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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Conditions Under Which Adjustability Lowers The Cost Of A Robust Linear Program, Ali Haddad-Sisakht, Sarah M. Ryan Oct 2018

Conditions Under Which Adjustability Lowers The Cost Of A Robust Linear Program, Ali Haddad-Sisakht, Sarah M. Ryan

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

The adjustable robust counterpart (ARC) of an uncertain linear program extends the robust counterpart (RC) by allowing some decision variables to adjust to the realizations of some uncertain parameters. The ARC may produce a less conservative and costly solution than the RC does but cases are known in which it does not. While the literature documents some examples of cost savings provided by adjustability (particularly affine adjustability), it is not straightforward to determine in advance whether they will materialize. The affine adjustable robust counterpart, while having a tractable structure, still may be much larger than the original problem. We establish ...


Ranking Importance Of Exoskeleton Design Aspects, Thomas M. Schnieders, Richard T. Stone Sep 2018

Ranking Importance Of Exoskeleton Design Aspects, Thomas M. Schnieders, Richard T. Stone

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

The objective of this research project was to determine what a conglomerate of professionals consider as the most important metrics to consider when designing an exoskeleton for training. Over 400 researchers, engineers, and scientists were polled in a ranked order survey covering more than 50 different aspects in engineering design. These aspects were identified from a cogent literature review for consideration. While there are a slew of papers covering the results of exoskeleton designs as posture support mechanisms, rehabilitation mechanisms, tools to assist or replace body functions, and human performance augmentation, few cover what aspects were considered in the engineering ...


A Probabilistic Model To Estimate Visual Inspection Error For Metalcastings Given Different Training And Judgment Types, Environmental And Human Factors, And Percent Of Defects, Michelle M. Stallard-Voelker, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Frank E. Peters Jul 2018

A Probabilistic Model To Estimate Visual Inspection Error For Metalcastings Given Different Training And Judgment Types, Environmental And Human Factors, And Percent Of Defects, Michelle M. Stallard-Voelker, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Frank E. Peters

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Current methods for visual inspection of cast metal surfaces are variable in both terms of repeatability and reproducibility. Because of this variation in the inspection methods, extra finishing operations are often prescribed; much of this is over processing in attempt to avoid rework or customer rejection. Additionally, defective castings may pass inspection and be delivered to the customer. Given the importance of ensuring that customers receive high-quality castings, this article analyzes and quantifies the probability of Type I and II errors, where a Type I error is a false alarm, and a Type II error misses a present defect. A ...


Board 106: Enhancing Critical Life-Cycle Decision Making In Complex Engineering Projects In The Context Of Engineering Economy Courses, K. Jo Min, John K. Jackman, Farshad Niayeshpour Jun 2018

Board 106: Enhancing Critical Life-Cycle Decision Making In Complex Engineering Projects In The Context Of Engineering Economy Courses, K. Jo Min, John K. Jackman, Farshad Niayeshpour

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Complex engineering projects (CEPs) such as electric transmission networks and transportation infrastructure are becoming increasingly important to the public in general and even more so to engineers. These projects are large-scale in terms of money and time and contain significant uncertainties over their life-cycle, with fluctuations in input and output costs. Due to these uncertainties, there are conditional opportunities (e.g., on prices) to make critical decisions such as investment in construction of power generation facilities or decommissioning of such facilities. Such decisions constitute strategic flexibilities or "real options" because the decision maker can alter the course of an investment ...


Energy And Carbon Footprint Reduction During Textile-Based Product Design And Manufacturing, S. H. Seyedmahmoudi, Karl R. Haapala, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Gül Kremer Jun 2018

Energy And Carbon Footprint Reduction During Textile-Based Product Design And Manufacturing, S. H. Seyedmahmoudi, Karl R. Haapala, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Gül Kremer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Due to concerns over non-renewable energy consumption and associated emissions, industry has sought methods and technologies to support energy efficiency practices and use of alternative energy during product manufacturing, use, and end-of-life. Efforts have been undertaken to more precisely calculate environmental metrics, such as energy consumption and carbon footprint, to support broader sustainable design activities. The work reported endeavours to integrate sustainability principles into the design of products, manufacturing processes, and relevant supply chain networks to assist decision makers. Two backpacks are evaluated to examine the influence of design choices on energy consumption and carbon footprint. The study system boundary ...


