Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminal Law

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 23513

Full-Text Articles in Law

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello Apr 2021

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

This study seeks to determine whether there are any differences in conviction rates or client satisfaction between public defenders and private attorneys in state or federal courts. Although researchers have spent time examining differences between attorney type and client satisfaction or conviction rates, little information exists on the assessment of attorney type in the federal system. The study will consist of a two-part survey with approximately twenty-seven closed-ended questions about client satisfaction, conviction, court, and attorney type. The target population will be any criminal defendant in federal or state court with an attorney. In this study, the sampling method will ...


The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens Apr 2021

The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens

Criminology Student Work

Forensic interrogation is a vital step in the process of criminal investigations in order to extract information about suspects and the crime at hand. However, tunnel vision, artificial time constraints, lack of thorough training, and noble-cause corruption can influence how an investigator decides to interrogate a suspect or witness. When these influences are exerted on an investigator, the need to secure an arrest and conviction overpowers the need for justice - this results in false confessions and wrongful convictions. This is otherwise known as “the end doesn't justify the means” mindset. This causes investigators to engage in unethical interrogations, whether ...


Flipping The Script On Brady, Ion Meyn Jul 2020

Flipping The Script On Brady, Ion Meyn

Indiana Law Journal

Brady v. Maryland imposes a disclosure obligation on the prosecutor and, for this

reason, is understood to burden the prosecutor. This Article asks whether Brady also

benefits the prosecutor, and if so, how and to what extent does it accomplish this?

This Article first considers Brady’s structural impact—how the case influenced

broader dynamics of litigation. Before Brady, legislative reform transformed civil

and criminal litigation by providing pretrial information to civil defendants but not

to criminal defendants. Did this disparate treatment comport with due process?

Brady arguably answered this question by brokering a compromise: in exchange for

imposing minor ...


Controlled Observation: The Challenges Of Therapy For The Mentally Ill Incarcerated Population, Esther Tingué Jun 2020

Controlled Observation: The Challenges Of Therapy For The Mentally Ill Incarcerated Population, Esther Tingué

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Popular perception and objective of incarceration is confinement, brutality and in some cases inhumane conditions. But what about the incarcerated population who suffer from the additional burden of mental illness? How does confinement affect mentally ill inmates? This capstone project asks: (1) how do individuals/organizations provide rehabilitative services in this evolved culture of crime and punishment? And (2) how is therapy provided in a restricted environment? I examine these questions from the perspective of the therapist, the person who (in a restricted environment) takes on the responsibility of treating and managing the effects of mental illness for this population.


Holding Both: Witness Aid Workers' Experiences Supporting Intimate Partner Violence Survivors In District Attorney Offices, Ovita Williams Jun 2020

Holding Both: Witness Aid Workers' Experiences Supporting Intimate Partner Violence Survivors In District Attorney Offices, Ovita Williams

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Social workers and advocates practice in district attorney (DA) offices as witness or victim aid workers providing intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors counseling, advocacy, resources and information as they enter the criminal legal system (CLS). Their experiences, in particular how stress and vicarious trauma (VT) manifested for them in this unique setting within the criminal legal system, had not yet been examined. This phenomenological study sought to better understand (1) how social workers and advocates in a prosecutor’s office experience practice with intimate partner violence survivors, (2) their experiences of stress, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious trauma, and supports, and ...


The California Cannabis Industry: The Complexities Since Recreational Legalization, Talia Lux May 2020

The California Cannabis Industry: The Complexities Since Recreational Legalization, Talia Lux

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This comment will first provide a look into the history and legality of cannabis in the United States, followed by a look into California’s cannabis industry. There will be a discussion on both medical and recreational legality in California and the provisions surrounding both types of legality. Next, the complexities of the cannabis industries will be discussed in terms of opening and operating a cannabis business, the different cannabis business types and the requirements for starting them, and state and local limitations. Immediately following, there will be a federal illegality discussion and how federal illegality conflicts with California law ...


Ethical Implications Of Forensic Genealogy In Criminal Cases, Solana Lund May 2020

Ethical Implications Of Forensic Genealogy In Criminal Cases, Solana Lund

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The use of forensic genealogy to solve criminal cases is likely to increase in the coming years, especially given its success in solving cold cases. While its potential for good is impressive, there are also legitimate ethical concerns that need to be addressed. As society sees an increase in the use of forensic genealogy and DTC databases in criminal investigations as well as an increase in the media attention it garners, there will be more discussion regarding ethical implications. Legal scholars say that it is only a matter of time before courts weigh in on the privacy of DNA and ...


Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes May 2020

Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes

Akron Law Review

The Nineteenth Amendment and the history of the women’s suffrage movement can offer a compelling argument against felony disenfranchisement laws. These laws leave approximately six million citizens unable to vote, often for crimes wholly unrelated to the political process. They also increasingly threaten gains in female enfranchisement.

Today’s arguments in support of felony disenfranchisement laws bear striking similarities to the arguments of anti-suffragists more than a century earlier. Both suggest that a traditionally subordinated class of citizens is inherently incapable of bearing the responsibility that the right to vote entails, and that their votes are somehow less worthy ...


The Clergy-Penitent Privilege: The Role Of Clergy In Perpetuating And Preventing Domestic Violence, Kami Orton May 2020

The Clergy-Penitent Privilege: The Role Of Clergy In Perpetuating And Preventing Domestic Violence, Kami Orton

Nevada Law Journal Forum

Domestic violence occurs at alarming rates in all socioeconomic levels, races, locations, sexual orientations, and professions. Domestic violence occurs at similar frequencies among religious and non-religious individuals. Clergy play an important role in religious communities. The clergy-penitent privilege was created to protect the relationship between clergy and communicant and prevents clergy from testifying about spiritual communications. However, the privilege is currently an absolute privilege which is unnecessary and hurts victims and survivors of domestic violence. Additionally, the statutorily written privilege is not aligned with the application and practice of the privilege. Practice indicates clergy tend to desire to testify and ...


Sanctuary Cities And Their Respective Effect On Crime Rates, Adam R. Schutt May 2020

Sanctuary Cities And Their Respective Effect On Crime Rates, Adam R. Schutt

Undergraduate Economic Review

According to the U.S. Center for Immigration Studies (2017), cities or counties in twenty-four states declare themselves as a place of “sanctuary” for illegal immigrants. This study addresses the following question: Do sanctuary cities experience higher crime rates than those cities that are not? Using publicly available data, this regression analysis investigates the relationship between crime rates in selected cities and independent variables which the research literature or the media has linked to criminal activity. Results of this research reveal that sanctuary cities do not experience higher violent or property crime rates than those cities that are not sanctuary ...


The Right To A Public Trial In The Time Of Covid-19, Stephen E. Smith May 2020

The Right To A Public Trial In The Time Of Covid-19, Stephen E. Smith

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Maintaining social distance in the time of COVID-19 is a public health priority. A crowded courtroom is an environment at odds with public health needs. Accordingly, until science determines otherwise, it will be necessary for judges to manage courtroom attendance and exclude the public from trials, wholly or in part. Courtrooms may be closed to the public, despite the Sixth Amendment’s right to a public trial, when the closure is justified by a strong government interest and is narrowly tailored to further that interest. Typically, this heightened scrutiny is applied on a case-by-case basis and turns on a case ...


Breaking The Cycle: How Nevada Can Effectuate Meaningful Criminal Justice Reform, Scott Cooper, Scott Whitworth May 2020

Breaking The Cycle: How Nevada Can Effectuate Meaningful Criminal Justice Reform, Scott Cooper, Scott Whitworth

Nevada Law Journal Forum

Why does society punish criminals? This paper examines what Nevada is attempting to accomplish through enacting and enforcing its criminal laws. We examine the current state of, as well as the challenges facing, Nevada’s criminal justice system. Additionally, we identify and propose certain solutions to reduce both recidivism and the financial burden that incarceration imposes on the state by looking to best practices in other states, as well as certain mechanisms and provisions that were, for one reason or another, removed from Nevada Assembly Bill 236.


State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner May 2020

State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner

Scholarly Articles

State prosecutors around the country have played a crucial role in mass imprisonment. Little supervision and virtually unsurpassed decision making power have provided them with unrivaled influence over the size, growth, and composition of our criminal justice system. They decide which cases to prosecute, whether to divert a case, whether to offer a plea, and what sentence to recommend. Their impact does not stop at sentencing. They weigh in on alternative dockets, supervision violations, parole release, and even clemency requests. But they are also part of a larger system that constrains them. Funding, judicial limits on their power, and legislative ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb May 2020

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Out With The New, In With The Old: Re-Implementing Traditional Forms Of Justice In Indian Country, Nicholas R. Sanchez May 2020

Out With The New, In With The Old: Re-Implementing Traditional Forms Of Justice In Indian Country, Nicholas R. Sanchez

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Indian Child Welfare Act Annual Case Law Update And Commentary, Kathryn Fort, Adrian T. Smith May 2020

Indian Child Welfare Act Annual Case Law Update And Commentary, Kathryn Fort, Adrian T. Smith

American Indian Law Journal

Annually there is an average of 200 appellate cases dealing with the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) —though this includes published and unpublished opinions.[1] Since our first annual review of the case law in 2017, the numbers remain stable. There are approximately thirty reported state appellate court cases involving ICWA each year. This annual review is the only systematic look at the ICWA cases on appeal, including an analysis of who is appealing, what the primary issues are on appeal, and what topical trends are.

