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Full-Text Articles in Law

Politics And Policy Of The Falling Birth Rate In Italy: Predictions And Concerns, Erin Lindsay Jan 2023

Politics And Policy Of The Falling Birth Rate In Italy: Predictions And Concerns, Erin Lindsay

CICLR Online

The birth rate in Italy had been a topic of concern for the past couple decades, making it a source of conversation and debate among political parties and candidates in Italy. With the election of a new Italian government and the prediction of Giorgia Meloni being Italy’s new prime minister, how Meloni and her party have spoken of and plan to tackle the falling birth rate is a discussion occurring around the world. The falling birth rate was concerning to country leaders prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, but statistics show that the Italian birth rate has fallen …


Free Speech: A Right In Crisis As Turkish Parliament Passes New “Disinformation” Bill, Zaira A. Rojas Navarro Jan 2023

Free Speech: A Right In Crisis As Turkish Parliament Passes New “Disinformation” Bill, Zaira A. Rojas Navarro

CICLR Online

Shards of glass and plastic flew across the floor as legislator Burak Erbay, a member of the Republican People’s Party, hammered and smashed a smartphone Wednesday night while addressing the Turkish parliament in opposition to president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan proposed Disinformation Bill. Erbay argued the Bill’s clampdown on social media would make smartphones obsolete. Turkish authorities reported to the Venice Commission and the Directorate General of Human Rights and Rule of Law (DGI) of the Council of Europe that the principal goal of the new legislation is to “prevent the spread of fake, untrue, baseless, and false information designed to …


Court Polarization: A Comparative Perspective, Iddo Porat Jan 2023

Court Polarization: A Comparative Perspective, Iddo Porat

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Polarization is on the rise around the globe. Political views are driven to the poles, and moderate views are weakened. Many studies have been carried out on the increase in social and political polarization, but far fewer on the effects of polarization on constitutional and supreme courts, and none on a comparative or global scale. This Article attempts to fill this gap. It aims, for the first time, to describe and typologize the effects of political polarization on constitutional and supreme courts in different parts of the world.

The Article identifies three models of such effects: mirror polarization (the U.S.) …


From The Editor-In-Chief, Monica Ratajczak Jan 2023

From The Editor-In-Chief, Monica Ratajczak

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Certainty-Severity Tradeoff In Antitrust Law And Administration: Where The United States And India Differ, Akhil Sud Jan 2023

The Certainty-Severity Tradeoff In Antitrust Law And Administration: Where The United States And India Differ, Akhil Sud

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

In this paper, I use the certainty-severity tradeoff as my analytical lens—a novel move in antitrust—to explain the difference between U.S. and Indian antitrust law. I argue that, in antitrust, India prefers certainty of enforcement while the U.S. prefers severity of enforcement. This difference is not driven by doctrine or economic policy; rather, I locate this difference in six key institutional factors. And using economic theory, I argue that a difference in social attitudes to risk explains and justifies this institutionally-manifested difference in law.


Investment Treaty Arbitration And The Trips Patent Waiver: Indirect Expropriation Analysis Of Covid-19 Vaccine Patents, Jean Paul Roekaert Jan 2023

Investment Treaty Arbitration And The Trips Patent Waiver: Indirect Expropriation Analysis Of Covid-19 Vaccine Patents, Jean Paul Roekaert

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Intending to promote greater access to Covid-19 vaccines, a group of developing countries submitted a proposal to the World Trade Organization (WTO) recommending a waiver that would temporarily exempt all WTO members from the obligation to comply with Section 5 (Patents) of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). If approved, states would be permitted to adopt domestic measures suspending the minimum protections afforded to Covid-19 vaccine patents under the TRIPS Agreement. In this article, I consider whether the owners of Covid-19 vaccine patents may have a compensable indirect expropriation claim under investment treaty arbitration against …


