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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Toughening Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) With Cu3Btc2 Metal Organic Framework Crystals, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras Dec 2013

Toughening Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) With Cu3Btc2 Metal Organic Framework Crystals, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and metal organic framework (MOF) composites were prepared by melt extrusion of PLLA with 5, 10 and 20% w/w of activated Cu3(BTC)2 MOF. The morphology and stability of injection-molded samples were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composites showed improved toughness during the tensile tests as compared to the neat PLLA matrix. Toughness mechanism of the composites was studied using SEM and rheological studies. SEM images indicated that cavitation induced by debonding at the interface of PLLA and MOF ...


Acuta Enews December 20132 Vol. 42, No. 12 Dec 2013

Acuta Enews December 20132 Vol. 42, No. 12

ACUTA Newsletters

In this Issue...

1 Board Approves Slate of Nominees

1 A Gift from ACUTA to You!

2 Nominate Now for Ruth A, Michalecki Leadership Award i

3 What's on Your Desk?

4 From the Listserv

6 RF Video Distribution Solution for the University of the South

7 Info Links

8 Board Report

9 Welcome New Members

9 Check It Out


Convergence Of Bayesian Histogram Filters For Location Estimation, Avik De, Alejandro Ribeiro, William Moran, Daniel E. Koditschek Dec 2013

Convergence Of Bayesian Histogram Filters For Location Estimation, Avik De, Alejandro Ribeiro, William Moran, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We prove convergence of an approximate Bayesian estimator for the (scalar) location estimation problem by recourse to a histogram approximant. We exploit its tractability to present a simple strategy for managing the tradeoff between accuracy and complexity through the cardinality of the underlying partition. Our theoretical results provide explicit (conservative) sufficient conditions under which convergence is guaranteed. Numerical simulations reveal certain extreme cases in which the conditions may be tight, and suggest that this procedure has performance and computational efficiency favorably comparable to particle filters, while affording the aforementioned analytical benefits. We posit that more sophisticated algorithms can make such ...


Improving Patient Length-Of-Stay In Emergency Department Through Dynamic Queue Management, Kar Way Tan, Hoong Chuin Lau, Francis Chun Yue Lee Dec 2013

Improving Patient Length-Of-Stay In Emergency Department Through Dynamic Queue Management, Kar Way Tan, Hoong Chuin Lau, Francis Chun Yue Lee

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Addressing issue of crowding in an Emergency Department (ED) typically takes the form of process engineering or single-faceted queue management strategies such as demand restriction, queue prioritization or staffing the ED. This work provides an integrated framework to manage queue dynamically from both demand and supply perspectives. More precisely, we introduce intelligent dynamic patient prioritization strategies to manage the demand concurrently with dynamic resource adjustment policies to manage supply. Our framework allows decision-makers to select both the demand-side and supply-side strategies to suit the needs of their ED. We verify through a simulation that such a framework improves the patients ...


A Dynamic Programming Approach To Achieving An Optimal End State Along A Serial Production Line, Shih-Fen Cheng, Blake E. Nicholson, Marina A. Epelman, Daniel J. Reaume, Robert L. Smith Dec 2013

A Dynamic Programming Approach To Achieving An Optimal End State Along A Serial Production Line, Shih-Fen Cheng, Blake E. Nicholson, Marina A. Epelman, Daniel J. Reaume, Robert L. Smith

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

In modern production systems, it is critical to perform maintenance, calibration, installation, and upgrade tasks during planned downtime. Otherwise, the systems become unreliable and new product introductions are delayed. For reasons of safety, testing, and access, task performance often requires the vicinity of impacted equipment to be left in a specific “end state” when production halts. Therefore, planning the shutdown of a production system to balance production goals against enabling non-production tasks yields a challenging optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a mathematical formulation of this problem and a dynamic programming approach that efficiently finds optimal shutdown policies for ...


An Agent-Based Simulation Approach To Experience Management In Theme Parks, Shih-Fen Cheng, Larry Junjie Lin, Jiali Du, Hoong Chuin Lau, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham Dec 2013

An Agent-Based Simulation Approach To Experience Management In Theme Parks, Shih-Fen Cheng, Larry Junjie Lin, Jiali Du, Hoong Chuin Lau, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

In this paper, we illustrate how massive agent-based simulation can be used to investigate an exciting new application domain of experience management in theme parks, which covers topics like congestion control, incentive design, and revenue management. Since all visitors are heterogeneous and self-interested, we argue that a high-quality agent-based simulation is necessary for studying various problems related to experience management. As in most agent-base simulations, a sound understanding of micro-level behaviors is essential to construct high-quality models. To achieve this, we designed and conducted a first-of-its-kind real-world experiment that helps us understand how typical visitors behave in a theme-park environment ...