This article provides a comprehensive catalogue of published ICWA cases from across all fifty ...


Mapping A Way Through Disaster And Emergency Issues Involving Indian Country And The Importance Of Legal Preparedness, Brian T. Candelaria May 2020

Mapping A Way Through Disaster And Emergency Issues Involving Indian Country And The Importance Of Legal Preparedness, Brian T. Candelaria

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Young Children's Ability To Describe Intermediate Clothing Placement, Breanne E. Wylie, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Angela Evans, Thomas D. Lyon May 2020

Young Children's Ability To Describe Intermediate Clothing Placement, Breanne E. Wylie, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Angela Evans, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Children’s ability to adequately describe clothing placement is essential to evaluating their allegations of sexual abuse. Intermediate clothing placement (partially removed clothing) may be difficult for young children to describe, requiring more detailed explanations to indicate the location of clothing (e.g., the clothes were pulled down to the knees). The current study investigated 172 3- to 6-year-olds’ descriptions of clothing placement when responding to commonly used questions (yes/no, forced-choice, open-choice, where), as well as children’s on-off response tendencies when describing intermediate placement (i.e.., labeling the clothing as fully on or off). Results revealed that "where ...


The Unqualified Mess Of Qualified Immunity; A Doctrine Worth Overruling, Allison Weiss May 2020

The Unqualified Mess Of Qualified Immunity; A Doctrine Worth Overruling, Allison Weiss

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

This comment is a response to Ryan E. Johnson, Note, Supervisors Without Supervision: Colon, McKenna, and the Confusing State of Supervisory Liability in the Second Circuit, 77 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 457 (2020), which received the 2019 Washington and Lee Law Council Law Review Award.

In his note, Ryan Johnson drills down on the various ways that courts within the Second Circuit are approaching the viability of § 1983 lawsuits by incarcerated individuals against supervisors within correctional facilities. But how important is supervisory liability in the first place? Qualified immunity allows courts, as Mr. Johnson puts it, to “cop-out” from engaging ...


Nicolás Maduro’S Impunity Is A Foregone Conclusion: A Case For Replacing The Treaty-Based Rule Of Law Model With Universal Jurisdiction, Alec Waid May 2020

Nicolás Maduro’S Impunity Is A Foregone Conclusion: A Case For Replacing The Treaty-Based Rule Of Law Model With Universal Jurisdiction, Alec Waid

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


“We Can’T Just Throw Our Children Away”: A Discussion Of The Term-Of-Years Sentencing Of Juveniles And What Can Be Done In Texas, Anjelica Harris May 2020

“We Can’T Just Throw Our Children Away”: A Discussion Of The Term-Of-Years Sentencing Of Juveniles And What Can Be Done In Texas, Anjelica Harris

Texas A&M Law Review

In the words of Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan, children are different. The issue of how to sentence juvenile offenders has long been controversial. Although psychology acknowledges the connection between incomplete juvenile brain development and increased criminality, the justice system lags behind in how it handles juvenile offenders. A prime example is the case of Bobby Bostic, who at the age of sixteen was charged with eighteen offenses and sentenced to 241 years in prison. This sentence, known as a term-of-years or virtual life sentence, essentially guarantees that no matter what Bobby does or who he proves himself to be ...


Groups Defined By Gender And The Genocide Convention, Filip Strandberg Hassellind May 2020

Groups Defined By Gender And The Genocide Convention, Filip Strandberg Hassellind

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the crime of genocide in connectivity to groups defined by gender. Its aim is to investigate whether including groups defined by gender as a protected group in the Genocide Convention appears legally plausible. It begins by probing the historical origins of the concept of genocide. This exposition emanates into an analytical examination of the rationale of protecting human groups in international criminal law. Against this background, the article advocates an understanding of the crime of genocide as a rights-implementing institute. Subsequently, it employs an ejusdem generis analysis to assess whether groups defined by gender are coherent with ...


Defining Insanity: How An Individual's View Can Impact A Trial, Jayme L. Ayres May 2020

Defining Insanity: How An Individual's View Can Impact A Trial, Jayme L. Ayres

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The insanity plea has always been a controversial topic among anyone. No one sees eye to eye on the matter. This can present a problem within professional fields. When insanity cases are brought into courtrooms, legal and psychology professionals need to be able to agree to some extent. However, these professionals have no true control on how jurors define insanity. Jurors tend to determine guilty or not guilty in insanity cases, based on their own personal views. The current study is a replication of Doctor John Geiger’s 2003 and 2008 study of how legal professionals and undergraduate psychology students ...


