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Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering Commons

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Series

2008

US Army Research

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Phase 2a Trial Of 0, 1, And 3 Month And 0, 7, And 28 Day Immunization Schedules Of Malaria Vaccine Rts,S/As02 In Malaria-Naive Adults At The Walter Reed Army Institute Of Research, Kent E. Kester, James F. Cummings, Christian F. Ockenhouse, Robin Nielsen, B. Ted Hall, Daniel M. Gordon, Robert J. Schwenk, Urszula Krzych, Carolyn A. Holland, Gregory Richmond, Megan G. Dowler, Jackie Williams, Robert A. Wirtz, Nadia Tornieporth, Laurence Vigneron, Martine Delchambre, Marie-Ange Demoitie, W. Ripley Ballou, Joe Cohen, D. Gray Heppner Jr. Jan 2008

Phase 2a Trial Of 0, 1, And 3 Month And 0, 7, And 28 Day Immunization Schedules Of Malaria Vaccine Rts,S/As02 In Malaria-Naive Adults At The Walter Reed Army Institute Of Research, Kent E. Kester, James F. Cummings, Christian F. Ockenhouse, Robin Nielsen, B. Ted Hall, Daniel M. Gordon, Robert J. Schwenk, Urszula Krzych, Carolyn A. Holland, Gregory Richmond, Megan G. Dowler, Jackie Williams, Robert A. Wirtz, Nadia Tornieporth, Laurence Vigneron, Martine Delchambre, Marie-Ange Demoitie, W. Ripley Ballou, Joe Cohen, D. Gray Heppner Jr.

US Army Research

Background: Immunization with RTS,S/AS02 consistently protects some vaccinees against malaria infection in experimental challenges and in field trials. A brief immunization schedule against falciparum malaria would be compatible with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, or in combination with other prevention measures, interrupt epidemic malaria or protect individuals upon sudden travel to an endemic area.
Methods: We conducted an open label, Phase 2a trial of two different full dose schedules of RTS,S/AS02 in 40 healthy malaria-naıve adults. Cohort 1 (n = 20) was immunized on a 0, 1, and 3 month schedule and Cohort 2 (n = 20) on ...


Anaerobic Treatment Of Army Ammunition Production Wastewater Containing Perchlorate And Rdx, Emina Atikovic, Makram T. Suidan, Stephen W. Maloney Jan 2008

Anaerobic Treatment Of Army Ammunition Production Wastewater Containing Perchlorate And Rdx, Emina Atikovic, Makram T. Suidan, Stephen W. Maloney

US Army Research

Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil).
Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection Of The Auricular Cartilage Caused By “High Ear Piercing”: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Henry H. Rowshan, Karen Keith, Dale Baur, Peter Skidmore Jan 2008

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection Of The Auricular Cartilage Caused By “High Ear Piercing”: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Henry H. Rowshan, Karen Keith, Dale Baur, Peter Skidmore

US Army Research

Piercing of various parts of the body has gained tremendous popularity among adolescent and adult populations in recent years. There are no exact statistical reports on the number of body piercings being performed in the United States. One study among 481 college students in New York revealed that 42% of men and 60% of women had body piercing. In the past, the majority of complications of ear piercing were associated with the lobule. Torn ear lobes, localized infection, hypertrophic scars, allergic contact dermatitis, and keloid formations were among the most common, with no significant morbidity. However, “high ear piercing,” defined ...


Utility Of Lipid Biomarkers In Support Of Bioremediation Efforts At Army Sites, D. Ringelberg, M. Richmond, K. Foley, C. Reynolds Jan 2008

Utility Of Lipid Biomarkers In Support Of Bioremediation Efforts At Army Sites, D. Ringelberg, M. Richmond, K. Foley, C. Reynolds

US Army Research

Lipid biomarker analysis has proven valuable in testing the hypothesis that attributes of the extant microbiota can directly reflect the occurrence of contaminant biodegradation. Two past research efforts have demonstrated this utility and are described here.
A 4.5 m vertical core was obtained from a diesel fuel oil contamination plume. Core material was assayed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and bacterial membrane phospholipids (PLFA) via a single solvent extraction. Microbial viable biomass and the relative abundance of Gram-negative bacterial PLFA biomarkers were found to be significantly correlated with TPH concentration. The core TPH profile also revealed two distinct areas ...


