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Full-Text Articles in Other Engineering

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze Jan 2019

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The Enguri dam and water reservoir, nested in the southwestern Caucasus (Republic of Georgia), are surrounded by steep mountain slopes. At a distance of 2.5 km from the dam, a mountain ridge along the reservoir is affected by active deformations with a double vergence. The western slope, directly facing the reservoir, has deformations that affect a subaerial area of 1.2 km2. The head scarp affects the Jvari–Khaishi–Mestia main road with offsets of man-made features that indicate slip rates of 2–9 cm yr−1. Static, pseudostatic and Newmark analyses, based on field and seismological data ...


Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha Jan 2019

Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Besides the dangers of an actively burning wildfire, a plethora of other hazardous consequences can occur afterwards. Debris flows are among the most hazardous of these, being known to cause fatalities and extensive damage to infrastructure. Although debris flows are not exclusive to fire affected areas, a wildfire can increase a location’s susceptibility by stripping its protective covers like vegetation and introducing destabilizing factors such as ash filling soil pores to increase runoff potential. Due to the associated dangers, researchers are developing statistical models to isolate susceptible locations. Existing models predominantly employ the logistic regression algorithm; however, previous studies ...


Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen Dec 2018

Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Transportation infrastructure is critical for the advancement of society. Bridges are vital for an efficient transportation network. Bridges across the world undergo variable deformation/displacement due to the Earth’s dynamic processes. This displacement is caused by ground motion, which occurs from many natural and anthropogenic events. Events causing deformation include temperature fluctuation, subsidence, landslides, earthquakes, water/sea level variation, subsurface resource extraction, etc. Continual deformation may cause bridge failure, putting civilians at risk, if not managed properly. Monitoring bridge displacement, large and small, provides evidence of the state and health of the bridge. Traditionally, bridge monitoring has been executed ...


The Status Of Engineering Geology: Constraints On Infrastructure Development In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Masud Ahmed, Belal Ahmed Sayeed Nov 2018

The Status Of Engineering Geology: Constraints On Infrastructure Development In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Masud Ahmed, Belal Ahmed Sayeed

Publications and Research

In recent years, megacity Dhaka is known to have one of the fastest urban population growths in Bangladesh. The population in Dhaka and other megacities has increased from 7 to 50 million during the last four decades. The rapid rate of urban population growth, along with the extreme paucity of real-estate for new infrastructure development or upgrading existing facilities, is already exacerbating the situation for the city planners and exerting tremendous pressure to come-up with viable solutions. Although practice of engineering geology, geotechnical exploration, and testing exists in Bangladesh; the system has still yet to adopt controlled quality standards with ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Oct 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

William I. Rose

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths ...


Geology Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation In Divide County, North Dakota, Mandy Brewer Oct 2017

Geology Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation In Divide County, North Dakota, Mandy Brewer

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation of Williston Basin is a large unconventional oil and gas play consisting of a lower shale member, a middle member, and an upper shale member. The middle member is a production target because it contains porosity and petroleum expelled from the shale members around it. Variable production and sweet spots of the Bakken in the study area of Divide County, ND and 15 miles around Divide County in the USA prompted a closer look at middle member Bakken sediments. For this study, 606 wells were correlated and thin sections from two wells located 10 ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Sep 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared ...


Collecting, Preparing, And Synthesizing Well Log Data For Subsurface Mapping: Example From The Bakken Formation, Asel Sherimkulova Oct 2016

Collecting, Preparing, And Synthesizing Well Log Data For Subsurface Mapping: Example From The Bakken Formation, Asel Sherimkulova

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Bakken Formation consists of three distinct members: the upper shale, middle, and lower shale. The upper and lower shales are excellent source rocks, rich in organic content. The organic material in the shales was derived from planktonic algae. Both the upper and lower shales were deposited during a transgressive event in hypoxic to anoxic conditions. The original total organic carbon content in the Bakken shales ranges from 20 to 22 weight percent, however; the content decreases to 10 to 17 weight percent as a result of maturation of hydrocarbons and primary expelling of oil. High ...


Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Validations Using Field Deployments In The Flooded Orphan Boy Mine Shaft In Butte, Mt, Elliott Mazur Oct 2016

Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Validations Using Field Deployments In The Flooded Orphan Boy Mine Shaft In Butte, Mt, Elliott Mazur

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The process of sensor validation through experimentation with the Omnisens Distributed Temperature and Strain (DITEST) Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer (BOTDA) proved to be a challenging project. The project encompassed sensor calibrations, system error minimization, sensor network design and deployment, and the characterization of temperatures in the Orphan Boy Mine shaft. Fiber-optic cable sensor calibrations yielded linear relationship coefficients 0.6-1.0MHZ/°F, indicating a strong positive correlation between Brillouin Frequency Shifts and temperature. Calibrated sensors demonstrated accuracies near ±0.8°F using the corrected error bounds from residual analyses as the benchmark. Fiber-optic measurement accuracy and repeatability were controlled ...