Masthead Jan 2023

Masthead

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Interstate Dispute Resolution At A Crossroads: Reconsidering The I’M Alone Arbitration, David M. Bigge Jan 2023

Interstate Dispute Resolution At A Crossroads: Reconsidering The I’M Alone Arbitration, David M. Bigge

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Just Transition Litigation In Latin America: An Initial Categorization Of Climate Litigation Cases Amid The Energy Transition, Maria Antonia Tigre, Lorena Zenteno, Marlies Hesselman, Natalia Urzola, Pedro Cisterna-Gaete, Riccardo Luporini Jan 2023

Just Transition Litigation In Latin America: An Initial Categorization Of Climate Litigation Cases Amid The Energy Transition, Maria Antonia Tigre, Lorena Zenteno, Marlies Hesselman, Natalia Urzola, Pedro Cisterna-Gaete, Riccardo Luporini

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Just transition litigation is a novel field representing a sub-set of climate change litigation cases that is under-researched and studied. The report provides a novel comparative analysis of legal developments found in 20 just transition litigation cases in four Latin American countries and questions whether initiatives for achieving energy transformation in the region may have erred in failing to consider key just transition principles or dimensions, leading applicants to bring legal cases to claim their rights or demand more just solutions. The cases found – limited to the energy sector – not only question decarbonization policies or projects (in typical …


Characterisation And Choice Of Law For Knowing Receipt, Adeline Chong Jan 2023

Characterisation And Choice Of Law For Knowing Receipt, Adeline Chong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Knowing receipt requires the satisfaction of disparate elements under English domestic law. Its characterisation under domestic law is also unsettled. These in turn affect the issues of characterisation and choice of law at the private international law level as knowing receipt sits at the intersection of the laws of equity, restitution, wrongs and property. This paper argues that under the common law, knowing receipt ought to be considered as sui generis for choice of law purposes and governed by the law of closest connection to the claim. Where the Rome II Regulation applies, knowing receipt fits better within the tort …


Analysis Of Discriminatory Measures From European Union Renewable Energy Directive Ii To Indonesia As A Palm Oil Producer Country, Enrico Denis Sihotang Dec 2022

Analysis Of Discriminatory Measures From European Union Renewable Energy Directive Ii To Indonesia As A Palm Oil Producer Country, Enrico Denis Sihotang

Indonesia Law Review

On 21 December 2018, the European Union (EU) issued a regulation titled Renewable Energy Directive II (RED II), where the RED II policy introduced the indirect land use change (ILUC) criteria for palm oil. RED II states that palm oil is classified as a commodity with a “ high ILUC risk” type, and as such, the EU will gradually reduce palm oil consumption and no longer use palm oil by 2030. Indonesia brought this issue to WTO in 2020. Indonesia, through its consultation, argued that the RED II is inconsistent with the few provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs …


Liability Rule Practices Amidst The Property Rule Of Indonesian Capital Market, Adiwarman Adiwarman Dec 2022

Liability Rule Practices Amidst The Property Rule Of Indonesian Capital Market, Adiwarman Adiwarman

Indonesia Law Review

Shareholder protection is the most important legal issue in capital market law. Conflict of interest is one of the corporate actions in the capital market. The property rule requires independent shareholders’ approval for conflicts of interest transactions. The property rule paradigm empowers independent shareholders in the company’s decision-making process. In practice, listed companies violate the property rule and are subject to sanctions, but the rights of shareholders will be reduced due to fines imposed by the capital market authorities. A normative method is used to answer the problem of how does Indonesia enforce the conflict of interest rule in order …


An Analytical Study On The Intervention Of The Legislature To The Constitutional Court In Indonesia Compared To Developed Countries, Mochammad Arief Agus, Andi Muhammad Irvan Alamsyah Dec 2022

An Analytical Study On The Intervention Of The Legislature To The Constitutional Court In Indonesia Compared To Developed Countries, Mochammad Arief Agus, Andi Muhammad Irvan Alamsyah