"Making It Fresh - Your Choice For Performance", The Army's Hospital Foodservice Program, S. Spielmann, M. Worley, R. Harris Jan 2008

"Making It Fresh - Your Choice For Performance", The Army's Hospital Foodservice Program, S. Spielmann, M. Worley, R. Harris

US Army Research

To describe the Army’s new foodservice design and concept, “Making it Fresh—Your Choice for Performance” and its application for customer and patient feeding in a fixed medical treatment facility.


Vietnam: Historians At War, Mark Moyar Jan 2008

Vietnam: Historians At War, Mark Moyar

US Army Research

By the early 1990s, when I began studying the Vietnam War, the American public had largely lost interest in the history of that conflict. The Civil War and World War II were the wars that historians were advised to cover if they wanted to reach the public. Among government officials, military officers, and political scientists, Vietnam was considered irrelevant, because the United States would never get caught in protracted counterinsurgency warfare again. Iraq changed all that. Ever since the outbreak of insurgency in the former empire of Saddam Hussein, people of all persuasions have been mining the history of Vietnam ...


Detection Of The Superoxide Radical Anion Using Various Alkanethiol Monolayers And Immobilized Cytochrome C, Xiaojun J. Chen, Alan C. West, Donald M. Cropek, Scott Banta Jan 2008

Detection Of The Superoxide Radical Anion Using Various Alkanethiol Monolayers And Immobilized Cytochrome C, Xiaojun J. Chen, Alan C. West, Donald M. Cropek, Scott Banta

US Army Research

The superoxide radical anion (SO) is a critical biomarker for monitoring cellular stress responses. Electrochemical SO biosensors are frequently constructed through the covalent immobilization of cytochrome c (Cyt c) onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs); however, a detailed comparison of these systems as well as configuration influence on SO detection is needed to enable robust applications. Two reaction pathways, oxidation of SO by the SAM-modified gold electrode or electron transfer through a protein and monolayer relay, may be involved during the electrochemical detection of SO with Cyt c, depending on the SAM that is used. Although electrodes with SAMs alone can exhibit ...


Influence Of Snow And Ice Crystal Formation And Accumulation On Mercury Deposition To The Arctic, Thomas A. Douglas, Matthew Sturm, William R. Simpson, Joel D. Blum, Laura Alvarez-Aviles, Gerald J. Keeler, Donald K. Perovich, Abir Biswas, Kelsey Johnson Jan 2008

Influence Of Snow And Ice Crystal Formation And Accumulation On Mercury Deposition To The Arctic, Thomas A. Douglas, Matthew Sturm, William R. Simpson, Joel D. Blum, Laura Alvarez-Aviles, Gerald J. Keeler, Donald K. Perovich, Abir Biswas, Kelsey Johnson

US Army Research

Mercury is deposited to the Polar Regions during springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) but the relationship between snow and ice crystal formation and mercury deposition is not well understood. The objective of this investigation was to determine if mercury concentrations were related to the type and formation of snow and ice crystals. On the basis of almost three hundred analyses of samples collected in the Alaskan Arctic, we suggest that kinetic crystals growing from the vapor phase, including surface hoar, frost flowers, and diamond dust, yield mercury concentrations that are typically 2-10 times higher than that reported for snow ...


Influenza Immunization And Subsequent Diagnoses Of Group A Streptococcus-Illnesses Among U.S. Army Trainees, 2002–2006, Seung-Eun Lee, Angelia Eick, Michael S. Bloom, John F. Brundage Jan 2008

Influenza Immunization And Subsequent Diagnoses Of Group A Streptococcus-Illnesses Among U.S. Army Trainees, 2002–2006, Seung-Eun Lee, Angelia Eick, Michael S. Bloom, John F. Brundage

US Army Research

To assess the association between influenza immunization and subsequent diagnosis of group A streptococcus (GAS)-illness in Army recruits during influenza seasons 2002–2006. A case–control study was employed with cases as trainees with outpatient GAS diagnosis (ICD-9-CM codes: 034.0, 035, 038.0, 041.01, 320.2, 390–392, 482.31) during the influenza season, and controls as trainees with no outpatient GAS diagnosis during the influenza season. Primary exposure was influenza immunization during 1st September to 30th April of each season. Estimated protective effects of influenza immunization against GAS-illness ranged from 50% to 77%. A strong protective ...


