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Full-Text Articles in Law

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos Jan 2019

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Historic Preservation And Progress In Atlanta: Opportunity Knocks, Ian Michael Rogers Jun 2018

Historic Preservation And Progress In Atlanta: Opportunity Knocks, Ian Michael Rogers

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

This paper explores where Atlanta’s historic preservation ethos stands in 2017. Further, this paper examines and analyzes how historic preservation can be more fully supported in Atlanta through strategic tools and policies.


Natura 2000 - The European Union Mechanism For Nature Conservation. Some Legal Issues., Maria Kenig-Witkowska Jun 2018

Natura 2000 - The European Union Mechanism For Nature Conservation. Some Legal Issues., Maria Kenig-Witkowska

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

No abstract provided.


Water Shortage And Water Law: The Impending Crisis In Semi-Arid Climates, Bonnie Persons Jun 2018

Water Shortage And Water Law: The Impending Crisis In Semi-Arid Climates, Bonnie Persons

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

Water is a business driver and a substantial source of both wealth and risk. Water is also under increasing statutory and legislative pressure as jurisdictions strive to manage water resources more holistically by addressing both surface and groundwater together, but on a more decentralized and sustainable basis. The potential collapse of the municipal water system in Cape Town, South Africa serves as a stark alarm for cities in arid and semi-arid, Mediterranean-like environments. This risk is especially true of cities like Marseilles, France and regions like California. By comparing the impacts of the water law in these different jurisdictions, this ...


Three Cases In Point: A Comparison Of Legal Access To Housing For Low-Income And Homeless Populations In Cape Town, Marseille And Miami, Leila Lawlor Jun 2018

Three Cases In Point: A Comparison Of Legal Access To Housing For Low-Income And Homeless Populations In Cape Town, Marseille And Miami, Leila Lawlor

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

Miami, Cape Town, and Marseille have taken dissimilar approaches in their attempts to legislate and supply affordable housing to those in need. One of these cities has no justiciable right whatsoever, one has a right set out in its national constitution, and one has a right set out in its national law. These cities have had different degrees of success in aiding those in need of adequate housing; however, each of these cities continues to suffer from both a lack of affordable housing and a widening income gap. Examining the frameworks and the efforts of these three port cities establishes ...


Ten Years Of The French Dalo And The Catalan Right To Housing Act: European Innovation In The Fields Of Land Use Planning And Housing, Camille Mialot, Juli Ponce Jun 2018

Ten Years Of The French Dalo And The Catalan Right To Housing Act: European Innovation In The Fields Of Land Use Planning And Housing, Camille Mialot, Juli Ponce

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

The main objective of this article is to give an overview for an international audience of the results of two acts which were passed the same year, 2007 - the French Enforceable right to housing (Droit au logement opposable, later referred as DALO) Act, and the Catalan Right to Housing Act (Llei catalana del dret a l´habitatge, CRHA). Both acts are good examples of legal innovations regarding land use and housing at the beginning of the 21st Century. The first one established an enforceable right to housing in France for the first time in French history. The second one is ...


Social Dimensions And Social Function Born In Latin America: Property Limits In The U.S. And The European Union Legal Systems, Wellington Migliari Jun 2018

Social Dimensions And Social Function Born In Latin America: Property Limits In The U.S. And The European Union Legal Systems, Wellington Migliari

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

This article is a comparative analysis of property systems and their social dimensions between the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU). Throughout the article, we show how the fees and development taxes applied in the U.S. refer to an ex ante rationale assumed by private owners to compensate communities for land transformation or environmental impacts, while inside the EU, the political consensus is responsible for the imposition of limits in ex post abuses of ownership. Either in public administrations, or in the Council of Ministers of the EU, the social function of property is better understood ...


Regional Public/Private Partnerships As Entrepreneurial Bricolage, John F. Mcardle Jun 2018

Regional Public/Private Partnerships As Entrepreneurial Bricolage, John F. Mcardle

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

Entrepreneurial development of contaminated or blighted land, commonly referred to as “brownfield,” carries significant enterprise risk. When considering competing opportunities, capital tends to flow in an adverse direction from higher-risk activity where outcomes are less certain. In addition, a complicated regulatory landscape can increase transaction costs which further limit the desirability of these projects. Often, that leaves the remediation of environmentally compromised property in the hands of the public sector. Yet, in industrialized nations with significant brownfield presence, government is often unable to solely cure defects due to limited fiscal resources and competing policy imperatives. One solution to the problem ...