What Is Remembered, Alice Ristroph May 2020

What Is Remembered, Alice Ristroph

Michigan Law Review

Review of Sarah A. Seo's Policing the Open Road: How Cars Transformed American Freedom.


Exploring Lawful Hacking As A Possible Answer To The "Going Dark" Debate, Carlos Liguori May 2020

Exploring Lawful Hacking As A Possible Answer To The "Going Dark" Debate, Carlos Liguori

Michigan Technology Law Review

The debate on government access to encrypted data, popularly known as the “going dark” debate, has intensified over the years. On the one hand, law enforcement authorities have been pushing for mandatory exceptional access mechanisms on encryption systems in order to enable criminal investigations of both data in transit and at rest. On the other hand, both technical and industry experts argue that this solution compromises the security of encrypted systems and, thus, the privacy of their users. Some claim that other means of investigation could provide the information authorities seek without weakening encryption, with lawful hacking being one of ...


The Needle And The Damage Done: Mitchell V. Wisconsin'S Sweeping Rule For Warrantless Blood Draws On Unconscious Dui Suspects, Dyllan Taxman May 2020

The Needle And The Damage Done: Mitchell V. Wisconsin'S Sweeping Rule For Warrantless Blood Draws On Unconscious Dui Suspects, Dyllan Taxman

Notre Dame Law Review Reflection

In a normal year, the annual death toll from drunk driving accidents in the United States will roughly equal the total number of victims of the September 11th terrorist attacks and service members killed in the War on Terror combined. And while every state has enacted increasingly progressive laws to prevent and punish driving under the influence (DUI), episodes of drunk driving remain consistent year to year and less than one percent of self-reported drunk drivers are arrested. Drunken and drugged driving is, both in lay terms and legally speaking, a compelling public issue. But the Fourth Amendment of the ...


Responding To Victims Of Human Trafficking In The United States: A Review Of Treatment Providers, Morgan A. Mcbride May 2020

Responding To Victims Of Human Trafficking In The United States: A Review Of Treatment Providers, Morgan A. Mcbride

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Scholars have made strides to illuminate the scope and nature of human trafficking, but there have been minimal efforts to inform responses to victims. Importantly, if we do not address the issues that made people vulnerable in the first place, then they could be susceptible to re-victimization in the future. It is vital then that treatment agencies are available and engaging in effective practices to maximize recovery efforts. Thus, the current study examined treatment providers in the United States in two stages to determine how they respond to victims of these crimes. In the first stage, a systematic literature review ...


The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson May 2020

The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The Violence Against Women’s Act, or VAWA, is a landmark piece of federal legislation to combat domestic violence in the United States. It passed in 1994 following various state efforts to stop intimate partner violence. Broad federal legislation was needed to end domestic violence because of the unique nature of the crime including the strong connection between victims and perpetrators, the vast scale of the problem, and the reoccurring nature of domestic violence (Fagan, p. 28-29, 1996). VAWA has been expanded through reauthorization efforts in 2000, 2005, and 2013. Reform efforts have focused on increasing protections for victims especially ...


"The Most Eloquent Dissents:" Writ Writing At Parchman Penitentiary, Aleyah Gowell May 2020

"The Most Eloquent Dissents:" Writ Writing At Parchman Penitentiary, Aleyah Gowell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis evaluates the long history of self-advocacy on the part of incarcerated men at the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Pro se prisoners at Parchman take to the courts to improve their conditions of confinement, defend their constitutional rights, and secure their freedom. Writ writers at the prison face pervasive obstacles and restrictions in their efforts to help themselves and their fellow prisoners, but they persist nonetheless.


The Invisible Prison: Pathways And Prevention, Margaret F. Brinig, Marsha Garrison May 2020

The Invisible Prison: Pathways And Prevention, Margaret F. Brinig, Marsha Garrison

Notre Dame Law Review

In this Article, we propose a new strategy for curbing crime and delinquency and demonstrate the inadequacy of current reform efforts. Our analysis relies on our own, original research involving a large, multigenerational sample of unmarried fathers from a Rust Belt region of the United States, as well as the conclusions of earlier researchers.

Our own research data are unusual in that they are holistic and multigenerational: the court-based record system we utilized for data collection provided detailed information on child maltreatment, juvenile status and delinquency charges, child support, parenting time, orders of protection, and residential mobility for focal children ...