Wireless Networks: Technological Challenges And Policy Implications, Christopher S. Yoo Nov 2013

Wireless Networks: Technological Challenges And Policy Implications, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Since June 2012, mobile wireless has emerged as the largest and fast growing medium for broadband service. At the same time, mobile wireless networks have proven considerably more difficult to manage than wireline networks. The primary causes are the rapid growth in demand for wireless bandwidth and the greater susceptibility of wireless networks to poor quality of service because of the omnidirectional propagation of wireless signals, bad handoffs, local congestion, and the susceptibility to complex interference patterns caused by multipath propagation. Moreover, the central inference underlying the primary form of congestion management is not valid for wireless networks. As a ...


Acuta Enews November 2013 Vol. 42, No. 11 Nov 2013

Acuta Enews November 2013 Vol. 42, No. 11

ACUTA Newsletters

In this Issue...

1 The Concept of Context-Aware Computing

2 Nominate Now for Ruth A. Michalecki Leadership Award

3 Collaboration Is Not Automatic

4 Nominations for Board of Directors: Deadline November 18

5 Free Webinar: The Evolution of Control Systems Security Brief

5 What's on Your Desk?

6 Bring 8 Fall Seminar Sessions to Your Desktop or Tablet

6 Thanks to Fall Seminar Exhibitors 6 Sponsors

6 Get Your Logos Here

7 Info Links

8 Add Names from Your Campus to Your ' ACUTA Roster

8 Board Report

9 Welcome New Members

9 Check It Out


Optimal Resource Allocation For Network Protection Against Spreading Processes, Victor M. Preciado, Michael Zargham, Chinwendu Enyioha, Ali Jadbabaie, George Pappas Nov 2013

Optimal Resource Allocation For Network Protection Against Spreading Processes, Victor M. Preciado, Michael Zargham, Chinwendu Enyioha, Ali Jadbabaie, George Pappas

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We study the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing protection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available: (i) Preventive resources able to defend nodes against the spreading (such as vaccines in a viral infection process), and (ii) corrective resources able to neutralize the spreading after it has reached a node (such as antidotes). We assume that both preventive and corrective resources have an associated cost and study the problem of finding the cost-optimal distribution of resources throughout the nodes of the network. We analyze these questions ...


Optimization Approaches For Solving Chance Constrained Stochastic Orienteering Problems, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar Nov 2013

Optimization Approaches For Solving Chance Constrained Stochastic Orienteering Problems, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Orienteering problems (OPs) are typically used to model routing and trip planning problems. OP is a variant of the well known traveling salesman problem where the goal is to compute the highest reward path that includes a subset of nodes and has an overall travel time less than the specified deadline. Stochastic orienteering problems (SOPs) extend OPs to account for uncertain travel times and are significantly harder to solve than deterministic OPs. In this paper, we contribute a scalable mixed integer LP formulation for solving risk aware SOPs, which is a principled approximation of the underlying stochastic optimization problem. Empirically ...


Budgeted Personalized Incentive Approaches For Smoothing Congestion In Resource Networks, Pradeep Varakantham, Na Fu, William Yeoh, Shih-Fen Cheng, Hoong Chuin Lau Nov 2013

Budgeted Personalized Incentive Approaches For Smoothing Congestion In Resource Networks, Pradeep Varakantham, Na Fu, William Yeoh, Shih-Fen Cheng, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Congestion occurs when there is competition for resources by sel sh agents. In this paper, we are concerned with smoothing out congestion in a network of resources by using personalized well-timed in- centives that are subject to budget constraints. To that end, we provide: (i) a mathematical formulation that computes equilibrium for the re- source sharing congestion game with incentives and budget constraints; (ii) an integrated approach that scales to larger problems by exploiting the factored network structure and approximating the attained equilib- rium; (iii) an iterative best response algorithm for solving the uncon- strained version (no budget) of the ...


Impact Of Demand Response On Thermal Generation Investment With High Wind Penetration, Shan Jin, Audun Botterud, Sarah M. Ryan Nov 2013

Impact Of Demand Response On Thermal Generation Investment With High Wind Penetration, Shan Jin, Audun Botterud, Sarah M. Ryan

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

We present a stochastic programming model for investments in thermal generation capacity to study the impact of demand response (DR) at high wind penetration levels. The investment model combines continuous operational constraints and wind scenarios to represent the implications of wind variability and uncertainty at the operational level. DR is represented in terms of linear price-responsive demand functions. A numerical case study based on load and wind profiles of Illinois is constructed with 20 candidate generating units of various types. Numerical results show the impact of DR on both investment and operational decisions. We also propose a model in which ...