A Physicochemical Prediction Of Prolonged Natural Co2 Leakage In The Little Grand Wash Fault Zone, Green River, Utah, Kyungdoe Han May 2016

A Physicochemical Prediction Of Prolonged Natural Co2 Leakage In The Little Grand Wash Fault Zone, Green River, Utah, Kyungdoe Han

Theses and Dissertations

Physicochemical investigation on a natural CO2 system and the accommodated fault-controlled fluids using a geochemical modeling method provides important information regarding the security assessment for geological carbon sequestration (GCS), which is the most promising method for enhancing our knowledge of the side effects of GCS. By employing an utilized series of regional fluid chemistry and hydrogeologic parameters, this study investigated the consequences caused by migration of CO2 in a naturally leaking CO2 system that developed in normal faults in the southwestern U.S. 1-D and 2-D models were conducted using the multi-phase, multi-component reactive transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, to establish sets ...


Processing And Interpretation Of Three-Component Vertical Seismic Profile Data, Ross Sea, Antarctica, Meltem Akan Apr 2016

Processing And Interpretation Of Three-Component Vertical Seismic Profile Data, Ross Sea, Antarctica, Meltem Akan

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL) AND-2A drill hole was drilled, cored and logged in southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2007. A single near-offset, over-sea ice vertical seismic profile (VSP) was collected in the AND-2A drill hole as a part of the logging program. The source for VSP data collection was a Generator Injector (GI) air-gun which was suspended by a cable through a hole made in the sea ice. The reason for selecting a GI air gun was the minimization of the bubble pulse effects which are prevalent in ...


3d Seismic Structural And Stratigraphic Interpretation Of The Tui-3d Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Gorkem Yagci Jan 2016

3d Seismic Structural And Stratigraphic Interpretation Of The Tui-3d Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Gorkem Yagci

Masters Theses

"Identifying seismic structures and stratigraphy are important for exploration of hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study is to discover seismic structural and stratigraphic features and to utilize the results for interpreting depositional environments. A 3D seismic dataset from the Tui-3D Field, the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand with well data were used to visualize structures, to detect stratigraphic features, to identify main lithology, to understand depositional environment, and to describe seismic facies and reflection patterns of the target horizons. The major formations are in the Kapuni Group.

Seismic structural interpretation indicates thirty-two minor faults, which may play an important role in ...


Concepts For Geotechnical Investigation In Karst, Joseph A. Fischer, Joseph J. Fischer Oct 2015

Concepts For Geotechnical Investigation In Karst, Joseph A. Fischer, Joseph J. Fischer

Sinkhole Conference 2015

There seems to be a lack of recognition in the literature that addresses the variety of karst in the United States of America and some of its offshore territories. For example, there are the well-known solutioned carbonates of Florida and the Caribbean, but there are also the somewhat older, harder carbonates of St. Croix, U.S.V.I. Even Florida’s recently deposited karst varies from region to region. There are also the ancient, flat-lying carbonates of the interior craton that often have semi-horizontal cavities resulting from variations in ground water levels affecting bedding and the contorted rocks of the ...


Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis Aug 2014

Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in the capabilities of robotic planetary exploration missions have increased the wealth of scientific data they produce, presenting challenges for mission science and operations imposed by the limits of interplanetary radio communications. These data budget pressures can be relieved by increased robotic autonomy, both for onboard operations tasks and for decision- making in response to science data.

This thesis presents new techniques in automated image interpretation for natural scenes of relevance to planetary science and exploration, and elaborates autonomy scenarios under which they could be used to extend the reach and performance of exploration missions on planetary surfaces.

Two ...


New Research In Cave Ledenica In Bukovi Vrh On Velebit Mt In Croatian Dinaric Karst, Mladen Garasic Aug 2014

New Research In Cave Ledenica In Bukovi Vrh On Velebit Mt In Croatian Dinaric Karst, Mladen Garasic

The International Workshop on Ice Caves

No abstract provided.


La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha Nov 2013

La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

La Yeguada volcanic complex is one of three Quaternary volcanic centers in Panama. To assess potential geologic hazards, new samples were analyzed using argon analysis (40Ar/39Ar), and obtained the following: the most recent eruption occurred approximately 32,000 years ago at the Media Luna cinder cone; the youngest dated eruption from the main dome complex occurred 357 ± 19 ka, producing the Castillo dome unit; Cerro Picacho, a separate dacite dome 1.5 km east of the main complex is 4.47 ± 0.23 Ma; and the El Satro Pyroclastic Flow unit surrounds the northern portion of the ...


