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Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze Jan 2019

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The Enguri dam and water reservoir, nested in the southwestern Caucasus (Republic of Georgia), are surrounded by steep mountain slopes. At a distance of 2.5 km from the dam, a mountain ridge along the reservoir is affected by active deformations with a double vergence. The western slope, directly facing the reservoir, has deformations that affect a subaerial area of 1.2 km2. The head scarp affects the Jvari–Khaishi–Mestia main road with offsets of man-made features that indicate slip rates of 2–9 cm yr−1. Static, pseudostatic and Newmark analyses, based on field and seismological data ...


Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha Jan 2019

Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Besides the dangers of an actively burning wildfire, a plethora of other hazardous consequences can occur afterwards. Debris flows are among the most hazardous of these, being known to cause fatalities and extensive damage to infrastructure. Although debris flows are not exclusive to fire affected areas, a wildfire can increase a location’s susceptibility by stripping its protective covers like vegetation and introducing destabilizing factors such as ash filling soil pores to increase runoff potential. Due to the associated dangers, researchers are developing statistical models to isolate susceptible locations. Existing models predominantly employ the logistic regression algorithm; however, previous studies ...


Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen Dec 2018

Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Transportation infrastructure is critical for the advancement of society. Bridges are vital for an efficient transportation network. Bridges across the world undergo variable deformation/displacement due to the Earth’s dynamic processes. This displacement is caused by ground motion, which occurs from many natural and anthropogenic events. Events causing deformation include temperature fluctuation, subsidence, landslides, earthquakes, water/sea level variation, subsurface resource extraction, etc. Continual deformation may cause bridge failure, putting civilians at risk, if not managed properly. Monitoring bridge displacement, large and small, provides evidence of the state and health of the bridge. Traditionally, bridge monitoring has been executed ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Sep 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared ...


La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha Nov 2013

La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

La Yeguada volcanic complex is one of three Quaternary volcanic centers in Panama. To assess potential geologic hazards, new samples were analyzed using argon analysis (40Ar/39Ar), and obtained the following: the most recent eruption occurred approximately 32,000 years ago at the Media Luna cinder cone; the youngest dated eruption from the main dome complex occurred 357 ± 19 ka, producing the Castillo dome unit; Cerro Picacho, a separate dacite dome 1.5 km east of the main complex is 4.47 ± 0.23 Ma; and the El Satro Pyroclastic Flow unit surrounds the northern portion of the ...


The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian Aug 2013

The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Volcanic eruptions can produce ash particles with a range of sizes and morphologies. Here we morphologically distinguish two textural types: Simple (generally smaller) ash particles, where the observable surface displays a single measureable bubble because there is at most one vesicle imprint preserved on each facet of the particle; and complex ash particles, which display multiple vesicle imprints on their surfaces for measurement and may contain complete, unfragmented vesicles in their interiors. Digital elevation models from stereo-scanning electron microscopic images of complex ash particles from the 14 October 1974 sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala and the 18 May 1980 ...


Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik Mar 2009

Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 Φ, 4.2 Φ, 5.9 Φ, and 8.3 Φ. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely ...


Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst May 2008

Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface ...


Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin Oct 2006

Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

On 28 February 2000, a volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano, Iceland, was serendipitously sampled by a DC-8 research aircraft during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE I). It was encountered at night at 10.4 km above sea level (in the lower stratosphere) and 33–34 hours after emission. The cloud is readily identified by abundant SO2 (≤1 ppmv), HCl (≤70 ppbv), HF (≤60 ppbv), and particles (which may have included fine silicate ash). We compare observed and modeled cloud compositions to understand its chemical evolution. Abundances of sulfur and halogen species indicate some oxidation of sulfur ...


Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton Oct 2006

Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Aircraft measurements in the Hekla, Iceland volcanic plume in February 2000 revealed large quantities of hydrogen halides within the stratosphere correlated to volcanic SO2. Investigation of the longer-term stratospheric impact of these emissions, using the 3D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT suggests that volcanic enhancements of H2O and HNO3 increased HNO3·3H2O particle availability within the plume. These particles activated volcanic HCl and HBr, enhancing model plume concentrations of ClOx (20 ppb) and BrOx (50 ppt). Model O3 concentrations decreased to near-zero in places, and plume average O3 remained 30% lower after two weeks. Reductions in the model O3column reduced UV ...


Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson Jan 2005

Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10–12 μm) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65°N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6–65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in ...


Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias Oct 2004

Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

An infrared thermometer, spectroradiometer and digital video camera were used to observe and document short-term evolution of surface brightness temperature and morphology at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala. The thermometer dataset shows 40–70 minute-long cooling cycles, each defined by a cooling curve that is both initiated and terminated by rapid increases in temperature due to regular ash venting. The average cooling rate calculated for each cycle range from 0.9 to 1.6°C/min. We applied a two-component thermal mixture model to the spectroradiometer (0.4–2.5 μm) dataset. The results suggest that the observed surface morphology changed ...


Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance Aug 2004

Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Geophysical granular flows display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies, depending on the volumetric grain concentration within the flow: kinetic, kinetic-collisional, and frictional. To account for the whole spectrum of granular rheologies (and hence concentrations), we have used and further developed for geophysical-atmospheric applications a multiphase computer model initially developed by U.S. Department of Energy laboratories: (Geophysical) Multiphase Flow with Interphase Exchange. As demonstrated in this manuscript, (G)MFIX can successfully simulate a large span of pyroclastic phenomena and related processes: plinian clouds, pyroclastic flows and surges, flow transformations, and depositional processes. Plinian cloud simulations agree well with the ...


Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose Aug 2004

Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°–174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, the 1989–1990 Redoubt eruption, and the 18 August and 17 September 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions. The samples were collected at different distances from the vent. The samples studied contain large mass fractions of fine particles and were chosen to represent ash that could remain in ...


Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson May 2004

Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Pinatubo's 15 June 1991 eruption was Earth's largest of the last 25 years, and it formed a substantial volcanic cloud. We present results of analysis of satellite-based infrared remote sensing using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2 (TOVS/HIRS/2) sensors, during the first few days of atmospheric residence of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud, as it drifted from the Philippines toward Africa. An SO2-rich upper (25 km) portion drifted westward slightly faster than an ash-rich lower (22 km) part, though uncertainty exists due to difficulty ...


Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata Apr 2004

Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

In this study, ultraviolet TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data for SO2 are re-evaluated for the first 15 days following the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption to reflect new data retrieval and reduction methods. Infrared satellite SO2 data from the TOVS/HIRS/2 (TIROS (Television Infrared Observation Satellite) Optical Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed for the first time for Pinatubo. Extrapolation of SO2 masses calculated from TOMS and TOVS satellite measurements 19–118 hours after the eruption suggest initial SO2 ...


Explosion Dynamics Of Pyroclastic Eruptions At Santiaguito Volcano, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Andrew J. L. Harris, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Rudiger Wolf, William I. Rose Mar 2004

Explosion Dynamics Of Pyroclastic Eruptions At Santiaguito Volcano, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Andrew J. L. Harris, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Rudiger Wolf, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

In Jan. 2003 we monitored explosions at Santiaguito Volcano (Guatemala) with thermal, infrasonic, and seismic sensors. Thermal data from 2 infrared thermometers allowed computation of plume rise speeds, which ranged from 8 to 20 m/s. Rise rates correlated with cumulative thermal radiance, indicating that faster rising plumes correspond to explosions with greater thermal flux. The relationship between rise speeds and elastic energy is less clear. Seismic radiation may not scale well with thermal output and/or rise speed because some of the thermal component may be associated with passive degassing, which does not induce significant seismicity. But non-impulsive gas ...


