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Full-Text Articles in Other Engineering

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze Jan 2019

Landslides Near Enguri Dam (Caucasus, Georgia) And Possible Seismotectonic Effects, Alessandro Tibaldi, Paolo Oppizzi, John S. Gierke, Thomas Oommen, Nino Tsereteli, Zurab Gogoladze

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

The Enguri dam and water reservoir, nested in the southwestern Caucasus (Republic of Georgia), are surrounded by steep mountain slopes. At a distance of 2.5 km from the dam, a mountain ridge along the reservoir is affected by active deformations with a double vergence. The western slope, directly facing the reservoir, has deformations that affect a subaerial area of 1.2 km2. The head scarp affects the Jvari–Khaishi–Mestia main road with offsets of man-made features that indicate slip rates of 2–9 cm yr−1. Static, pseudostatic and Newmark analyses, based on field and seismological data ...


Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha Jan 2019

Assessment Of Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence Using Classifier Tree, Priscilla Addison, Thomas Oommen, Qiuying Sha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Besides the dangers of an actively burning wildfire, a plethora of other hazardous consequences can occur afterwards. Debris flows are among the most hazardous of these, being known to cause fatalities and extensive damage to infrastructure. Although debris flows are not exclusive to fire affected areas, a wildfire can increase a location’s susceptibility by stripping its protective covers like vegetation and introducing destabilizing factors such as ash filling soil pores to increase runoff potential. Due to the associated dangers, researchers are developing statistical models to isolate susceptible locations. Existing models predominantly employ the logistic regression algorithm; however, previous studies ...


Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen Dec 2018

Monitoring The Impact Of Groundwater Pumping On Infrastructure Using Geographic Information System (Gis) And Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (Psi), Kirsten Deprekel, El Hachemi Bouali, Thomas Oommen

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Transportation infrastructure is critical for the advancement of society. Bridges are vital for an efficient transportation network. Bridges across the world undergo variable deformation/displacement due to the Earth’s dynamic processes. This displacement is caused by ground motion, which occurs from many natural and anthropogenic events. Events causing deformation include temperature fluctuation, subsidence, landslides, earthquakes, water/sea level variation, subsurface resource extraction, etc. Continual deformation may cause bridge failure, putting civilians at risk, if not managed properly. Monitoring bridge displacement, large and small, provides evidence of the state and health of the bridge. Traditionally, bridge monitoring has been executed ...


The Status Of Engineering Geology: Constraints On Infrastructure Development In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Masud Ahmed, Belal Ahmed Sayeed Nov 2018

The Status Of Engineering Geology: Constraints On Infrastructure Development In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Masud Ahmed, Belal Ahmed Sayeed

Publications and Research

In recent years, megacity Dhaka is known to have one of the fastest urban population growths in Bangladesh. The population in Dhaka and other megacities has increased from 7 to 50 million during the last four decades. The rapid rate of urban population growth, along with the extreme paucity of real-estate for new infrastructure development or upgrading existing facilities, is already exacerbating the situation for the city planners and exerting tremendous pressure to come-up with viable solutions. Although practice of engineering geology, geotechnical exploration, and testing exists in Bangladesh; the system has still yet to adopt controlled quality standards with ...


Travel To Extraterrestrial Bodies Over Time: Some Exploratory Analyses Of Mission Data, Venkat Kodali, Rohith Kumar Reddy Duggirala, Richard S. Segall, Hyacinthe Aboudja, Daniel Berleant Jan 2018

Travel To Extraterrestrial Bodies Over Time: Some Exploratory Analyses Of Mission Data, Venkat Kodali, Rohith Kumar Reddy Duggirala, Richard S. Segall, Hyacinthe Aboudja, Daniel Berleant

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

This paper discusses data pertaining to space missions to astronomical bodies beyond earth. The analyses provide summarizing facts and graphs obtained by mining data about (1) missions launched by all countries that go to the moon and planets, and (2) Earth satellites obtained from a Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) dataset and lists of publically available satellite data.


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Oct 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

William I. Rose

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths ...