Supply Chain Design And Operational Planning Models For Biomass To Drop-In Fuel Production, Leilei Zhang, Guiping Hu Nov 2013

Supply Chain Design And Operational Planning Models For Biomass To Drop-In Fuel Production, Leilei Zhang, Guiping Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Renewable fuel is playing an increasingly important role as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified pyrolysis based platforms as promising biofuel production pathways. In this paper, we present a general biofuel supply chain model with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) methodology to investigate the biofuel supply chain facility location, facility capacity at strategic levels, and biofuel production decisions at operational levels. In the model, we accommodate different biomass supplies and biofuel demands with biofuel supply shortage penalty and storage cost. The model is then applied to corn stover fast pyrolysis pathway ...


The Effect Of Distribution On Product Temperature Profile In Thermally Insulated Containers For Express Shipments, Jay Singh, Sanjiv Jaggia, Koushik Saha Oct 2013

The Effect Of Distribution On Product Temperature Profile In Thermally Insulated Containers For Express Shipments, Jay Singh, Sanjiv Jaggia, Koushik Saha

Industrial Technology and Packaging

An uninterrupted cold chain is a continual series of storage and distribution activities that maintain a specific temperature or temperature range. Cold chain solutions typically involve excessive packaging to ensure that the desired product temperature is maintained through the distribution process, thereby increasing the logistics-related costs. There is a myriad of solutions available for shipping temperature-sensitive products, including those constructed with a variety of packaging materials as well as refrigerants. Although static characteristics for thermally insulated packaging solutions such as the R-values of package systems as well as the melting points and heat absorption rates of various refrigerants have been ...


Aiero: An Algorithm For Identifying Engineering Relationships In Ontologies, Paul Witherell, Ian R. Grosse, Sundar Krishnamurty, Jack C. Wileden Oct 2013

Aiero: An Algorithm For Identifying Engineering Relationships In Ontologies, Paul Witherell, Ian R. Grosse, Sundar Krishnamurty, Jack C. Wileden

Center for e-Design Publications

Semantic technologies are playing an increasingly popular role as a means for advancing the capabilities of knowledge management systems. Among these advancements, researchers have successfully leveraged semantic technologies, and their accompanying techniques, to improve the representation and search capabilities of knowledge management systems. This paper introduces a further application of semantic techniques. We explore semantic relatedness as a means of facilitating the development of more “intelligent” engineering knowledge management systems. Using semantic relatedness quantifications to analyze and rank concept pairs, this novel approach exploits semantic relationships to help identify key engineering relationships, similar to those leveraged in change management systems ...


Acuta Enews October 2013 Vol. 42, No. 10 Oct 2013

Acuta Enews October 2013 Vol. 42, No. 10

ACUTA Newsletters

In this Issue...

1 Nominate for Board of Directors

1 PD and More from ACUTA

2 Nominations Open for institutional Excellence Award

3 What's on Your Desk?

4 Using Social Media During Times of Crisis

5 Why You Should Customize Lync' qualified Phones

6 Board Report

7 Info Links

8 Welcome New Members

8 Check It Out


Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich Oct 2013

Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Patents

Integrated surveillance systems and methods for processing multiple sensor inputs and determining a best route for avoiding multiple hazards. An example method performed on a first aircraft includes generating a plurality of routes for avoiding a previously determined alert from a first advisory system. Then, probability of success information is generated at other advisory systems for each of the plurality of routes. The best route of the plurality of routes is determined based on the generated probabilities and output to the flight crew or other aircraft. The probability of success information includes a previously defined uncertainty value. The uncertainty value ...


Modeling The Impact Of Simulated Educational Interventions On The Use And Abuse Of Pharmaceutical Opioids In The United States: A Report On Initial Efforts, Wayne Wakeland, Alexandra E. Nielsen, Teresa D. Schmidt, Dennis Mccarty, Lynn Webster, John Fitzgerald, J. David Haddox Oct 2013

Modeling The Impact Of Simulated Educational Interventions On The Use And Abuse Of Pharmaceutical Opioids In The United States: A Report On Initial Efforts, Wayne Wakeland, Alexandra E. Nielsen, Teresa D. Schmidt, Dennis Mccarty, Lynn Webster, John Fitzgerald, J. David Haddox

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Three educational interventions were simulated in a system dynamics model of the medical use, trafficking, and nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. The study relied on secondary data obtained in the literature for the period of 1995 to 2008 as well as expert panel recommendations regarding model parameters and structure. The behavior of the resulting systems-level model was tested for fit against reference behavior data. After the base model was tested, logic to represent three educational interventions was added and the impact of each intervention on simulated overdose deaths was evaluated over a 7-year evaluation period, 2008 to 2015. Principal findings ...