Quantitative Shape Measurements Of Distal Volcanic Ash, William I. Rose, Colleen M. Riley, Gregg J. Bluth Jan 2003

Quantitative Shape Measurements Of Distal Volcanic Ash, William I. Rose, Colleen M. Riley, Gregg J. Bluth

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Large-scale volcanic eruptions produce fine ash (< 200 μm) which has a long atmospheric residence time (1 hour or more) and can be transported great distances from the volcanic source, thus, becoming a hazard to aircraft and public health. Ash particles have irregular shapes, so data on particle shape, size, and terminal velocities are needed to understand how the irregular-shaped particles affect transport processes and radiative transfer measurements. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize particle shapes, sizes , and terminal velocities for three ash samples of different compositions. The shape and size of 2,500 particles from 1) distal fallout (~100 km) of the October 14, 1974 Fuego eruption (basaltic), 2) the secondary maxima (~250 km) of the August 18, 1992 Spurr eruption (andesitic), and 3) the Miocene Ash Hollow member, Nebraska (rhyolitic) were measured using image analysis techniques. Samples were sorted into 10 to 19 terminal velocity groups (0.6-59.0 cm/s) using an air elutriation device. Grain size distributions for the samples were measured using laser diffraction. Aspect ratio, feret diameter, and perimeter measurements were found to be the most useful descriptors of how particle shape affects terminal velocity. These measurement values show particle shape differs greatly from a sphere (commonly used in models and algorithms). The diameters of ash particles were 10-120% larger than ideal spheres at the same terminal velocity, indicating that irregular particle shape greatly increases drag. Gas-adsorption derived surface areas are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than calculated surface areas based on measured dimensions and simple geometry, indicating that particle shapes are highly irregular. Correction factors for surface area were derived from the ash sample measurements so that surface areas calculated by assuming spherical particle shapes can be corrected to reflect more realistic values.


Sizes And Shapes Of 10-Ma Distal Fall Pyroclasts In The Ogallala Ggroup, Nebraska, William I. Rose, C. M. Riley, S. Dartevelle Jan 2003

Sizes And Shapes Of 10-Ma Distal Fall Pyroclasts In The Ogallala Ggroup, Nebraska, William I. Rose, C. M. Riley, S. Dartevelle

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Size distributions of distal ashfall particles from correlated 10-Ma layers in Nebraska, measured using laser diffraction methods, are lognormal with mode diameters of ∼90 mm. This ashfall is ∼100% bubble-wall shards of rhyolite glass and apparently represents a distal ashfall from an eruption 1400 km away. Measured terminal velocities of these ash particles are 0.2–18 cm/s, consistent with Stokes Law settling of spherical particles with diameters of 9–50 mm. Surface area of the ash particles, measured with gas adsorption, is 20–30 times the surface area of equivalent Stokes spheres. These results highlight the effects of ...


Retrieval Of Mass And Sizes Of Particles In Sandstorms Using Two Modis Ir Bands: A Case Study Of April 7 2001 Sandstorm In China, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth Jan 2003

Retrieval Of Mass And Sizes Of Particles In Sandstorms Using Two Modis Ir Bands: A Case Study Of April 7 2001 Sandstorm In China, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

A thermal infrared remote sensing retrieval method developed by Wen and Rose [1994], which retrieves particle sizes, optical depth, and total masses of silicate particles in the volcanic cloud, was applied to an April 07, 2001 sandstorm over northern China, using MODIS. Results indicate that the area of the dust cloud observed was 1.34 million km2, the mean particle radius of the dust was 1.44 μm, and the mean optical depth at 11 μm was 0.79. The mean burden of dust was approximately 4.8 tons/km2 and the main portion of the dust storm on April ...


Observations Of Volcanic Clouds In Their First Few Days Of Atmospheric Residence: The 1992 Eruptions Of Crater Peak, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth, David J. Schneider, Gerald G. J. Ernst, Colleen M. Riley, Lydia J. Henderson, Robert G. Mcgimsey Apr 2001

Observations Of Volcanic Clouds In Their First Few Days Of Atmospheric Residence: The 1992 Eruptions Of Crater Peak, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth, David J. Schneider, Gerald G. J. Ernst, Colleen M. Riley, Lydia J. Henderson, Robert G. Mcgimsey

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Satellite SO2 and ash measurements of Mount Spurr’s three 1992 volcanic clouds are compared with ground‐based observations to develop an understanding of the physical and chemical evolution of volcanic clouds. Each of the three eruptions with ratings of volcanic explosivity index three reached the lower stratosphere (14 km asl), but the clouds were mainly dispersed at the tropopause by moderate to strong (20–40 m/s) tropospheric winds. Three stages of cloud evolution were identified. First, heavy fallout of large (>500 μm) pyroclasts occurred close to the volcano (vent) during and immediately after the eruptions, and the cloud ...