Geology Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation In Divide County, North Dakota, Mandy Brewer Oct 2017

Geology Of The Middle Member Of The Bakken Formation In Divide County, North Dakota, Mandy Brewer

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation of Williston Basin is a large unconventional oil and gas play consisting of a lower shale member, a middle member, and an upper shale member. The middle member is a production target because it contains porosity and petroleum expelled from the shale members around it. Variable production and sweet spots of the Bakken in the study area of Divide County, ND and 15 miles around Divide County in the USA prompted a closer look at middle member Bakken sediments. For this study, 606 wells were correlated and thin sections from two wells located 10 ...


Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl Sep 2017

Reference Data Set Of Volcanic Ash Physicochemical And Optical Properties, A. Vogel, S. Diplas, A. J. Durant, A. S. Azar, M. F. Sunding, William I. Rose, A. Sytchkova, C. Bonadonna, K. Krüger, A. Stohl

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty in the physicochemical and optical properties of volcanic ash particles creates errors in the detection and modeling of volcanic ash clouds and in quantification of their potential impacts. In this study, we provide a data set that describes the physicochemical and optical properties of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from nine different volcanic eruptions covering a wide range of silica contents (50–80 wt % SiO2). We measured and calculated parameters describing the physical (size distribution, complex shape, and dense-rock equivalent mass density), chemical (bulk and surface composition), and optical (complex refractive index from ultraviolet to near-infrared ...


Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby Jul 2017

Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby

Adam Liska Papers

Many people tend to think that the outcome of any nuclear weapons use today will result in an escalatory situation with apocalyptic outcomes for the countries involved. Yet many factors are increasing the probability of the limited use of nuclear weapons (e.g., 1 to 20 warheads) in a range of conflict scenarios. Previous atmospheric model simulations of regional nuclear conflicts employing many relatively small bombs have been estimated to cause a global “nuclear autumn,” with great reductions in agricultural productivity, stratospheric ozone loss, and spread of hazardous radioactive fallout. The totality of these effects would result in widespread ...


Collecting, Preparing, And Synthesizing Well Log Data For Subsurface Mapping: Example From The Bakken Formation, Asel Sherimkulova Oct 2016

Collecting, Preparing, And Synthesizing Well Log Data For Subsurface Mapping: Example From The Bakken Formation, Asel Sherimkulova

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Bakken Formation consists of three distinct members: the upper shale, middle, and lower shale. The upper and lower shales are excellent source rocks, rich in organic content. The organic material in the shales was derived from planktonic algae. Both the upper and lower shales were deposited during a transgressive event in hypoxic to anoxic conditions. The original total organic carbon content in the Bakken shales ranges from 20 to 22 weight percent, however; the content decreases to 10 to 17 weight percent as a result of maturation of hydrocarbons and primary expelling of oil. High ...


Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Validations Using Field Deployments In The Flooded Orphan Boy Mine Shaft In Butte, Mt, Elliott Mazur Oct 2016

Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Validations Using Field Deployments In The Flooded Orphan Boy Mine Shaft In Butte, Mt, Elliott Mazur

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The process of sensor validation through experimentation with the Omnisens Distributed Temperature and Strain (DITEST) Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer (BOTDA) proved to be a challenging project. The project encompassed sensor calibrations, system error minimization, sensor network design and deployment, and the characterization of temperatures in the Orphan Boy Mine shaft. Fiber-optic cable sensor calibrations yielded linear relationship coefficients 0.6-1.0MHZ/°F, indicating a strong positive correlation between Brillouin Frequency Shifts and temperature. Calibrated sensors demonstrated accuracies near ±0.8°F using the corrected error bounds from residual analyses as the benchmark. Fiber-optic measurement accuracy and repeatability were controlled ...


A Physicochemical Prediction Of Prolonged Natural Co2 Leakage In The Little Grand Wash Fault Zone, Green River, Utah, Kyungdoe Han May 2016

A Physicochemical Prediction Of Prolonged Natural Co2 Leakage In The Little Grand Wash Fault Zone, Green River, Utah, Kyungdoe Han

Theses and Dissertations

Physicochemical investigation on a natural CO2 system and the accommodated fault-controlled fluids using a geochemical modeling method provides important information regarding the security assessment for geological carbon sequestration (GCS), which is the most promising method for enhancing our knowledge of the side effects of GCS. By employing an utilized series of regional fluid chemistry and hydrogeologic parameters, this study investigated the consequences caused by migration of CO2 in a naturally leaking CO2 system that developed in normal faults in the southwestern U.S. 1-D and 2-D models were conducted using the multi-phase, multi-component reactive transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, to establish sets ...