Indonesia Law Review

Practical improvements in the national institution context brought numerous changes regarding interactions between The Constitutional Court & The legislature including contemporary polemics. The check and balances framework is important to be noticed related to the Judge’s Independence. Aswanto’s recall as one of the Judges of the Indonesian Constitutional Court encourages us to elaborate more about the essence of independence. At the same time, checks and balances should stand out. What is the legal standing of any actions taken by the parliament to the constitutional court? How do developed countries practice the relationship between the legislature and the judiciary? The answer …


Front Matter And Table Of Contents Dec 2022

Front Matter And Table Of Contents

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Death Sentences In The Great Qing, 1744-1840: Critical Note On Civilization In Comparison With England And Wales, Moulin Xiong, Ren Liu Dec 2022

Death Sentences In The Great Qing, 1744-1840: Critical Note On Civilization In Comparison With England And Wales, Moulin Xiong, Ren Liu

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

Over the last centuries, the view on the death penalty in Qing China has been distorted, presenting a picture of abusive brutality and excessive cruelty, and thus was used as the critical pretext to establish immune extraterritorial jurisdictions. Nevertheless, the existing comments are more literary embellishments without empirical evidence, and few comparative and historical perspectives have been utilized to clarify the truth. In this study, we mined annual death sentence numerical data for the period 1744 to 1840 from official archives and literatures, deciphering the capital crimes in detail and ascertaining the longitudinal trend with population statistics. To reassess the …


Masthead Dec 2022

Masthead

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Covid-19 On Domestic Violence And Digital Abuse: Addressing The Problem Through A National Action Plan, Kayla Bokzam Dec 2022

The Impact Of Covid-19 On Domestic Violence And Digital Abuse: Addressing The Problem Through A National Action Plan, Kayla Bokzam

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

This Article discusses the impact of COVID-19 on domestic violence and digital abuse around the world, with a focus on the United States. Violence against women has increased since the start of the pandemic largely due to lockdown restrictions and other measures taken by governments to slow the spread of the virus. Further, with an increase in the use of technology throughout our daily lives, digital abuse has become more prevalent and particularly impacts women and girls. This paper analyzes the national action plans on gender-based violence in Australia and South Africa and explores how the United States can create …


Gender Justice And Human Rights Symposium Holistic Approaches To Gender Violence, Denisse Córdova Montes, Tamar Ezer, Reem Ali, Kayla Bokzam, Renu Sara Nargund, Megan Norris, Maxwell Zoberman Dec 2022

Gender Justice And Human Rights Symposium Holistic Approaches To Gender Violence, Denisse Córdova Montes, Tamar Ezer, Reem Ali, Kayla Bokzam, Renu Sara Nargund, Megan Norris, Maxwell Zoberman

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


From The Vatican With Cash: Prosecuting Money Laundering In London Real Estate, Jane Tien Dec 2022

From The Vatican With Cash: Prosecuting Money Laundering In London Real Estate, Jane Tien

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

It is no news that donations from the Catholic faithful reemerge from the dark underground of Church finances as lace vestments, embroidered mitres, velvet slippers, and posh mansions. A year after Pope Francis announced the overhaul of the Vatican’s antimoney laundering (AML) laws, a makeshift courtroom in the Vatican Museum witnessed the largest criminal trial in the Vatican’s modern history. At the center was Cardinal Angelo Becciu—the former No. 3 in the Vatican—for allegedly defrauding the Vatican’s investment in London real estate. After the tumbrels, now comes the reckoning: How could the Vatican mend a broken system and effectively tackle …


Beyond The Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights In The Dawn Of A Metaverse, Kuzi Charamba Dec 2022

Beyond The Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights In The Dawn Of A Metaverse, Kuzi Charamba