Creating A Team Tutor Using Gift, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anna Slavina, Michael C. Dorneich, Anne M. Sinatra, Desmond Bonner, Joan Johnston, Joseph Holub, Anastacia Macallister, Eliot H. Winer Jun 2018

Creating A Team Tutor Using Gift, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anna Slavina, Michael C. Dorneich, Anne M. Sinatra, Desmond Bonner, Joan Johnston, Joseph Holub, Anastacia Macallister, Eliot H. Winer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

With the movement in education towards collaborative learning, it is becoming more important that learners be able to work together in groups and teams. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been used successfully to teach individuals, but so far only a few ITSs have been used for the purpose of training teams. This is due to the difficulty of creating such systems. An ITS for teams must be able to assess complex interactions between team members (team skills) as well as the way they interact with the system itself (task skills). Assessing team skills can be difficult because they contain social ...


Modeling Expertise And Adaptability In Virtual Operator Models, Yu Du, Michael C. Dorneich, Brian L. Steward Jun 2018

Modeling Expertise And Adaptability In Virtual Operator Models, Yu Du, Michael C. Dorneich, Brian L. Steward

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

To advance construction machine design and testing, model-based design and virtual operator models (VOMs) can be used to explore machine designs virtually. However, current VOM efforts have been restricted to mimicking known trajectories, recorded from actual machine operations. Previous work developed a VOM to use in closed-loop simulation with an excavator model. To advance the utility of model-based machine testing, the fidelity of the VOM was enhanced along three lines: 1) representation of expert work cycle operation, 2) adaptation to changes in work site environment and 3) adaptation to changes when operating different machines. To represent expertise, work cycle task ...


Finalist—2017 M&Som Practice-Based Research Competition—The Hurricane Decision Simulator: A Tool For Marine Forces In New Orleans To Practice Operations Management In Advance Of A Hurricane, Eva D. Regnier, Cameron A. Mackenzie May 2018

Finalist—2017 M&Som Practice-Based Research Competition—The Hurricane Decision Simulator: A Tool For Marine Forces In New Orleans To Practice Operations Management In Advance Of A Hurricane, Eva D. Regnier, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

The U.S. Marine Forces Reserve (MFR) in New Orleans is frequently threatened by hurricanes. To protect the safety of personnel and their families while maintaining mission capability, the Commander must make timely decisions to set up an alternate headquarters and allow for an orderly evacuation. The MFR relies on forecasts from the National Hurricane Center, but these forecasts are uncertain, are updated frequently, and can be difficult to interpret in the context of the MFR's decision timeline. In addition, there are few opportunities to learn from experience.We developed the Hurricane Decision Simulator (HDS) to allow MFR personnel ...


Optimizing Design For Resilience For Risk-Averse Firms Using Expected Utility And Value-At-Risk, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu May 2018

Optimizing Design For Resilience For Risk-Averse Firms Using Expected Utility And Value-At-Risk, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Research Problem •Determine how resilience should be integrated into a firm’s design decisions •Optimize design for a risk-averse firm that incorporates resilience


Online Testing To Assess Performance Of Students In A Large Engineering Class, Vrishtee Rane, Cameron A. Mackenzie May 2018

Online Testing To Assess Performance Of Students In A Large Engineering Class, Vrishtee Rane, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Fall 2017: Engineering Economic Analysis course •242 students: in-class and distance learning •New assessment procedure: Online testing modules •7 required online testing modules •2 bonus testing modules to earn an A •Semester grades determined completely by number of modules passed •Unlimited number of attempts for each testing module •Randomly chosen questions


Modeling Uncertainty In Rooftop Pv Investment, Anuj Mittal, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline C. Krejci, Taylor B. Elkins May 2018

Modeling Uncertainty In Rooftop Pv Investment, Anuj Mittal, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline C. Krejci, Taylor B. Elkins

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

No abstract provided.


