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Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering Commons

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2011

Systems Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Ethnic Difference In Healthcare Delivery, Benny Mathew Varghese Dec 2011

Ethnic Difference In Healthcare Delivery, Benny Mathew Varghese

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Quality in healthcare is a very important aspect; this is obtained when there is proper care provided to the patients without any discrimination. The healthcare system in the US can be improved in the fields of patient’s care, the amount of money spent and proper advice, if proper responsibilities are taken. Quality has been improving over the years, but the median by which there is an increase is too small. The other main factor is access to the healthcare system, which has over the year, has not progressed. Studies in healthcare quality should be conducted on a regular base ...


Economic Analysis Of Continuous Monitoring Of Commercial Truck Tire Pressure Using Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (Tpms) And Rfid Technologies., Afolabi A. Ogunwemimo Dec 2011

Economic Analysis Of Continuous Monitoring Of Commercial Truck Tire Pressure Using Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (Tpms) And Rfid Technologies., Afolabi A. Ogunwemimo

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The trucking industry is a major contributor to the US economy. By providing the essential services of transportation and distribution needed in today’s dynamic industry, the transportation industry has evolved into an integral player in various supply chains. The trucking industry is the largest transportation provider for other industries and employs 10.1 million workers in the United States (ATA, 2003).

This research is an analysis of the economic impact of maintaining proper air pressure in the tires of commercial trucks. Various studies have been carried out on understanding the relationship between tire pressure and fuel consumption (National Research ...


Simulation-Based Optimisation Model For The Lean Assessment In Sme: A Case Study, Amr Arisha, Amr Mahfouz, John Shea Dec 2011

Simulation-Based Optimisation Model For The Lean Assessment In Sme: A Case Study, Amr Arisha, Amr Mahfouz, John Shea

Conference papers

Due to their space limitation and small production scale, small and medium enterprises (SME) are vulner-able to rapid changes. Lean principles are considered as effective improvement approach to eliminate sys-tem’s waste and inefficiencies. Although much of the academic materials have addressed the lean practic-es into large, global companies, they can still be adjusted to SMEs. Risks are usually associated with lean implementation process due to the drastic required changes in business policies and operations. Simulation can be successfully used to predict the impact of the proposed changes ahead of the implementation which helps to mitigate risks. Integrating simulation with ...


Electronic Monitoring Of Hand Hygiene Compliance In An Inpatient Hospital Setting, Christopher M. Masek Nov 2011

Electronic Monitoring Of Hand Hygiene Compliance In An Inpatient Hospital Setting, Christopher M. Masek

Industrial and Management Systems Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Proper hand hygiene is known to reduce hospital acquired infections. Currently the most widely accepted method used to measure hand hygiene compliance is through direct observation. This method often provides data that may not accurately represent true hand hygiene compliance due to such factors such as the Hawthorne Effect. Perhaps a better approach is to use counting devices to capture hand hygiene opportunities and activities. This thesis focuses on the measurement of hand hygiene activities of all individuals that either work or visit an inpatient medical ward including healthcare workers, patients and visitors at the patient’s bedside for non-isolation ...


Analysis Of Safety Decision-Making Data Using Event Tree Analysis, Gretchen A. Mosher, Nir Keren Nov 2011

Analysis Of Safety Decision-Making Data Using Event Tree Analysis, Gretchen A. Mosher, Nir Keren

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Predicting and analyzing employee safety decision-making is an important component of managing safety in the workplace. This presentation will discuss the process of transforming existing safety decisionmaking data into an event tree pathway. Event tree analysis methodology is utilized to identify contributing factors in complex systems, illustrate interrelationships of the causes of specified events, and to quantify probabilities of occurrence for each pathway of events. Once pathways are constructed and probabilities for each are estimated, safety decision paths with the highest probabilities can be targeted for educational intervention. Thus, the use of safety decision-making data with event tree analysis has ...


Measuring The Relationship Between Employee Trust And Quality Decision-Making, Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2011

Measuring The Relationship Between Employee Trust And Quality Decision-Making, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Quality is one of several workplace goals and several factors influence the quality climate of an organization. One factor believed to play a role in quality climate is trust. Although limited research has examined the relationship between trust and quality climate, no previous inquiry has examined the role worker trust levels play in quality-related decision-making in a workplace setting. Because workplace quality outcomes depend heavily on the decisions made by employees, an understanding of the factors which influence the decisionmaking process of employees is an important component of workplace quality initiatives.