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

Technological advances in the 21st century pose new threats to human rights from business activities. In this new technological age, individuals and communities engage through an increasing myriad of digital means and platforms, all facilitated by a smaller, more powerful set of global BigTech companies, such as Microsoft, Apple, Google, and Meta (formerly known as Facebook). In so doing, however, our lives as workers, consumers, and citizens become subject to increasing corporate control through surveillance capitalism and algorithmic governance. With the dawn of metaverses—3D immersive digital environments in which you can interact with others via avatars and through virtual and …


Foreclosing Asylum: “Neo-Refoulement” And The Ripple Effects Of U.S. Interdiction At Sea, Edgar Cruz Dec 2022

Foreclosing Asylum: “Neo-Refoulement” And The Ripple Effects Of U.S. Interdiction At Sea, Edgar Cruz

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

This Note argues that U.S. interdiction of asylum seekers at sea and the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP) program undermine the object and purpose of international refugee law. The U.S. Government uses both practices to evade its international obligation of non-refoulement, or non-return. Such practices unjustly restrict access to asylum in the U.S. These policies can be characterized as tools of “neo-refoulement.” Neo-refoulement is a strategy used to foreclose the possibility of asylum. It allows States parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention to evade their international obligation to refrain from returning people to places where they may be at risk of …


Comparative Intellectual Property Protection For Marijuana: United States Vs. The European Union, Jillian Gosser Dec 2022

Comparative Intellectual Property Protection For Marijuana: United States Vs. The European Union, Jillian Gosser

The Global Business Law Review

Protecting intellectual property relating to marijuana is a complicated endeavor. The federal ban on marijuana renders trademark protection difficult at best, and patent protection, while available, still rife with complications. In Europe, the laws pose similar challenges in the protection and enforcement of marijuana related intellectual property. This Note presents a comparative law analysis of the various ways marijuana related intellectual property may be protected in the United States and Europe. Different types of intellectual property protection explored include utility patents, design patents, trademarks, plant patents, Plant Variety Protection Act coverage, and Community Plant Variety Act coverage. This Note explores …


Lower-Income Countries’ Ongoing Quest For International Tax Justice: A Case Study Of The Oecd’S Tax Allocation Proposal, Okanga Ogbu Okanga, Kim Brooks Dec 2022

Lower-Income Countries’ Ongoing Quest For International Tax Justice: A Case Study Of The Oecd’S Tax Allocation Proposal, Okanga Ogbu Okanga, Kim Brooks

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The viability of our international tax system hinges on two things: (1) safeguarding the effective flow of international activities and (2) ensuring that countries can adequately collect tax on the income derived from those activities. Each of these fundamentals relies on a defensible/fair allocation of taxing rights between countries with competing tax jurisdiction (inter-nation equity).

The recent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-led multilateral effort to transform international tax rules to ensure that countries can adequately tax multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in the global digital economy (OECD proposal) has reignited inter-nation equity conversations. Although important to all countries, inter-nation …


Limited Shareholder Inspection Rights In Singapore: Worrying Legal Gap Or Unnecessary For Rankings?, Dan W. Puchniak, Tang Samantha S. Dec 2022

Limited Shareholder Inspection Rights In Singapore: Worrying Legal Gap Or Unnecessary For Rankings?, Dan W. Puchniak, Tang Samantha S.

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Singapore’s formal corporate law and governance rules normally meet or exceed global standards – which explains why it regularly tops prominent Asian and global rankings for good corporate governance. As such, Singapore’s outlier status, as the only leading economy in Asia that does not provide a specific mechanism for shareholders to access corporate information, is puzzling.In this Article we aim to solve this puzzle by offering two explanations that appear to make sense out of Singapore’s outlier status as having an unusually restrictive shareholder inspection rights regime. The first, demand-side, explanation is that Singapore’s controlling shareholder-dominated landscape generates little demand …