Supply Chain Risk Analysis Using Dynamic Fault Tree, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie May 2018

Supply Chain Risk Analysis Using Dynamic Fault Tree, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Outline: 1. Motivations 2. Main-backup supply chain 3. Mutual-assistance supply chain 4. Conclusions


Decision Making For Different Types Of Variation In A Manufacturing System, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline Krejci May 2018

Decision Making For Different Types Of Variation In A Manufacturing System, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline Krejci

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Common cause variation: Natural part of the process; Acting on process.

Special cause variation: From external sources; searching and mitigating causes.


Design Optimization Under Long-Range Uncertainty, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu May 2018

Design Optimization Under Long-Range Uncertainty, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Flexibility in engineering system design: •Flexibility in system design and implications for aerospace systems (Saleh et.al 2003) •A flexible and robust approach for preliminary engineering design based on designer's preference (Nahmet.al, 2007) •A real options approach to hybrid electric vehicle architecture design for flexibility (Kang et.al 2016) •Our research: •Simulation optimization •Long range uncertainty •Add flexibility and robustness to design


Solid-State Processing Approach To Enhance The Mechanical Properties Of Polypropylene, Sharon Lau, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Lashanda Korley May 2018

Solid-State Processing Approach To Enhance The Mechanical Properties Of Polypropylene, Sharon Lau, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Lashanda Korley

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Agenda: Background; Research Problem; Methodology; Results and Discussion; Conclusions.


A Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming For Lot-Sizing And Scheduling Under Demand Uncertainty, Zhengyang Hu, Guiping Hu May 2018

A Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming For Lot-Sizing And Scheduling Under Demand Uncertainty, Zhengyang Hu, Guiping Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

A stochastic lot-sizing and scheduling problem with demand uncertainty is studied in this paper. Lot-sizing determines the batch size for each product and scheduling decides the sequence of production. A multi-stage stochastic programming model is developed to minimize overall system costs including production cost, setup cost, inventory cost and backlog cost. We aim to find the optimal production sequence and resource allocation decisions. Demand uncertainty is represented by scenario trees using moment matching technique. Scenario reduction is used to select scenarios with the best representation of original set. A case study based on a manufacturing company has been conducted to ...


Affect-Aware Adaptive Tutoring Based On Human–Automation Etiquette Strategies, Euijung Yang, Michael C. Dorneich Mar 2018

Affect-Aware Adaptive Tutoring Based On Human–Automation Etiquette Strategies, Euijung Yang, Michael C. Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Objective: We investigated adapting the interaction style of intelligent tutoring system (ITS) feedback based on human–automation etiquette strategies.

Background: Most ITSs adapt the content difficulty level, adapt the feedback timing, or provide extra content when they detect cognitive or affective decrements. Our previous work demonstrated that changing the interaction style via different feedback etiquette strategies has differential effects on students’ motivation, confidence, satisfaction, and performance. The best etiquette strategy was also determined by user frustration.

Method: Based on these findings, a rule set was developed that systemically selected the proper etiquette strategy to address one of four learning factors ...


Biomass Supply Contract Pricing And Environmental Policy Analysis: A Simulation Approach, Shiyang Huang, Guiping Hu Feb 2018

Biomass Supply Contract Pricing And Environmental Policy Analysis: A Simulation Approach, Shiyang Huang, Guiping Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

This paper proposes an agent-based simulation model to study the biomass supply contract pricing and policy making in the biofuel industry. In the proposed model, the agents include farmers and a biofuel producer. Farmers' decision-making is assumed to be profit driven, which is formulated as a mixed-integer optimization model, and the biofuel producer's pricing decision is represented with a linear equation with an objective to maximize profits. A case study based on Iowa has been developed to analyze the interactions between the stakeholders and assist determination of the optimal pricing equation for the biofuel producer. Simulation results show that ...


Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric D. Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven S. Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero Jan 2018

Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric D. Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven S. Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

What is Agile Kanban?

  • Different from Kanban for JIT manufacturing!
  • Visualization of workflow
  • Limit work in process (WIP)


Properties And Bayesian Fitting Of Restricted Boltzmann Machines, Andee Kaplan, Daniel J. Nordman, Stephen B. Vardeman Jan 2018

Properties And Bayesian Fitting Of Restricted Boltzmann Machines, Andee Kaplan, Daniel J. Nordman, Stephen B. Vardeman

Statistics Preprints

A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is an undirected graphical model constructed for discrete or continuous random variables, with two layers, one hidden and one visible, and no conditional dependency within a layer. In recent years, RBMs have risen to prominence due to their connection to deep learning. By treating a hidden layer of one RBM as the visible layer in a second RBM, a deep architecture can be created. RBMs are thought to thereby have the ability to encode very complex and rich structures in data, making them attractive for supervised learning. However, the generative behavior of RBMs is largely ...


Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero Jan 2018

Application Of Bayesian Belief Network For Agile Kanban Backlog Estimation, Eric Weflen, Kevin Korniejczuk, Sharon Lau, Steven Kryk, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Iris V. Rivero

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This paper presents an approach based on influence diagrams for reducing uncertainty in Agile Kanban backlog feature completion time. Agile project management techniques, including SCRUM and Kanban, are prevalent in software development and spreading to other product development fields. A key artifact of Agile is the product backlog, containing work which needs to be completed by the development team. Internal and external stakeholders often require projections for completion of backlogged requests or features. Current estimation techniques such as duration assignments through planning poker and the use of story points to calculate velocity require persistent team input, while task counting has ...


A Solid-State Processing Approach To Enhance The Mechanical Performance Of Polyolefins, Sharon Lau, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Lashanda Korley Jan 2018

A Solid-State Processing Approach To Enhance The Mechanical Performance Of Polyolefins, Sharon Lau, Srikanthan Ramesh, Iris V. Rivero, Lashanda Korley

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This study aims to present and evaluate the use of solid-state processing for improving the mechanical properties of polyolefins. Isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was selected to be studied due to its inferior mechanical properties in comparison to common plastics such as polyethylene (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Recently, i-PP has garnered attention due to its attributes such as low-cost and recyclability. However, it requires additional processing to improve its mechanical performance. In this study, cryomilling was used to introduce various concentrations (0.2 - 1 wt. %) of diparamethyldibenzyldiene sorbitol (MDBS), as reinforcing agent, into the i-PP polymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential ...


Rheological, In Situ Printability And Cell Viability Analysis Of Hydrogels For Muscle Tissue Regeneration, Srikanthan Ramesh, Sam Gerdes, Sharon Lau, Azadeh Mostafavi, Zhenyu (James) Kong, Blake N. Johnson, Ali Tamayol, Prahalada Rao, Iris V. Rivero Jan 2018

Rheological, In Situ Printability And Cell Viability Analysis Of Hydrogels For Muscle Tissue Regeneration, Srikanthan Ramesh, Sam Gerdes, Sharon Lau, Azadeh Mostafavi, Zhenyu (James) Kong, Blake N. Johnson, Ali Tamayol, Prahalada Rao, Iris V. Rivero

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Advancements in additive manufacturing have made it possible to fabricate biologically relevant architectures from a wide variety of materials. Hydrogels have garnered increased attention for the fabrication of muscle tissue engineering constructs due to their resemblance to living tissue and ability to function as cell carriers. However, there is a lack of systematic approaches to screen bioinks based on their inherent properties, such as rheology, printability and cell viability. Furthermore, this study takes the critical first-step for connecting in-process sensor data with construct quality by studying the influence of printing parameters. Alginate-chitosan hydrogels were synthesized and subjected to a systematic ...