Modeling And Solving A Large-Scale Generation Expansion Planning Problem Under Uncertainty, Shan Jin, Sarah M. Ryan, Jean-Paul Watson, David L. Woodruff Nov 2011

Modeling And Solving A Large-Scale Generation Expansion Planning Problem Under Uncertainty, Shan Jin, Sarah M. Ryan, Jean-Paul Watson, David L. Woodruff

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

We formulate a generation expansion planning problem to determine the type and quantity of power plants to be constructed over each year of an extended planning horizon, considering uncertainty regarding future demand and fuel prices. Our model is expressed as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer program, which we use to compute solutions independently minimizing the expected cost and the Conditional Value-at-Risk; i.e., the risk of significantly larger-than-expected operational costs. We introduce stochastic process models to capture demand and fuel price uncertainty, which are in turn used to generate trees that accurately represent the uncertainty space. Using a realistic problem instance ...


The Effect Of A Lower Extremity Kinematic Constraint On Lifting Biomechanics, Sangeun Jin, Gary A. Mirka Nov 2011

The Effect Of A Lower Extremity Kinematic Constraint On Lifting Biomechanics, Sangeun Jin, Gary A. Mirka

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Leaning against a stationary barrier during manual materials handling tasks is observed in many industrial environments, but the effects of this kinematic constraint on low back mechanics are unknown. Thirteen participants performed two-handed lifting tasks using both a leaning posture and no leaning posture while trunk kinematics, muscle activity and ground reaction force were monitored. Results revealed that lifting with the leaning posture required significantly less activity in erector spinae (26% vs. 36% MVC) and latissimus dorsi (8% vs. 14% MVC), and less passive tissue moment compared with the no leaning posture. Peak sagittal accelerations were lower when leaning, but ...


Bring Your Own Water Treatment System: United States Patent, Evan A. Thomas, Maximilian Gold Aug 2011

Bring Your Own Water Treatment System: United States Patent, Evan A. Thomas, Maximilian Gold

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A method and apparatus for filtering a fluid is presented. In one embodiment, the apparatus converts contaminated water into water having a lower turbidity and bacterial contamination level than the contaminated water. The apparatus includes a settling unit for at least partially settling a portion of the water; a filter unit having a filtration media; wherein the filtration media comprises sand, anthracite coal, burnt rice husks, diatomaceous earth, gravel, pumice gravel, or combinations thereof; a sanitation unit; wherein the sanitation unit is an ultraviolet disinfection unit; a backwash unit; wherein the settling unit is in fluid communications with the filter ...


Optimal Replacement In The Proportional Hazards Model With Semi-Markovian Covariate Process And Continuous Monitoring, Xiang Wu, Sarah M. Ryan Jul 2011

Optimal Replacement In The Proportional Hazards Model With Semi-Markovian Covariate Process And Continuous Monitoring, Xiang Wu, Sarah M. Ryan

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Motivated by the increasing use of condition monitoring technology for electrical transformers, this paper deals with the optimal replacement of a system having a hazard function that follows the proportional hazards model with a semi-Markovian covariate process, which we assume is under continuous monitoring. Although the optimality of a threshold replacement policy to minimize the long-run average cost per unit time was established previously in a more general setting, the policy evaluation step in an iterative algorithm to identify optimal threshold values poses computational challenges. To overcome them, we use conditioning to derive an explicit expression of the objective in ...


Methodology For Assessing Measurement Error For Casting Surface Inspection, G. Daricilar, Frank E. Peters Jul 2011

Methodology For Assessing Measurement Error For Casting Surface Inspection, G. Daricilar, Frank E. Peters

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Visual assessment of objects is critical to many fields including metalcasting. While the output for such a task is often a simple attribute, theproblem studied here is for inspection tasks requiring an output that defines shape, size and location of anomalous areas, which are random and are not defined a priori. This paper defines a methodology to quantify the amount of repeatability and reproducibility variation. The application of the methodology for the visual surface assessment of steel castings reveals significant repeatability and reproducibility error. The work presented here is the impetus for current efforts that are defining the capabilities of ...


Virtual Reality Integrated Welder Training, Richard T. Stone, Kristopher Patrick Watts, Peihan Zhong Jul 2011

Virtual Reality Integrated Welder Training, Richard T. Stone, Kristopher Patrick Watts, Peihan Zhong

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Training in the welding industry is a critical and often costly endeavor; this study examines the training potential, team learning, material consumption, and cost implications of using integrated virtual reality technology as a major part of welder training. In this study, 22 participants were trained using one of two separate methods (traditional training (TT) and virtual reality integrated training (VRI)). The results demonstrated that students trained using 50% virtual reality had training outcomes that surpassed those of traditionally trained students across four distinctive weld qualifications (2F, 1G, 3F, 3G). In addition, the VRI group demonstrated significantly higher levels of team ...