Human Differences In Navigational Approaches During Tele-Robotic Search, Richard Stone, Michael Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert, Elease Mclaurin Sep 2013

Human Differences In Navigational Approaches During Tele-Robotic Search, Richard Stone, Michael Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert, Elease Mclaurin

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This study investigated the navigational approaches used by humans when operating a simple tele-robot in a simulated search and rescue operation. Tele-robots are being increasingly used in safety-critical operations. During tele-operation, the situational awareness of tele-robot operators needs to be supported. Navigation depends on psychological skills of perception and cognition, and can utlize different problem solving strategies. However, there is limited knowledge of how operators develop situational awareness while navigating tele-robots. The study was conducted to understand if there were distinctive, identifiable strategies in the way operators navigated. When participants manually tele-operated a robot in a remote physical environment, two ...


Comparison Of Design Approaches Between Engineers And Industrial Designers, Seda Yilmaz, Shanna R. Daly, Colleen Seifert, Rich Gonzalez Sep 2013

Comparison Of Design Approaches Between Engineers And Industrial Designers, Seda Yilmaz, Shanna R. Daly, Colleen Seifert, Rich Gonzalez

Industrial Design Conference Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Design Heuristics are an idea generation tool based on empirical evidence from successful designs. The heuristics serve as cognitive “shortcuts” that encourage exploration of novel directions during concept generation. Design Heuristics were identified from an analysis of hundreds of innovative products and from studies of expert engineering and industrial designers. The research reported in this paper examines the utility of Design Heuristics instruction in two different classroom settings with engineering and industrial design students. The aim was to test whether design heuristics can play a useful role in creating new designs and overcoming fixations in the design process. Twenty novice ...


Acuta Enews September 2013 Vol. 42, No. 9 Sep 2013

Acuta Enews September 2013 Vol. 42, No. 9

ACUTA Newsletters

In this Issue...

1 Big Data Means Big Advances

2 Nominations Open for 2014 institutional Excellence Award

2 Seeking Presenters for Winter Seminar

3 Webinar: The Evolution of Control Systems Security Brief

3 Register to Attend Fall Seminar

4 What Exactly Is a Microsoft Lync Phone?

6 Info Links

7 Overheard on the Listserv

8 Board Report

9 Welcome New Members

9 Check It Out


Study Of A Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Combined Heat, Hydrogen And Power System: End-Use Application, Tarek A. Hamad, Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll, Yousif M. Hamad, Sushrut Bapat, Mathew Thomas, Kevin B. Martin, John W. Sheffield Sep 2013

Study Of A Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Combined Heat, Hydrogen And Power System: End-Use Application, Tarek A. Hamad, Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll, Yousif M. Hamad, Sushrut Bapat, Mathew Thomas, Kevin B. Martin, John W. Sheffield

Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the ...


Trunk Muscle Fatigue And Its Implications In Emg-Assisted Biomechanical Modeling, Omid Haddad, Gary A. Mirka Sep 2013

Trunk Muscle Fatigue And Its Implications In Emg-Assisted Biomechanical Modeling, Omid Haddad, Gary A. Mirka

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Muscle fatigue affects the underlying EMG-force relationship on which EMG-assisted biomechanical models rely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of short duration muscle fatigue on the muscle gain value. Participants performed controlled, isometric trunk extension exertions at 10, 20, and 30 degrees of trunk flexion and controlled isokinetic trunk extension exertions at 5 and 15°/sec on five separate days. Fatigue of the lumbar extensors was generated by moderate-intensity, trunk extension exertions. Participants performed controlled test contractions at defined intervals throughout the fatiguing bout and the EMG activities of trunk muscles were collected. These EMG data ...


Aircraft Situational Awareness Improvement System And Method, Chris Hamblin, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers Aug 2013

Aircraft Situational Awareness Improvement System And Method, Chris Hamblin, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Patents

The present invention in its various aspects is as set out in the appended claims. In one embodiment, a method for improving aircraft pilot situational awareness includes receiving and processing datalink messages and automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) data in an aircraft. A spatial and temporal situational

model for the aircraft is generated based on the processed datalink messages and the processed ADSB data. At least a portion of the spatial and temporal situational model is rendered on a display device within the aircraft.

In another embodiment, an aircraft pilot situational awareness improvement system includes a display device and a processor ...