Use Of Goes Thermal Infrared Imagery For Eruption Scale Measurements, Soufrière Hills, Montserrat, William I. Rose, Gari C. Mayberry Oct 2000

Use Of Goes Thermal Infrared Imagery For Eruption Scale Measurements, Soufrière Hills, Montserrat, William I. Rose, Gari C. Mayberry

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

GOES two-band IR data are used to estimate the magnitude of small eruption clouds (ash; <∼105 tonnes of fine [1–25 µm in diameter] ash, and 5–15 km asl). The method is demonstrated on clouds from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat in 1997–99. The clouds in early 1999 were much smaller, were generally emplaced lower in the atmosphere and contained an order of magnitude less fine ash than 1997 clouds generated during the most intense phase of the eruption to date. Although GOES has an excellent capability for large eruption clouds, its use for smaller eruptions like Montserrat highlights ...


Comparison Of Toms And Avhrr Volcanic Ash Retrievals From The August 1992 Eruption Of Mt. Spurr, N. A. Krotkov, O. Torres, C. Seftor, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth, D. Schneider, S. J. Schaefer Feb 1999

Comparison Of Toms And Avhrr Volcanic Ash Retrievals From The August 1992 Eruption Of Mt. Spurr, N. A. Krotkov, O. Torres, C. Seftor, A. J. Krueger, A. Kostinski, William I. Rose, Gregg J. Bluth, D. Schneider, S. J. Schaefer

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

On August 19, 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA-12 and NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite simultaneously detected and mapped the ash cloud from the eruption of Mt. Spurr, Alaska. The spatial extent and geometry of the cloud derived from the two datasets are in good agreement and both AVHRR split window IR (11–12µm brightness temperature difference) and the TOMS UV Aerosol Index (0.34–0.38µm ultraviolet backscattering and absorption) methods give the same range of total cloud ash mass. Redundant methods for determination of ash masses in drifting ...


Early Evolution Of A Stratospheric Volcanic Eruption Cloud As Observed With Toms And Avhrr, David J. Schneider, William I. Rose, Larry R. Coke, Gregg J. Bluth, Ian E. Sprod, Arlin J. Krueger Feb 1999

Early Evolution Of A Stratospheric Volcanic Eruption Cloud As Observed With Toms And Avhrr, David J. Schneider, William I. Rose, Larry R. Coke, Gregg J. Bluth, Ian E. Sprod, Arlin J. Krueger

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1–10 μm radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of ...


Stratospheric Loading Of Sulfur From Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Ian E. Sprod, Arlin J. Krueger Nov 1997

Stratospheric Loading Of Sulfur From Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Ian E. Sprod, Arlin J. Krueger

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

This paper is an attempt to measure our understanding of volcano/atmosphere interactions by comparing a box model of potential volcanogenic aerosol production and removal in the stratosphere with the stratospheric aerosol optical depth over the period of 1979 to 1994. Model results and observed data are in good agreement both in magnitude and removal rates for the two largest eruptions, El Chicho´n and Pinatubo. However, the peak of stratospheric optical depth occurs about nine months after the eruptions, four times longer than the model prediction, which is driven by actual SO2 measurements. For smaller eruptions, the observed stratospheric ...