Sustainable Oxygen: A Low Power Approach For Providing Emergency Medical Oxygen For Spacecraft And Hospitals In Developing Countries, Anndee L. Huff, Evan Rhead, Zdenek Zumr, Evan A. Thomas Jul 2011

Sustainable Oxygen: A Low Power Approach For Providing Emergency Medical Oxygen For Spacecraft And Hospitals In Developing Countries, Anndee L. Huff, Evan Rhead, Zdenek Zumr, Evan A. Thomas

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

An oxygen concentrator targeting an 80% reduction in power demand over commercial systems is being developed using a pressure swing adsorption process. This system is targeted for a service interval five times longer than commercial systems, and is tolerant to high humidity environments- the leading cause of device failure in developing countries. This system could provide emergency medical oxygen in a spacecraft without increasing oxygen concentration in the vehicle. Flight surgeons seek this capability, but presently, there is no system that meets power, size, and delivery rate requirements. This type of system is also well suited for medical oxygen in ...


Social Innovation Concepts At Nasa: Integrating International Development Challenges And Hands-On Prototyping With Spacecraft Design Training, Leonard Yowell, Evan A. Thomas Jul 2011

Social Innovation Concepts At Nasa: Integrating International Development Challenges And Hands-On Prototyping With Spacecraft Design Training, Leonard Yowell, Evan A. Thomas

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The NASA Johnson Space Center Social Innovation program has been designed to encourage innovation within the NASA community that benefits both NASA's core mission as well as human needs domestically and internationally. By encouraging internal and external collaboration and providing resources including the new Johnson Space Center "Sandbox" design shop, new innovations are anticipated. Technologies developed for the human exploration of space share similar requirements with appropriate technology for the developing world. The technology goals of keeping people alive in a difficult environment involve addressing requirements for low maintenance and robustness and often include using renewable energy sources. Technologies ...


E-10a Mc2a Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, William Albery Jun 2011

E-10a Mc2a Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, William Albery

AFIT Documents

No abstract provided.


A-10 Thunderbolt Ii (Warthog) Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, David R. Jacques, Dennis D. Strouble May 2011

A-10 Thunderbolt Ii (Warthog) Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, David R. Jacques, Dennis D. Strouble

AFIT Documents

No abstract provided.


Experimental Investigations Into The Role Of Passive Variable Compliant Legs For Dynamic Robot Locomotion, Kevin C. Galloway, Jonathan E. Clark, Mark Yim, Daniel E. Koditschek May 2011

Experimental Investigations Into The Role Of Passive Variable Compliant Legs For Dynamic Robot Locomotion, Kevin C. Galloway, Jonathan E. Clark, Mark Yim, Daniel E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Biomechanical studies suggest that animals’ abilities to tune their effective leg compliance in response to changing terrain conditions plays an important role in their agile, robust locomotion. However, despite growing interest in leg compliance within the robotics literature, little experimental work has been reported on tunable passive leg compliance in running machines. In this paper we present an empirical study into the role of leg compliance using a composite tunable leg design implemented on our dynamic hexapod, EduBot, with gaits optimized for running speed using a range of leg stiffnesses, on two different surface stiffnesses, and with two different payload ...


Handling Material Problems As They Arise, David P. Sly Mar 2011

Handling Material Problems As They Arise, David P. Sly

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Mh-53j/M Pave Low Iii/Iv Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, William Albery, Raymond L. Robb, Lee Anderson Jan 2011

Mh-53j/M Pave Low Iii/Iv Systems Engineering Case Study, Air Force Center For Systems Engineering, William Albery, Raymond L. Robb, Lee Anderson

AFIT Documents

No abstract provided.


Rich Socio-Cognitive Agents For Immersive Training Environments: Case Of Nonkin Village, Barry G. Silverman, David Pietrocola, Ben Nye, Nathan Weyer, Oleg Osin, Dan Johnson, Ransom Weaver Jan 2011

Rich Socio-Cognitive Agents For Immersive Training Environments: Case Of Nonkin Village, Barry G. Silverman, David Pietrocola, Ben Nye, Nathan Weyer, Oleg Osin, Dan Johnson, Ransom Weaver

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Demand is on the rise for scientifically based human-behavior models that can be quickly customized and inserted into immersive training environments to recreate a given society or culture. At the same time, there are no readily available science model-driven environments for this purpose (see survey in Sect. 2). In researching how to overcome this obstacle, we have created rich (complex) socio-cognitive agents that include a large number of social science models (cognitive, sociologic, economic, political, etc) needed to enhance the realism of immersive, artificial agent societies. We describe current efforts to apply model-driven development concepts and how to permit other ...