Display System And Method For Generating A Display: Patent Application, William Rogers, Michael C. Dorneich, Chris Hamblin, Stephen Whitlow Aug 2013

Display System And Method For Generating A Display: Patent Application, William Rogers, Michael C. Dorneich, Chris Hamblin, Stephen Whitlow

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Patents

A display system and method for providing a display. A display system includes a computer processor, the computer processor being configured to receive information from a plurality of sensors. The computer processor is further configured to detect an abnormal situation, based on information received from the plurality of sensors. The display system further includes a database including abnormal situation response procedures in operable communication with the processor, wherein the database is configured to provide the processor with the abnormal situation response procedures upon the detection of an abnormal situation. The display system further includes a display device in operable communication ...


Acuta Enews August 2013 Vo. 42, No. 8 Aug 2013

Acuta Enews August 2013 Vo. 42, No. 8

ACUTA Newsletters

In this Issue.,,

1 Sewanee Campus Celebrates IEA Award

2 Regulatory Webinar on Section 255

2 ACUTA Webinar: What's on the Radar?

2 Sneak Peek at 2014 ACUTA journal Topics i

Vendor System lntegrations Accelerate in the Safety 6 Security Industry j

Seeking Presenters for Winter Seminar

4 Deja vu All Over Again: Can We Please Put SDNs in Context?

5 Some Thoughts about Fiber Optics

6 lnfo Links

6 Mark Your Calendar for Fall Seminar

7 Looking for a Few Good Coordinators

7 Board Report

8 Welcome New Members

8 Check It Out


Evaluation Of Team Quality, Shiva Rama Krishna Murthy Bhagavatula Aug 2013

Evaluation Of Team Quality, Shiva Rama Krishna Murthy Bhagavatula

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The ever-increasing competitive pressure and sizes of the global markets have forced organizations from both manufacturing and healthcare sectors to rely more on teams. Therefore the success or the failure of an organization depends largely on the overall quality of the teams within that organization. This increased attention towards teams has forced many organizations to focus on improving the overall quality of their teams. This study has three main objectives. The first objective is to structure a comprehensive list of attributes affecting the overall quality of a team in manufacturing and healthcare sectors. The second objective is to use a ...


The Role Of Third Party Logistics Providers (3pls) In The Adoption Of Green Supply Chain Initiatives, Edward Sweeney, Pietro Evangelista, Maria Huge-Brodin, Karin Isaksson Aug 2013

The Role Of Third Party Logistics Providers (3pls) In The Adoption Of Green Supply Chain Initiatives, Edward Sweeney, Pietro Evangelista, Maria Huge-Brodin, Karin Isaksson

Practitioner Journals

The increasing importance of environmental sustainability has sharpened the focus on the need for innovative approaches to the purchasing of transport and logistics services. This article points out some of the challenges that purchasers of transport and logistics services, as well as their suppliers in the third party logistics (3PL) industry, are facing. These include the need for closer collaboration between 3PLs and their customers, as well as developing systems for the robust assessment of the environmental sustainability of services. The article is based on several years’ research experience inIreland,ItalyandSweden.


Interacting Knapsack Problem In Designing Resource Bundles, Truong Huy D. Nguyen, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham, Hoong Chuin Lau, Shih-Fen Cheng Aug 2013

Interacting Knapsack Problem In Designing Resource Bundles, Truong Huy D. Nguyen, Pradeep Reddy Varakantham, Hoong Chuin Lau, Shih-Fen Cheng

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

In many real-life businesses, the service provider/seller keeps a log of the visitors’ behavior as a way to assess the efficiency of the current business/operation model and find room for improvement. For example, by tracking when visitors entering attractions in a theme park, theme park owners can detect when and where congestion may occur, thus having contingency plans to reroute the visitors accordingly. Similarly, a Cable TV service provider can track channel switching events at each household to identify uninteresting channels. Subsequently, the repertoire of channels up for subscription can evolve over time to better serve the entertainment ...


Multi-Agent Orienteering Problem With Time-Dependent Capacity Constraints, Cen Chen, Shih-Fen Cheng, Hoong Chuin Lau Aug 2013

Multi-Agent Orienteering Problem With Time-Dependent Capacity Constraints, Cen Chen, Shih-Fen Cheng, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

The Orienteering Problem (OP), as originally defined by Tsiligirides, is the problem of cross-countr sport in which participants get rewards from visiting a predefined set of checkpoints. As Orienteering Problem can be used to describe a wide variety of real-world problems like route planning for facility inspection, patrolling of strategic location, and reward-weighted traveling salesman problem, it has attracted continuous interests from researchers and a large number of variants and corresponding algorithms for solving them have been introduced.