The Emergence Of Metropolitan Areas As A New Form Of Interfederative Governance: A Comparative Study Of Aix-Marseille-Provence And The Metropolitan Region Of Rio De Janeiro, Aricia Fernandes Correia, Romulo S.R. Sampaio Jun 2018

The Emergence Of Metropolitan Areas As A New Form Of Interfederative Governance: A Comparative Study Of Aix-Marseille-Provence And The Metropolitan Region Of Rio De Janeiro, Aricia Fernandes Correia, Romulo S.R. Sampaio

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

The exponential demographic increase of the last century and the transformation of the cities, from industrial to service providers, added to the phenomenon of conurbation. In addition, the new social, environmental, economic, political and cultural dynamics of close cities, challenged the traditional municipal power and required a collaborative new management framework. Global cities became metropolitan areas. Issues of local urban interest are now of regional preoccupation. Governmental institutional frameworks and urban planning were not designed to match this new socioeconomic and environmental metropolitan order. This paper deals with the legal challenges of creating metropolitan governance structures comparing France and Brazil ...


The French Metropole: How It Gained Legal Status As A Metropolis, Janice Griffith Jun 2018

The French Metropole: How It Gained Legal Status As A Metropolis, Janice Griffith

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

France’s long history of centralized governance has generated debates as to what powers should remain with the State and what powers should devolve to sub-national governments. To ameliorate the fragmentation resulting from the small size of France’s 36,000 plus municipalities, called communes, the State authorized the creation of general-purpose, inter-communal public institutions to perform municipal functions on behalf of the communes on a greater economy of scale. The article examines the trajectory that led to the creation in 2010 of the métropole, or metropolis, the most recent of these inter-communal bodies that is designed to undertake public ...


The Future Of French Metropolis, Anne-Claire Mialot Jun 2018

The Future Of French Metropolis, Anne-Claire Mialot

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

No abstract provided.


Introduction, Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer, Karen Johnston Jun 2018

Introduction, Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer, Karen Johnston

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

No abstract provided.


Particular Social Groups: Vague Definitions And An Indeterminate Future For Asylum Seekers, Christopher C. Malwitz Jun 2018

Particular Social Groups: Vague Definitions And An Indeterminate Future For Asylum Seekers, Christopher C. Malwitz

Brooklyn Law Review

Victims fleeing their native countries to escape violence, discrimination, or persecution are provided a limited number of mechanisms under current immigration law to gain refuge in the United States. Under the controlling law, aliens entering the United States are eligible for asylum if they qualify under one of five protected grounds, including race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. But the complete lack of statutory guidance surrounding what constitutes a “particular social group” is incredibly controversial and confusing. The immigration statutes provide no language defining this protected ground. Thus, the guiding framework and eligibility criteria ...


Search Query: Can America Accept A Right To Be Forgotten As A Publicity Right?, James J. Lavelle Jun 2018

Search Query: Can America Accept A Right To Be Forgotten As A Publicity Right?, James J. Lavelle

Brooklyn Law Review

Search engines have profoundly changed the relationship between privacy and free speech by making personal information widely and cheaply available to a global audience. This has raised many concerns both over how online companies handle the information they collect and how regular citizens use online services to invade other people’s privacy. One way Europe has addressed this change is by providing European Union citizens with a right to petition search engines to deindex links from search results—a so-called “right to be forgotten.” If the information contained in a search result is “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant,” the ...


Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Is There A Better Alternative?, Emily Osmanski Jun 2018

Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Is There A Better Alternative?, Emily Osmanski

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

As the world has transitioned from national; isolated economies with localized issues into a globalized and interconnected economy with cross-border disputes; the law has struggled to keep up. Recent trade negotiations have highlighted the difficulty states face in promoting trade; while also creating a fair; accessible; and equitable forum for producers and consumers with nationalities touching every area of the globe. For several decades; Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) has been in place to address claims brought by foreign investors against the host states. External improvements have helped support foreign direct investment and the ISDS model of dispute resolution; such as ...