Processing And Interpretation Of Three-Component Vertical Seismic Profile Data, Ross Sea, Antarctica, Meltem Akan Apr 2016

Processing And Interpretation Of Three-Component Vertical Seismic Profile Data, Ross Sea, Antarctica, Meltem Akan

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL) AND-2A drill hole was drilled, cored and logged in southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2007. A single near-offset, over-sea ice vertical seismic profile (VSP) was collected in the AND-2A drill hole as a part of the logging program. The source for VSP data collection was a Generator Injector (GI) air-gun which was suspended by a cable through a hole made in the sea ice. The reason for selecting a GI air gun was the minimization of the bubble pulse effects which are prevalent in ...


3d Seismic Structural And Stratigraphic Interpretation Of The Tui-3d Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Gorkem Yagci Jan 2016

3d Seismic Structural And Stratigraphic Interpretation Of The Tui-3d Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Gorkem Yagci

Masters Theses

"Identifying seismic structures and stratigraphy are important for exploration of hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study is to discover seismic structural and stratigraphic features and to utilize the results for interpreting depositional environments. A 3D seismic dataset from the Tui-3D Field, the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand with well data were used to visualize structures, to detect stratigraphic features, to identify main lithology, to understand depositional environment, and to describe seismic facies and reflection patterns of the target horizons. The major formations are in the Kapuni Group.

Seismic structural interpretation indicates thirty-two minor faults, which may play an important role in ...


Concepts For Geotechnical Investigation In Karst, Joseph A. Fischer, Joseph J. Fischer Oct 2015

Concepts For Geotechnical Investigation In Karst, Joseph A. Fischer, Joseph J. Fischer

Sinkhole Conference 2015

There seems to be a lack of recognition in the literature that addresses the variety of karst in the United States of America and some of its offshore territories. For example, there are the well-known solutioned carbonates of Florida and the Caribbean, but there are also the somewhat older, harder carbonates of St. Croix, U.S.V.I. Even Florida’s recently deposited karst varies from region to region. There are also the ancient, flat-lying carbonates of the interior craton that often have semi-horizontal cavities resulting from variations in ground water levels affecting bedding and the contorted rocks of the ...


An Assessment Of The Accuracy Of Ppp In Remote Areas In Oman, Audrey Martin, Rashid Al Alawi May 2015

An Assessment Of The Accuracy Of Ppp In Remote Areas In Oman, Audrey Martin, Rashid Al Alawi

Conference Papers

Traditionally, high accuracy Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning has involved differential techniques. Such techniques significantly reduce or eliminate inherent biases in the GNSS measurement by referencing simultaneous measurements to one or more known reference stations. On a national scale, these differential techniques rely heavily on a costly spatial infrastructure of accurately known points usually occupied by Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). In recent years, the development of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques have been shown to reduce many of the inherent observation errors and biases in GNSS solutions which eliminate the need for a ground based reference station. Such ...


Should Nuclear Energy Be More Heavily Incorporated By The United States?, Matthew Romer Apr 2015

Should Nuclear Energy Be More Heavily Incorporated By The United States?, Matthew Romer

Nebraska College Preparatory Academy Senior Capstone Projects

America is involved in one of the biggest races towards electrical efficiency, cleanliness, and productivity. Nuclear energy is a major part of the U.S.’s non-­‐carbon emitting electricity, and has strict regulations for management. However, this form of energy has been on the decline in the past couple decades due to cost and competition with cheaper, less clean methods. Is nuclear energy feasible enough to continue?