An Noc Traffic Compiler For Efficient Fpga Implementation Of Sparse Graph-Oriented Workloads, Nachiket Kapre, André Dehon Jan 2011

An Noc Traffic Compiler For Efficient Fpga Implementation Of Sparse Graph-Oriented Workloads, Nachiket Kapre, André Dehon

Departmental Papers (ESE)

Parallel graph-oriented applications expressed in the Bulk-Synchronous Parallel (BSP) and Token Dataflow compute models generate highly-structured communication workloads from messages propagating along graph edges. We can statially expose this structure to traffic compilers and optimization tools to reshape and reduce traffic for higher performance (or lower area, lower energy, lower cost). Such offline traffic optimization eliminates the need for complex, runtime NoC hardware and enables lightweight, scalable NoCs. We perform load balancing, placement, fanout routing, and fine-grained synchronization to optimize our workloads for large networks up to 2025 parallel elements for BSP model and 25 parallel elements for Token Dataflow ...


Development, Deployment, And Characterization Of A Ku-Band Interferometer, Anthony Swochak Jan 2011

Development, Deployment, And Characterization Of A Ku-Band Interferometer, Anthony Swochak

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Space-borne radar interferometry provides a global vantage point to understand climate change, global weather phenomenon, and other Earth dynamics. For climate change observations, space-borne interferometers can be utilized to relate ocean topography to temperature, thus providing a global map of ocean temperatures. Since the oceans are in constant motion, a single-pass interferometer is needed to successfully make these measurements of ocean height. The feasibility of a single-pass measurement is dependent on the physical size of the instrument, hence it is cheaper and more practical to launch a small, light weight instrument into space. Since instrument size scales inversely with operating ...


Delayed-Bang Approach Towards More Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Risk Management, C. Ariel Pinto, Michael K. Mcshane, Abhishek S. Pathak Jan 2011

Delayed-Bang Approach Towards More Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Risk Management, C. Ariel Pinto, Michael K. Mcshane, Abhishek S. Pathak

Finance Faculty Publications

This article describes the Delayed Bang Approach for determining the value of risk management alternatives in critical infrastructure security. The discussion includes (1) the need for sustainable risk management (2) the importance of time valuation in evaluating competing loss prevention and loss reduction alternatives, (3) the convergence of deterministic engineering economics, survivability analysis, and probabilistic analysis, and (4) hypothetical examples of the Delayed-Bang Approach and significance towards more sustainable risk management.


A Computational/Experimental Platform For Investigating Three- Dimensional Puzzle Solving Of Comminuted Articular Fractures, Thaddeus P. Thomas, Donald D. Anderson, Andrew Willis, Pengcheng Liu, Matthew C. Frank, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown Jan 2011

A Computational/Experimental Platform For Investigating Three- Dimensional Puzzle Solving Of Comminuted Articular Fractures, Thaddeus P. Thomas, Donald D. Anderson, Andrew Willis, Pengcheng Liu, Matthew C. Frank, J. Lawrence Marsh, Thomas D. Brown

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Reconstructing highly comminuted articular fractures poses a difficult surgical challenge, akin to solving a complicated three-dimensional (3D) puzzle. Pre-operative planning using CT is critically important, given the desirability of less invasive surgical approaches. The goal of this work is to advance 3D puzzle solving methods toward use as a pre-operative tool for reconstructing these complex fractures. Methodology for generating typical fragmentation/dispersal patterns was developed. Five identical replicas of human distal tibia anatomy, were machined from blocks of high-density polyetherurethane foam (bone fragmentation surrogate), and were fractured using an instrumented drop tower. Pre- and post-fracture geometries were obtained using laser ...


Medial Longitudinal Arch Deformation During Walking And Stair Navigation While Carrying Loads, Elizabeth Rose Hageman, Michelle Hall, Eric Gerard Sterner, Gary A. Mirka Jan 2011

Medial Longitudinal Arch Deformation During Walking And Stair Navigation While Carrying Loads, Elizabeth Rose Hageman, Michelle Hall, Eric Gerard Sterner, Gary A. Mirka

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Background:

Understanding the biomechanics of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) may provide insights into injury risk and prevention, as well as function of the arch-supporting structures. Our understanding of MLA deformation is currently limited to sit-to-stand, walking, and running.