Detection Of Volcanic Ash Clouds From Nimbus 7/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, C. J. Seftor, N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, N. Krotkov Jul 1997

Detection Of Volcanic Ash Clouds From Nimbus 7/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, C. J. Seftor, N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, P. K. Bhartia, O. Torres, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, N. Krotkov

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Measured radiances from the Version 7 reprocessing of the Nimbus 7/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) 340- and 380-nm channels are used to detect absorbing particulates injected into the atmosphere after the El Chichon eruption on April 4, 1982. It is shown that while the single-channel reflectivity determined from the 380-nm channel is able to detect clouds and haze composed of nonabsorbing aerosols, the spectral contrast between the 340- and 380-nm channels is sensitive to absorbing particulates such as volcanic ash, desert dust, or smoke from biomass burning. In this paper the spectral contrast between these two channels is used ...


Remote Sensing Of Volcanic Ash Clouds Using Special Sensor Microwave Imager Data, David J. Delene, William I. Rose, Norman C. Grody May 1996

Remote Sensing Of Volcanic Ash Clouds Using Special Sensor Microwave Imager Data, David J. Delene, William I. Rose, Norman C. Grody

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Measurements from the satellite-based special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) were used to collect passive microwave radiation (19–85 GHz) for the August 19, 1992 (UT date), Crater Peak/Spurr volcanic cloud. This eruption was also imaged by a ground-based C-band radar system at Kenai, Alaska, 80 km away, and by the thermal infrared channels of the polar-orbiting advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). The SSM/I sensor detects scattering of Earth-emitted radiation by millimeter size volcanic ash particles. The size of ash particles in a volcanic ash cloud can be estimated by comparing the scattering at different microwave frequencies ...


Measurements Of The Complex Dielectric Constant Of Volcanic Ash From 4 To 19 Ghz, R. J. Adams, Warren F. Perger, William I. Rose, A. Kostinski Apr 1996

Measurements Of The Complex Dielectric Constant Of Volcanic Ash From 4 To 19 Ghz, R. J. Adams, Warren F. Perger, William I. Rose, A. Kostinski

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Dielectric data in volcanic ash at weather radar wavelengths (centimeter range) are extremely sparse and are crucial for radar sensing of ash clouds and for imaging of volcanic terrains. This study extends previous data to include a wavelength range of 1.5–7.5 cm and volcanic ash compositions of 50–75% silica. The real part of the complex permittivity, ε′, of volcanic ash is 6 ± 0.5 (1σ) for all wavelengths. The imaginary part, ε″, ranges from 0.08 to 0.27. Both ε′ and ε″ show higher values at lower SiO2 concentration. It is safe to assume in ...


Retrieval Of Sizes And Total Masses Of Particles In Volcanic Clouds Using Avhrr Bands 4 And 5, Shiming Wen, William I. Rose Mar 1994

Retrieval Of Sizes And Total Masses Of Particles In Volcanic Clouds Using Avhrr Bands 4 And 5, Shiming Wen, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on polar orbiting NOAA satellites can discriminate between volcanic clouds and meteorological clouds using two-band data in the thermal infrared. This paper is aimed at developing a retrieval of the particle sizes, optical depth, and total masses of particles from AVHRR two-band data of volcanic clouds. Radiative transfer calculations are used with a semi-transparent cloud model that is based on assumptions of spherical particle shape, a homogeneous underlying surface, and a simple thin cloud parallel to the surface. The model is applied to observed AVHRR data from a 13-hour old drifting cloud ...


Goes Imagery Fills Gaps In Montserrat Volcanic Cloud Observations, Mark A. Davies, William I. Rose Oct 1988

Goes Imagery Fills Gaps In Montserrat Volcanic Cloud Observations, Mark A. Davies, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

GOES satellite imagery offers great potential to lessen the risk of volcanic ash clouds to aviation, and the situation at Montserrat in the Caribbean is providing the proof. Many transatlantic, commercial, and private aircraft use airspace around Montserrat, where the Soufriere Hills Volcano has been erupting since 1995.

Worldwide over the last 15 years, more than 80 airplanes have reported encountering volcanic ash along flight paths. Encounters cannot be avoided because onboard radar cannot detect fine-grained ash particles—those with a radius of 15 microns or less. In recent years volcanic cloud encounters are estimated to have caused hundreds of ...