Historical Perspective And Contribution Of Us Researchers Into The Field Of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (Shs)/Combustion Synthesis (Cs): Personal Reflections, J. W. Mccauley, J. A. Puszynski Jan 2008

Historical Perspective And Contribution Of Us Researchers Into The Field Of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (Shs)/Combustion Synthesis (Cs): Personal Reflections, J. W. Mccauley, J. A. Puszynski

US Army Research

In 1967, Merzhanov, Skhiro, and Borovinskaya published the first comprehensive paper describing self-sustaining character of reactions in a condensed phase, which could be utilized for synthesis of many ceramic and intermetallic materials [1]. In this paper, the authors demonstrated the principle of the so called “solid flame” using reactions between transition metals and boron, carbon or nitrogen. The world-wide combustion synthesis community considers this comprehensive paper and subsequent integrated experimental and theoretical research effort conducted in the former Soviet Union as the beginning of a new approach and method of synthesizing advanced high temperature materials. The main research was conducted ...


Effective Elution Of Rdx And Tnt From Particles Of Comp B In Surface Soil, John S. Furey, Herbert L. Fredrickson, Margaret J. Richmond, Michael Michel Jan 2008

Effective Elution Of Rdx And Tnt From Particles Of Comp B In Surface Soil, John S. Furey, Herbert L. Fredrickson, Margaret J. Richmond, Michael Michel

US Army Research

During live fire training exercises, large amounts of explosives are consumed. Low order detonations of high explosive payloads result in the patchy dispersal of particles of high explosive formulations over large areas of firing range soils. Dissolution of explosives from explosive formulation particles into soil pore water is a controlling factor for transport, fate, and effects of explosive compounds. We developed an empirical method to evaluate soils based on functionally defined effective dissolution rates. An automated Accelerated Solvent Extractor was used to determine the effective elution rates under controlled conditions of RDX and TNT from soil columns containing particles of ...


The Army Dietetic Mentorship Program: Making The Most Out Of Mentoring, M.A. Worley, M.B. Salgueiro, D.R. Hernandez, C.J. Buck Jan 2008

The Army Dietetic Mentorship Program: Making The Most Out Of Mentoring, M.A. Worley, M.B. Salgueiro, D.R. Hernandez, C.J. Buck

US Army Research

To describe the Army’s Dietetic Mentorship Program and its effect on personnel and professional development of recent internship graduates.


Moderate Zinc Restriction Affects Intestinal Health And Immune Function In Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Mice, Daniel G. Peterson, Angus G. Scrimgeour, James P. Mcclung, Elizabeth A. Koutsos Jan 2008

Moderate Zinc Restriction Affects Intestinal Health And Immune Function In Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Mice, Daniel G. Peterson, Angus G. Scrimgeour, James P. Mcclung, Elizabeth A. Koutsos

US Army Research

Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient that affects immune function, especially within the digestive system, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study examined the effects of short-term moderate Zn restriction on intestinal health and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice through plasma cytokine profiling and histological evaluation of intestinal tissue sections. Adult male mice were fed with a Zn-adequate (40 ppm) or a Zn-marginal (4 ppm) diet for 4 weeks, and then a bacterial challenge was simulated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 μg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (control). BW was recorded weekly, and ...


The Phylogeny Of The Four Pan-American Mtdna Haplogroups: Implications For Evolutionary And Disease Studies, Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A. Perego, Claudio M. Bravi, Michael D. Coble, Qing-Peng Kong, Scott R. Woodward, Antonio Salas, Antonio Torroni, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt Jan 2008

The Phylogeny Of The Four Pan-American Mtdna Haplogroups: Implications For Evolutionary And Disease Studies, Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A. Perego, Claudio M. Bravi, Michael D. Coble, Qing-Peng Kong, Scott R. Woodward, Antonio Salas, Antonio Torroni, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt

US Army Research

Only a limited number of complete mitochondrial genome sequences belonging to Native American haplogroups were available until recently, which left America as the continent with the least amount of information about sequence variation of entire mitochondrial DNAs. In this study, a comprehensive overview of all available complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of the four pan-American haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1 is provided by revising the information scattered throughout GenBank and the literature, and adding 14 novel mtDNA sequences. The phylogenies of haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1 reveal a large number of sub-haplogroups but suggest that the ancestral Beringian ...