similar cases. According to proponents, judges armed with that information can conform their sentences to those of their colleagues or identify principled reasons for distinguishing them, reducing inter-judge disparity and promoting rationality in sentencing law. This Article takes a skeptical view of the information sharing model, arguing that it suffers from ...


Reverberations Of The Victim's "Voice": Victim Impact Statements And The Cultural Project Of Punishment, Erin L. Sheley Jul 2012

Reverberations Of The Victim's "Voice": Victim Impact Statements And The Cultural Project Of Punishment, Erin L. Sheley

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Innocence And Federal Habeas After Aedpa: Time For The Supreme Court To Act, Joseph L. Hoffmann Jan 2012

Innocence And Federal Habeas After Aedpa: Time For The Supreme Court To Act, Joseph L. Hoffmann

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Fulfilling The Promise Of Payne: Creating Participatory Opportunities For Survivors In Capital Cases, Megan A. Mullett Oct 2011

Fulfilling The Promise Of Payne: Creating Participatory Opportunities For Survivors In Capital Cases, Megan A. Mullett

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


"Sticky Metaphors" And The Persistence Of The Traditional Voluntary Manslaughter Doctrine, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Elise J. Percy, Steven J. Sherman Jan 2011

"Sticky Metaphors" And The Persistence Of The Traditional Voluntary Manslaughter Doctrine, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Elise J. Percy, Steven J. Sherman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Race Disparity Under Advisory Guidelines: Dueling Assessments And Potential Responses, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2011

Race Disparity Under Advisory Guidelines: Dueling Assessments And Potential Responses, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Dueling studies of race disparity, one by the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC, 2010) and an alternative analysis published in this issue by Ulmer, Light, and Kramer (2011), diverge sharply in their methodological choices and in their characterization of trends in federal sentencing. The Commission’s study suggests a marked increase in race disparity, differences in sentencing outcomes between racial groups that cannot be explained by controlling for relevant nonrace factors, after the Supreme Court’s decisions in United States v. Booker (2005) and Gall v. United States (2007). Those decisions rendered the federal Sentencing Guidelines advisory and set a ...


Delay In Process, Denial Of Justice: The Jurisprudence And Empirics Of Speedy Trials In Comparative Perspective, Jayanth K. Krishnan, C. Raj Kumar Jan 2011

Delay In Process, Denial Of Justice: The Jurisprudence And Empirics Of Speedy Trials In Comparative Perspective, Jayanth K. Krishnan, C. Raj Kumar

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Criminal law scholars regularly maintain that American prisons are overcrowded and that defendants in custody wait long periods of time before having their cases brought to trial. A similar refrain is made of the penal process in India – the world’s largest democracy, an ally of the United States, and a country with a judiciary that has drawn upon American criminal procedure law. In fact, the situation in India is thought to be much worse. Accounts of prisoners languishing behind bars for several years – and sometimes decades – awaiting their day in court are not uncommon. And many Indian prisons are ...


Facing The Unfaceable: Dealing With Prosecutorial Denial In Postconviction Cases Of Actual Innocence, Aviva A. Orenstein Jan 2011

Facing The Unfaceable: Dealing With Prosecutorial Denial In Postconviction Cases Of Actual Innocence, Aviva A. Orenstein

Articles by Maurer Faculty

As this memorial volume illustrates, Fred Zacharias wrote insightfully on many aspects of the legal profession, covering a wide-range of ethical topics and analyzing many aspects of lawyers’ work. He was interested in the lives of lawyers and believed they owed a duty to society beyond an exclusive focus on individual clients’ interests.

This Article develops a question that intrigued Fred: Prosecutors’ duties postconviction to prisoners who might be innocent. Although Fred wrote about a panoply of questions that arise regarding the prosecutor’s duty to “do justice” after conviction, this Article will address one specific area of concern: how ...