The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian Aug 2013

The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Volcanic eruptions can produce ash particles with a range of sizes and morphologies. Here we morphologically distinguish two textural types: Simple (generally smaller) ash particles, where the observable surface displays a single measureable bubble because there is at most one vesicle imprint preserved on each facet of the particle; and complex ash particles, which display multiple vesicle imprints on their surfaces for measurement and may contain complete, unfragmented vesicles in their interiors. Digital elevation models from stereo-scanning electron microscopic images of complex ash particles from the 14 October 1974 sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala and the 18 May 1980 ...


Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik Mar 2009

Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 Φ, 4.2 Φ, 5.9 Φ, and 8.3 Φ. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely ...


Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst May 2008

Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface ...


Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin Oct 2006

Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

On 28 February 2000, a volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano, Iceland, was serendipitously sampled by a DC-8 research aircraft during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE I). It was encountered at night at 10.4 km above sea level (in the lower stratosphere) and 33–34 hours after emission. The cloud is readily identified by abundant SO2 (≤1 ppmv), HCl (≤70 ppbv), HF (≤60 ppbv), and particles (which may have included fine silicate ash). We compare observed and modeled cloud compositions to understand its chemical evolution. Abundances of sulfur and halogen species indicate some oxidation of sulfur ...


Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton Oct 2006

Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Aircraft measurements in the Hekla, Iceland volcanic plume in February 2000 revealed large quantities of hydrogen halides within the stratosphere correlated to volcanic SO2. Investigation of the longer-term stratospheric impact of these emissions, using the 3D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT suggests that volcanic enhancements of H2O and HNO3 increased HNO3·3H2O particle availability within the plume. These particles activated volcanic HCl and HBr, enhancing model plume concentrations of ClOx (20 ppb) and BrOx (50 ppt). Model O3 concentrations decreased to near-zero in places, and plume average O3 remained 30% lower after two weeks. Reductions in the model O3column reduced UV ...


Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson Jan 2005

Advantageous Goes Ir Results For Ash Mapping At High Latitudes: Cleveland Eruptions 2001, Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, David J. Schneider, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10–12 μm) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65°N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6–65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in ...


Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias Oct 2004

Surface Temperature And Spectral Measurements At Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Luke P. Flynn, Andrew J. L. Harris, Gregg J. Bluth, William I. Rose, Otoniel Matias

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

An infrared thermometer, spectroradiometer and digital video camera were used to observe and document short-term evolution of surface brightness temperature and morphology at Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala. The thermometer dataset shows 40–70 minute-long cooling cycles, each defined by a cooling curve that is both initiated and terminated by rapid increases in temperature due to regular ash venting. The average cooling rate calculated for each cycle range from 0.9 to 1.6°C/min. We applied a two-component thermal mixture model to the spectroradiometer (0.4–2.5 μm) dataset. The results suggest that the observed surface morphology changed ...


Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance Aug 2004

Numerical Modeling Of Geophysical Granular Flows: 2. Computer Simulations Of Plinian Clouds And Pyroclastic Flows And Surges, Sebastien Dartevelle, William I. Rose, John Stix, Karim Kelfoun, James W. Vallance

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Geophysical granular flows display complex nonlinear, nonuniform, and unsteady rheologies, depending on the volumetric grain concentration within the flow: kinetic, kinetic-collisional, and frictional. To account for the whole spectrum of granular rheologies (and hence concentrations), we have used and further developed for geophysical-atmospheric applications a multiphase computer model initially developed by U.S. Department of Energy laboratories: (Geophysical) Multiphase Flow with Interphase Exchange. As demonstrated in this manuscript, (G)MFIX can successfully simulate a large span of pyroclastic phenomena and related processes: plinian clouds, pyroclastic flows and surges, flow transformations, and depositional processes. Plinian cloud simulations agree well with the ...


Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose Aug 2004

Scattering Matrices Of Volcanic Ash Particles Of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, And Mount Spurr Volcanoes, O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, B. Veihelmann, W. J. Van Der Zande, L. B. F. M. Waters, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°–174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, the 1989–1990 Redoubt eruption, and the 18 August and 17 September 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions. The samples were collected at different distances from the vent. The samples studied contain large mass fractions of fine particles and were chosen to represent ash that could remain in ...


Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson May 2004

Particles In The Great Pinatubo Volcanic Cloud Of June 1991:The Role Of Ice, Song Guo, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth, M. I. Watson

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Pinatubo's 15 June 1991 eruption was Earth's largest of the last 25 years, and it formed a substantial volcanic cloud. We present results of analysis of satellite-based infrared remote sensing using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2 (TOVS/HIRS/2) sensors, during the first few days of atmospheric residence of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud, as it drifted from the Philippines toward Africa. An SO2-rich upper (25 km) portion drifted westward slightly faster than an ash-rich lower (22 km) part, though uncertainty exists due to difficulty ...


Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata Apr 2004

Re-Evaluation Of So2 Release Of The 15 June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Using Ultraviolet And Infrared Satellite Sensors, Song Guo, Gregg J. S. Bluth, William I. Rose, M. I. Watson, A. J. Prata

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

In this study, ultraviolet TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite data for SO2 are re-evaluated for the first 15 days following the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption to reflect new data retrieval and reduction methods. Infrared satellite SO2 data from the TOVS/HIRS/2 (TIROS (Television Infrared Observation Satellite) Optical Vertical Sounder/High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed for the first time for Pinatubo. Extrapolation of SO2 masses calculated from TOMS and TOVS satellite measurements 19–118 hours after the eruption suggest initial SO2 ...


Explosion Dynamics Of Pyroclastic Eruptions At Santiaguito Volcano, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Andrew J. L. Harris, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Rudiger Wolf, William I. Rose Mar 2004

Explosion Dynamics Of Pyroclastic Eruptions At Santiaguito Volcano, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Andrew J. L. Harris, Steve T. M. Sahetapy-Engel, Rudiger Wolf, William I. Rose

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

In Jan. 2003 we monitored explosions at Santiaguito Volcano (Guatemala) with thermal, infrasonic, and seismic sensors. Thermal data from 2 infrared thermometers allowed computation of plume rise speeds, which ranged from 8 to 20 m/s. Rise rates correlated with cumulative thermal radiance, indicating that faster rising plumes correspond to explosions with greater thermal flux. The relationship between rise speeds and elastic energy is less clear. Seismic radiation may not scale well with thermal output and/or rise speed because some of the thermal component may be associated with passive degassing, which does not induce significant seismicity. But non-impulsive gas ...


Quantitative Shape Measurements Of Distal Volcanic Ash, William I. Rose, Colleen M. Riley, Gregg J. Bluth Jan 2003

Quantitative Shape Measurements Of Distal Volcanic Ash, William I. Rose, Colleen M. Riley, Gregg J. Bluth

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Large-scale volcanic eruptions produce fine ash (< 200 μm) which has a long atmospheric residence time (1 hour or more) and can be transported great distances from the volcanic source, thus, becoming a hazard to aircraft and public health. Ash particles have irregular shapes, so data on particle shape, size, and terminal velocities are needed to understand how the irregular-shaped particles affect transport processes and radiative transfer measurements. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize particle shapes, sizes , and terminal velocities for three ash samples of different compositions. The shape and size of 2,500 particles from 1) distal fallout (~100 km) of the October 14, 1974 Fuego eruption (basaltic), 2) the secondary maxima (~250 km) of the August 18, 1992 Spurr eruption (andesitic), and 3) the Miocene Ash Hollow member, Nebraska (rhyolitic) were measured using image analysis techniques. Samples were sorted into 10 to 19 terminal velocity groups (0.6-59.0 cm/s) using an air elutriation device. Grain size distributions for the samples were measured using laser diffraction. Aspect ratio, feret diameter, and perimeter measurements were found to be the most useful descriptors of how particle shape affects terminal velocity. These measurement values show particle shape differs greatly from a sphere (commonly used in models and algorithms). The diameters of ash particles were 10-120% larger than ideal spheres at the same terminal velocity, indicating that irregular particle shape greatly increases drag. Gas-adsorption derived surface areas are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than calculated surface areas based on measured dimensions and simple geometry, indicating that particle shapes are highly irregular. Correction factors for surface area were derived from the ash sample measurements so that surface areas calculated by assuming spherical particle shapes can be corrected to reflect more realistic values.


Sizes And Shapes Of 10-Ma Distal Fall Pyroclasts In The Ogallala Ggroup, Nebraska, William I. Rose, C. M. Riley, S. Dartevelle Jan 2003

Sizes And Shapes Of 10-Ma Distal Fall Pyroclasts In The Ogallala Ggroup, Nebraska, William I. Rose, C. M. Riley, S. Dartevelle

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Size distributions of distal ashfall particles from correlated 10-Ma layers in Nebraska, measured using laser diffraction methods, are lognormal with mode diameters of ∼90 mm. This ashfall is ∼100% bubble-wall shards of rhyolite glass and apparently represents a distal ashfall from an eruption 1400 km away. Measured terminal velocities of these ash particles are 0.2–18 cm/s, consistent with Stokes Law settling of spherical particles with diameters of 9–50 mm. Surface area of the ash particles, measured with gas adsorption, is 20–30 times the surface area of equivalent Stokes spheres. These results highlight the effects of ...