Material and Methods:

Three-dimensional deformation of the MLA of the right foot was characterized in 17 healthy participants during several simulated activities of daily living. MLA deformation was quantified by both changes in arch length and navicular displacement during the stance phase of three motions: walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. Three levels of load were also evaluated: no load, a ...


Proving Sustainability: The International Development Monitoring Initiative, Evan A. Thomas, Zdenek Zumr Jan 2011

Proving Sustainability: The International Development Monitoring Initiative, Evan A. Thomas, Zdenek Zumr

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Nearly a billion people in the world lack access to safe drinking water, two billion have inadequate sanitation facilities, three billion use biomass for their daily energy needs and nearly half the world's population live in rural isolation, lacking access to the most basic human services. Combined, these limitations are a leading cause of the perpetuating cycle of poverty and political insecurity. Meanwhile, the majority of international development agencies are responsible for self-reporting project outcomes. At best, expert spot-checks are conducted in the field occasionally. These results tend to show individual project success, while meta- surveys indicate on-going challenges ...


Capacity Expansion In The Integrated Supply Network For An Electricity Market, Shan Jin, Sarah M. Ryan Jan 2011

Capacity Expansion In The Integrated Supply Network For An Electricity Market, Shan Jin, Sarah M. Ryan

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Constraints in fuel supply, electricity generation, and transmission interact to affect the welfare of strategic generators and price-sensitive consumers. We consider a mixed integer bilevel programming model in which the leader makes capacity expansion decisions in the fuel transportation, generation, and transmission infrastructure of the electricity supply network to maximize social welfare less investment cost. Based on the leader's expansion decisions, the multiple followers including the fuel suppliers, ISO, and generation companies simultaneously optimize their respective objectives of cost, social welfare, and profit. The bilevel program is formulated as a mathematical program with complementarity constraints. The computational challenge posed ...


The Effect Of Stance Width On Trunk Kinematics And Trunk Kinetics During Sagitally Symmetric Lifting, Christopher Sorenson, Omid Haddad, Samuel Campbell, Gary Mirka Jan 2011

The Effect Of Stance Width On Trunk Kinematics And Trunk Kinetics During Sagitally Symmetric Lifting, Christopher Sorenson, Omid Haddad, Samuel Campbell, Gary Mirka

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Lifting technique can have a significant impact on spine loading during lifting. The sports biomechanics literature has documented changes in trunk and lower extremity kinematics and muscle coactivation patterns as a function of stance width during high force dead lift and squat exercises. The focus of the current study was to explore whether these lifting stance width effects might translate into the occupational setting under more moderate load level conditions. Twelve subjects performed repetitions of a sagittally symmetric lifting and lowering task (10 kg load) under three stance width conditions: narrow (feet together), moderate (feet shoulder width) and wide (feet ...


Influence Of Asymmetry On The Flexion Relaxation Response Of The Low Back Musculature, Xiaopeng Ning, Omid Haddad, Sangeun Jin, Gary Mirka Jan 2011

Influence Of Asymmetry On The Flexion Relaxation Response Of The Low Back Musculature, Xiaopeng Ning, Omid Haddad, Sangeun Jin, Gary Mirka

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Background

The flexion relaxation phenomenon has been extensively studied in sagittally symmetric postures. Knowledge about this phenomenon in asymmetric trunk postures is less well understood, and may help to reveal the underlying physiology of the passive tissue/active tissue load-sharing mechanism in the lumbar region.

Methods

Twelve participants performed fifteen controlled, full range trunk flexion–extension motions toward three asymmetric lifting postures (0° (sagittally symmetric), 15°, and 30° from the mid-sagittal plane). The electromyographic activity data from the paraspinals at the L3 and L4 levels and trunk kinematics data from motion sensors over the C7, T12 and S1 vertebrae were ...


Presentation: Proving Sustainability: The International Development Monitoring Initiative, Evan A. Thomas Jan 2011

Presentation: Proving Sustainability: The International Development Monitoring Initiative, Evan A. Thomas

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Presentation detailing the activities and products of the Sustainable Water, Energy and Environmental Technologies Laboratory at Portland State University (SWEETLab). The lab also works to develop standards to help evaluate and compare projects and outcomes around the world. Water treatment and sanitation practices, as well as newly designed cookstoves, are highlighted.