Environmental Reform In Africa: A Comparative Continental Union Solution Through Plastic Reform Legislation, Wynee Ngo Jun 2018

Environmental Reform In Africa: A Comparative Continental Union Solution Through Plastic Reform Legislation, Wynee Ngo

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the face of environmental turmoil; countries across the world are implementing measures to mitigate the deteriorating effects that common day practices have on the ecosystem. The European Union has implemented directives to govern plastic use on a continental scale. On the other hand; the African Union (AU) has been silent on plastic use; despite a string of African countries implementing stringent plastic reform legislation. This Note will examine the European Union and AU’s international frameworks and powers; while also detailing currently enacted EU directives and African state-level regulations. It will then conduct a comparative analysis of the AU ...


Charting A New Course In Cuba? Why The Time Is Now To Settle Outstanding American Property Claims, Marco Antonio Dueñas Jun 2018

Charting A New Course In Cuba? Why The Time Is Now To Settle Outstanding American Property Claims, Marco Antonio Dueñas

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The recent warming of relations between the United States and Cuba offered generations of Cubans; Americans; and Cuban Americans renewed hope for normalized relations. One obstacle—satisfactory resolution of property claims—stands in the way; which dates back to the Cuban government’s nationalization of all U.S. assets on the island. The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act of 1996 (the “Helms-Burton Act”) predicates resolution of these decades-old property claims by the Cuban government as an essential condition for the full resumption of economic and diplomatic relations between the two neighbors. Separated by only ninety miles of Caribbean Sea ...


Syria Under Pinheiro: Reformulating Syrian Domestic Law For Decentralized Reconstruction, George Somi Jun 2018

Syria Under Pinheiro: Reformulating Syrian Domestic Law For Decentralized Reconstruction, George Somi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; since 2011; the Syrian conflict has generated roughly 5.4 million refugees; while approximately 6.5 million people are internally displaced within the country; making it the largest internally displaced population in the world. Rebuilding Syria’s infrastructure; homes; and businesses will be an immense task; with cost estimates ranging between $250–$350 billion USD. The Syrian government and the international community have already started to contemplate postwar reconstruction and even wartime reconstruction; despite the ongoing fighting. This Note operates under the assumption that the Syrian government of President Bashar al-Assad ...


Abolishing Australia's Judicially Enacted Sui Generis Doctrine Of Extended Joint Enterprise, Victoria Bo Wang May 2018

Abolishing Australia's Judicially Enacted Sui Generis Doctrine Of Extended Joint Enterprise, Victoria Bo Wang

Concordia Law Review

This Article argues that the decision in Miller v The Queen [2016] HCA 30 is supported neither by common law precedent in Australia nor the historical English precedents that informed the development of Australia’s common law doctrines. It is submitted that the majority judgment misquoted old English authorities to try to equate foresight with intention and argues that the High Court of Australia engaged in judicial activism, because its decision rested predominantly on the policy views of the judges. Moreover, it is argued that the case highlighted the urgent need for law reform in Australia. The Article puts forward ...


A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson May 2018

A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This essay provides an overview of the legal issues relating to intoxication, including the effect of voluntary intoxication in imputing to an offender a required offense culpable state of mind that he may not actually have had at the time of the offense; the effect of involuntary intoxication in providing a defense by negating a required offense culpability element or by satisfying the conditions of a general excuse; the legal effect of alcoholism or addiction in rendering intoxication involuntary; and the limitation on using alcoholism or addiction in this way if the offender can be judged to be reasonably responsible ...


Dispute Settlement Under The Next Generation Of Free Trade Agreements, Kathleen Claussen May 2018

Dispute Settlement Under The Next Generation Of Free Trade Agreements, Kathleen Claussen

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


No More Tiers? Proportionality As An Alternative To Multiple Levels Of Scrutiny In Individual Rights Cases, Donald L. Beschle May 2018

No More Tiers? Proportionality As An Alternative To Multiple Levels Of Scrutiny In Individual Rights Cases, Donald L. Beschle

Pace Law Review

This article will explore how the explicit adoption of proportionality analysis as a single analytical tool might lead, not only to a more coherent approach to individual rights cases, but will also bring together aspects of the current multiple analytical tiers in a way that allows full consideration of both the individual rights and the social values present in these cases. Part I of this article will give a brief overview of the history of the creation and application of the various tiers of analysis used by the United States Supreme Court and explore how the once-sharp difference in those ...