South Korean Court’S Landmark Decision Against North Korea, Hyesoo Hahn Nov 2022

South Korean Court’S Landmark Decision Against North Korea, Hyesoo Hahn

CICLR Online

During the Korean War, about 50,000 to 70,000 South Korean soldiers were taken prisoner of war (POW) by North Korea and its allies. While North Korea claimed that most South Korean POWs expressed to remain in North Korea and repatriated only 8,343 POWs, 80 South Korean POWs who escaped from North Korea told a different story. Most testified that they were never asked whether they want to return to South Korea, and some testified that they were forced to say they want to remain in North Korea. Held captive against their will, 50,000 South Korean POWs were sent to North …


The Legality Of Russian Gray-Market Imports, Ruben Attia Nov 2022

The Legality Of Russian Gray-Market Imports, Ruben Attia

CICLR Online

In its efforts to cope with Western sanctions implemented in response of its invasion of Ukraine, Russia launched the parallel imports scheme, allowing the importation of many goods without the consent of their intellectual property right-holder. Such goods are called grey market goods because they have been formulated or packaged for a particular jurisdiction and are imported into a different jurisdiction in contradiction to the brand owner’s intention. The value of parallel imports in Russia may well attain $16 billion by the end of 2022, as reported by Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Manturov. The Russian scheme also protects …


The Law Applicable To Trademark Gift Deeds: A Study Of The Provision Of Article 49 Of Kuwait Law No. 5 Of 1961 Regulating Relationships With Foreign Elements Law Applicable To Trademark Gift Contract: A Study Of Article 49 Of Kuwaiti Law No. 5 Of 1961 Regulating Relations With Foreign Parties, Bashayer Alghanim Dr. Nov 2022

The Law Applicable To Trademark Gift Deeds: A Study Of The Provision Of Article 49 Of Kuwait Law No. 5 Of 1961 Regulating Relationships With Foreign Elements Law Applicable To Trademark Gift Contract: A Study Of Article 49 Of Kuwaiti Law No. 5 Of 1961 Regulating Relations With Foreign Parties, Bashayer Alghanim Dr.

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

This paper addresses the question of the law applicable to a trademark gift deed involving a foreign element as trademarks have become movable, intangible assets that can be transferred to third parties. The significance of studying the applicable law lies in the fact that it helps identify the law applicable to a trademark gift deed that involves a foreign element pursuant to Article 49 of Kuwait Law No. 5 of 1961.

This paper attempts to clearly characterise a gift deed in order to avoid confusion with other forms of deeds, such as sale deeds and wills. It also tries to …


Intersectionality In International Criminal Law Symposium, Cardozo International & Comparative Law Review Nov 2022

Intersectionality In International Criminal Law Symposium, Cardozo International & Comparative Law Review

Event Invitations 2022

The Cardozo International & Comparative Law Review hosted a virtual symposium on intersectionality and how international criminal law can account for structural drivers of violence. Through critically questioning discriminatory systems and applications of the law, this symposium analyzes how the Rome Statute governs international criminal law, as exemplified by the International Criminal Court's rulings on enslavement.

This symposium features Alexandra Lily Kather, International Criminal Lawyer and Co-Founder of Emergent Justice Collective; Nick Leddy, Head of Litigation at Legal Action Worldwide; Priya Gopalan, International Criminal Lawyer and Member of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention; moderated by Ramya Kudekallu, Telford …


Masthead & Table Of Contents Nov 2022

Masthead & Table Of Contents

Dalhousie Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Equality And Executive Action: A Comparative Perspective To The Comparator Problem, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng Nov 2022

Constitutional Equality And Executive Action: A Comparative Perspective To The Comparator Problem, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A general right to equality is a common feature of written constitutions around the world. Interesting questions arise when one seeks to apply such rights to discrete executive acts. The subject of such acts has necessarily been singled out from a multitude of possibilities for the purposes of the act. To determine whether a differentiation has occurred such that like cases have not been treated alike, to what or whom should this subject be compared? The question of how one selects the proper comparator becomes especially significant when one notes that whether the equal protection guarantee is triggered at all …