Melendez-Diaz And The Right To Confrontation, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2010

Melendez-Diaz And The Right To Confrontation, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Reconceiving The Fourth Amendment And The Exclusionary Rule, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2010

Reconceiving The Fourth Amendment And The Exclusionary Rule, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Right Problem; Wrong Solution, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King Jan 2010

Right Problem; Wrong Solution, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Inter-Judge Sentencing Disparity After Booker: A First Look, Ryan W. Scott Jan 2010

Inter-Judge Sentencing Disparity After Booker: A First Look, Ryan W. Scott

Articles by Maurer Faculty

A central purpose of the Sentencing Reform Act was to reduce inter-judge sentencing disparity, driven not by legitimate differences between offenders and offense conduct, but by the philosophy, politics, or biases of the sentencing judge. The federal Sentencing Guidelines, despite their well-recognized deficiencies, succeeded in reducing that form of unwarranted disparity. But in a series of decisions from 2005 to 2007, the Supreme Court rendered the Guidelines advisory (Booker), set a highly deferential standard for appellate review (Gall), and explicitly authorized judges to reject the policy judgments of the Sentencing Commission (Kimbrough). Since then, the Commission has received extensive anecdotal ...


Retribution's Role, John Bronsteen Oct 2009

Retribution's Role, John Bronsteen

Indiana Law Journal

Two main types of principle, retributive and consequentialist, have long been identified as the main approaches to justifying criminal punishment. Retributivists deem punishment justified by the wrongdoing of the offender, whereas utilitarians deem it justified by its good consequences such as deterring future crime. Over the past fifty years, each has spent decades as the dominant theory, and many hybrid theories have also been advanced. But few, if any, of the hybrid approaches have valued heavily both retributive and consequentialist considerations while locating the particular justificatory role each category plays. This Article points in that direction by reframing the central ...


Rethinking The Federal Role In State Criminal Justice, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King Jan 2009

Rethinking The Federal Role In State Criminal Justice, Joseph L. Hoffmann, Nancy J. King

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Essay argues that federal habeas review of state criminal cases squanders resources the federal government should be using to help states reform their systems of defense representation. A 2007 empirical study reveals that federal habeas review is inaccessible to most state prisoners convicted of non-capital crimes, and offers no realistic hope of relief for those who reach federal court. As a means of correcting or deterring constitutional error in non-capital cases, habeas is failing and cannot be fixed. Drawing upon these findings as well as the Supreme Court's most recent decision applying the Suspension Clause, the authors propose ...


Interrogation And Silence: A Comparative Study, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2009

Interrogation And Silence: A Comparative Study, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines interrogation practices in detail in three systems: the American, the English (and Welsh), and the Canadian while also discussing rules from various other countries. It considers when the Miranda-type warnings (required in all three systems) must be given and when suspects will be deemed to have waived their rights. This article further discusses how reliability and voluntariness of confession is assured. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on the issue of when a suspect's silence during interrogation may be used against him in court. The article concludes that American courts have not done enough to ensure ...


Promoting Prosecutorial Accountability, Independence And Effectiveness (Edited By Timothy Waters And Belinda Cooper), Timothy W. Waters Jan 2008

Promoting Prosecutorial Accountability, Independence And Effectiveness (Edited By Timothy Waters And Belinda Cooper), Timothy W. Waters

Books by Maurer Faculty

Promoting Prosecutorial Accountability, Independence and Effectiveness assists readers in identifying and understanding best practices, and serves as a reference for policymakers, senior prosecutors, academics, and civil society leaders.

The publication should also guide and enrich national debates on prosecutorial reform, especially in countries—such as Bulgaria—which have recently transitioned to democracy.

Promoting Prosecutorial Accountability, Independence and Effectiveness was produced by the Open Society Institute Sofia and the Open Society Justice Initiative.

Edited by Maurer Law Professor Timothy W. Waters. Professor Waters also contributed the Overview titled, "Design and Reform of Public Prosecution Services."