The European Union, The Member States, And The Lex Mercatoria, Gabriella Saputelli May 2018

The European Union, The Member States, And The Lex Mercatoria, Gabriella Saputelli

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The phenomena linked to the "internationalization" and "globalization" of the economy prompt the demand for uniform legal frameworks in supranational governance and encourage forms of “self-regulation”. This spontaneous attempt at harmonizing law at the supranational level is often prepared by market forces and comes to add to the classical legal models while leading to the emergence of a new lex mercatoria.

The aim of this paper is to analyze the openings of the European system to the transnational production of law identified under the term "new lex mercatoria" by verifying all the factors that allow its sources of law to ...


Letter From The Editer, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen May 2018

Letter From The Editer, Annie Bach Yen Nguyen

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The Notre Dame Journal of International and Comparative Law, Volume 8, Issue 2 (2018).


Increasing International Legal Protections For Freedom Of Expression, Alan Wehbé May 2018

Increasing International Legal Protections For Freedom Of Expression, Alan Wehbé

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The international community seems to largely agree on the fundamental nature of the freedom of expression. Even countries that do not seem, in practice, to respect the freedom of expression still tend to ratify, sign, or be party to international instruments to that end. This duality tends to simplify the legal argument, but complicate the actual practice for promoting freedom of expression worldwide. For those who agree that the United States is a leader in international affairs, shift towards a more definitive State practice reinforcing the freedom of expression is an easy sell. For those who dispute whether the United ...


Masthead Volume 8 May 2018

Masthead Volume 8

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Need For A Supranational Organization In Foreign Investment, David M. Howard May 2018

The Need For A Supranational Organization In Foreign Investment, David M. Howard

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

While the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) does not regulate the field of foreign investment, the WTO has tried to negotiate multilateral rules on foreign investment in the past, and there are other current international agreements that contain investment provisions designed to regulate foreign investment. Even though the previous multilateral investment agreement negotiations did not come to fruition, some scholars still believe there are several practical reasons for the WTO to regulate investment. Most significantly, trade and investment are strongly linked in our globalizing world and both are complements one another, with an increase in one corresponding to an increase in ...


Refugees In The European Union: The Harsh Reality Of The Dublin Regulation, Lana Maani May 2018

Refugees In The European Union: The Harsh Reality Of The Dublin Regulation, Lana Maani

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The refugee crisis is a highly contested and controversial issue. The world, and specifically Europe, has seen a rapid increase in the number of refugees applying for asylum. In fact, the European Union (“EU”) has received well over one million refugees: the highest number of refugees since the Second World War. The crisis is testing the EU’s main building blocks, including, most importantly, its Member States’ notion of an ever-closer union. Some Member States have been more responsive to the crisis than others. For example, Germany is the highest refugee hosting country in the EU. On the other hand ...


The Paris Agreement: Its Role In International Law And American Jurisprudence, Kayla Clark May 2018

The Paris Agreement: Its Role In International Law And American Jurisprudence, Kayla Clark

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The Paris Agreement is the most articulate and influential international legal agreement on climate change to date. However, despite record breaking levels of international participation, the future of the Agreement remains uncertain. United States President Donald Trump's decision to remain a part of the international community's efforts on climate change has the potential to affect the scope and scale of this acclaimed treaty. In this note, I discuss the development of the Paris agreement as compared to the Kyoto Protocol, and how its construction promises to facilitate successful implementation. Additionally, given the United States' prominent international role, I ...


The Blessing Of Talent And The Curse Of Poverty: Rectifying Copyright Law's Implementation Of Authors' Material Interests In International Human Rights Law, Saleh Al-Sharieh May 2018

The Blessing Of Talent And The Curse Of Poverty: Rectifying Copyright Law's Implementation Of Authors' Material Interests In International Human Rights Law, Saleh Al-Sharieh

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) grants authors the right to the protection of the material interests resulting from their intellectual works. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights interpreted these interests to comprise the ability to achieve an adequate standard of living (as a minimum). This paper argues that copyright law provides a useful yet incomplete model for the protection of authors’ material interests. Copyright creates the legal environment necessary for establishing a market for intellectual works but does not guarantee its benefits to authors. Therefore, States Parties to the ICESCR should both tailor ...