The Simulation & Evaluation Of Surge Hazard Using A Response Surface Method In The New York Bight, Michael H. Bredesen Jan 2015

The Simulation & Evaluation Of Surge Hazard Using A Response Surface Method In The New York Bight, Michael H. Bredesen

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atmospheric features, such as tropical cyclones, act as a driving mechanism for many of the major hazards affecting coastal areas around the world. Accurate and efficient quantification of tropical cyclone surge hazard is essential to the development of resilient coastal communities, particularly given continued sea level trend concerns. Recent major tropical cyclones that have impacted the northeastern portion of the United States have resulted in devastating flooding in New York City, the most densely populated city in the US. As a part of national effort to re-evaluate coastal inundation hazards, the Federal Emergency Management Agency used the Joint Probability Method ...


Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis Aug 2014

Automated Image Interpretation For Science Autonomy In Robotic Planetary Exploration, Raymond Francis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in the capabilities of robotic planetary exploration missions have increased the wealth of scientific data they produce, presenting challenges for mission science and operations imposed by the limits of interplanetary radio communications. These data budget pressures can be relieved by increased robotic autonomy, both for onboard operations tasks and for decision- making in response to science data.

This thesis presents new techniques in automated image interpretation for natural scenes of relevance to planetary science and exploration, and elaborates autonomy scenarios under which they could be used to extend the reach and performance of exploration missions on planetary surfaces.

Two ...


New Research In Cave Ledenica In Bukovi Vrh On Velebit Mt In Croatian Dinaric Karst, Mladen Garasic Aug 2014

New Research In Cave Ledenica In Bukovi Vrh On Velebit Mt In Croatian Dinaric Karst, Mladen Garasic

The International Workshop on Ice Caves

No abstract provided.


La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha Nov 2013

La Yeguada Volcanic Vomplex In The Republic Of Panama: An Assessment Of The Geologic Hazards Using 40ar/39ar Geochronology, Karinne L. Knutsen, William I. Rose, Brian Jicha

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

La Yeguada volcanic complex is one of three Quaternary volcanic centers in Panama. To assess potential geologic hazards, new samples were analyzed using argon analysis (40Ar/39Ar), and obtained the following: the most recent eruption occurred approximately 32,000 years ago at the Media Luna cinder cone; the youngest dated eruption from the main dome complex occurred 357 ± 19 ka, producing the Castillo dome unit; Cerro Picacho, a separate dacite dome 1.5 km east of the main complex is 4.47 ± 0.23 Ma; and the El Satro Pyroclastic Flow unit surrounds the northern portion of the ...


The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian Aug 2013

The Size Range Of Bubbles That Produce Ash During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions, Kimberly Genareau, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Alexander A. Proussevitch, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, Dork L. Sahagian

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Volcanic eruptions can produce ash particles with a range of sizes and morphologies. Here we morphologically distinguish two textural types: Simple (generally smaller) ash particles, where the observable surface displays a single measureable bubble because there is at most one vesicle imprint preserved on each facet of the particle; and complex ash particles, which display multiple vesicle imprints on their surfaces for measurement and may contain complete, unfragmented vesicles in their interiors. Digital elevation models from stereo-scanning electron microscopic images of complex ash particles from the 14 October 1974 sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán Fuego, Guatemala and the 18 May 1980 ...


Using Gis To Delineate Headwater Stream Origins In The Appalachian Coal-Belt Region Of Kentucky, Jonathan A. Villines Jan 2013

Using Gis To Delineate Headwater Stream Origins In The Appalachian Coal-Belt Region Of Kentucky, Jonathan A. Villines

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Human activity such as surface mining can have substantial impacts on the natural environment. Performing a Cumulative Hydrologic Impact Assessment (CHIA) of such impacts on surface water systems requires knowing the location and extent of these impacted streams. The Jurisdictional Determination (JD) of a stream’s protected status under the Clean Water Act (CWA) involves locating and classifying streams according to their flow regime: ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial. Due to their often remote locations and small size, taking a field inventory of headwater streams for surface mining permit applications or permit reviews is challenging. A means of estimating headwater stream ...


Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik Mar 2009

Hydrometeor-Enhanced Tephra Sedimentation: Constraints From The 18 May 1980 Eruption Of Mount St. Helens, Adam J. Durant, William I. Rose, A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, S. Carey, A. C. M. Volentik

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 Φ, 4.2 Φ, 5.9 Φ, and 8.3 Φ. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely ...


Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn Dec 2008

Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Presentations

During the month of August 2008, 10 ozonesondes were launched from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan as part of a study to examine regional pollution during the Olympic period. Seven of these soundings included a second instrument with a filter designed to remove SO2 from the intake air stream. SO2 interferes with the normal chemistry of the electrochemical cell (ECC) method for ozone detection, with the net result being that each molecule of SO2 registers as minus one molecule of O3. Thus the unfiltered sonde reports [O3] - [SO2] while the filtered sonde reports [O3]. Laboratory tests prior to launch indicate ...


Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn Dec 2008

Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn

Gary A. Morris

During the month of August 2008, 10 ozonesondes were launched from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan as part of a study to examine regional pollution during the Olympic period. Seven of these soundings included a second instrument with a filter designed to remove SO2 from the intake air stream. SO2 interferes with the normal chemistry of the electrochemical cell (ECC) method for ozone detection, with the net result being that each molecule of SO2 registers as minus one molecule of O3. Thus the unfiltered sonde reports [O3] - [SO2] while the filtered sonde reports [O3]. Laboratory tests prior to launch indicate ...


The Application Of Web 2.0 Technologies As An Experimental Method Of Teaching Remote Sensing At Dit, Ireland, Avril Behan Jul 2008

The Application Of Web 2.0 Technologies As An Experimental Method Of Teaching Remote Sensing At Dit, Ireland, Avril Behan

Conference Papers

This paper describes the implementation of an experimental method of delivery for a module of remote sensing material to second year students on the BSc (Hons) in Geomatics at the Dublin Institute of Technology. The project began as a reaction to poor levels of student engagement and unsatisfactory grades, as well as the requirement to focus more on real-world type problems due to the implementation of a work-placement semester for third year students. Both pedagogical considerations (movement towards formative feedback, interactivity and group-based work) and the effect of technological drivers, such as the popularity of the internet in general and ...


Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst May 2008

Ice Nucleation And Overseeding Of Ice In Volcanic Clouds, Adam J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, William I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface ...


Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin Oct 2006

Atmospheric Chemistry Of A 33–34 Hour Old Volcanic Cloud From Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights From Direct Sampling And The Application Of Chemical Box Modeling, William I. Rose, Genevieve A. Millard, Tamsin A. Mather, Donald E. Hunton, Bruce Anderson, Clive Oppenheimer, Brett F. Thornton, Terrence M. Gerlach, Albert A. Viggiano, Yutaka Kondo, Thomas M. Miller, John O. Ballenthin

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

On 28 February 2000, a volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano, Iceland, was serendipitously sampled by a DC-8 research aircraft during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE I). It was encountered at night at 10.4 km above sea level (in the lower stratosphere) and 33–34 hours after emission. The cloud is readily identified by abundant SO2 (≤1 ppmv), HCl (≤70 ppbv), HF (≤60 ppbv), and particles (which may have included fine silicate ash). We compare observed and modeled cloud compositions to understand its chemical evolution. Abundances of sulfur and halogen species indicate some oxidation of sulfur ...


Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton Oct 2006

Halogen Emissions From A Small Volcanic Eruption: Modeling The Peak Concentrations, Dispersion, And Volcanically Induced Ozone Loss In The Stratosphere, G. A. Millard, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, William I. Rose, B. Thornton

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications

Aircraft measurements in the Hekla, Iceland volcanic plume in February 2000 revealed large quantities of hydrogen halides within the stratosphere correlated to volcanic SO2. Investigation of the longer-term stratospheric impact of these emissions, using the 3D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT suggests that volcanic enhancements of H2O and HNO3 increased HNO3·3H2O particle availability within the plume. These particles activated volcanic HCl and HBr, enhancing model plume concentrations of ClOx (20 ppb) and BrOx (50 ppt). Model O3 concentrations decreased to near-zero in places, and plume average O3 remained 30% lower after two weeks. Reductions in the model O3column reduced UV ...