A Sustainable Additive Approach For The Achievement Of Tunable Porosity, Sharon Lau, Taylor Yeazel, Ana Miller, Nathan Pfister, Iris V. Rivero Jan 2018

A Sustainable Additive Approach For The Achievement Of Tunable Porosity, Sharon Lau, Taylor Yeazel, Ana Miller, Nathan Pfister, Iris V. Rivero

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This study aims to design a green additive approach for the fabrication of controlled porosity on hydrogels. Although hydrogels have been of common use in tissue engineering, the generation of controllable porosity remains an issue due to their swelling and degradation properties. Hydrogels in this study were fabricated by physical cross-linking and the porosity was generated by casting the solution in a 3D printed mold prior to physical cross-linking. This approach eliminates the use of chemical cross-linking compounds which are often toxic and not environmentally friendly. Polyvinyl alcohol was selected to validate this technique due to its biocompatibility and adequate ...


An Investigation On Selected Factors That Cause Variability In Additive Manufacturing, Anusha Velineni, Elif Elçin Günay, Kijung Park, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Thomas M. Schnieders, Richard T. Stone Jan 2018

An Investigation On Selected Factors That Cause Variability In Additive Manufacturing, Anusha Velineni, Elif Elçin Günay, Kijung Park, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Thomas M. Schnieders, Richard T. Stone

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Additive manufacturing (AM) brings significant freedom in design, yet it can get hard to produce the same part at identical dimensional tolerances; this is also known as the reproducibility problem. Reproducibility, the ability to produce the same part under similar conditions, is one of the major challenges in AM as reproducibility plays an important role in the replacement of worn-out or damaged parts in an assembly. The objective of this paper is to identify the impacts of two most common factors (i.e., layer thickness and printing speed) on the dimensional accuracy of additively manufactured parts through a designed experiment ...


Innovative Solutions Through Innovated Problems, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Jaryn A. Studer, Jaclyn K. Murray, Colleen M. Seifert Jan 2018

Innovative Solutions Through Innovated Problems, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Jaryn A. Studer, Jaclyn K. Murray, Colleen M. Seifert

Industrial Design Publications

Designers are accustomed to solving problems that are provided to them; in fact, common practice in engineering is to present the problem with carefully delineated and detailed constraints required for a promising solution. As a consequence, engineers focus on creating feasible solutions rather than exploring novel perspectives on the presented problems. However, the Engineer of 2020 needs to respond with innovations for multiple and dynamic user needs, diverse users and cultures, and rapidly changing technologies. These complex demands require engineering students to learn that problems are not ‘‘fixed’’ as presented, and to build the habit of exploring alternative perspectives on ...


A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall Jan 2018

A Design For Affordances Framework For Product Packaging: Food Packaging Case Study, Ahmad Abdelhafiz Mumani, Richard T. Stone, Esraa Abdelall

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Since affordances provided by packaging features play a major role in facilitating user packaging interaction, it is important to integrate the concept of affordances into the packaging design process and to understand the interrelationships between packaging features and affordances. A framework is proposed for linking user requirements to packaging design features utilizing the concept of affordances. The framework is accomplished in two main steps; first, determine the affordances required to facilitate performing packaging-related tasks, and second, link these affordances to packaging features. Previous packaging usability studies were reviewed to elicit requirements in terms of affordance properties such as intuitiveness, responsiveness ...


Expansion Planning For Transmission Network Under Demand Uncertainty: A Real Options Framework, Fikri Fucuksayacigil, K. Jo Min Jan 2018

Expansion Planning For Transmission Network Under Demand Uncertainty: A Real Options Framework, Fikri Fucuksayacigil, K. Jo Min

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

In recent years, there has been much expectation that transmission expansion planning should address ever increasing demands for transmission services under significant and complex economic and regulatory uncertainties. In this article, toward meeting the aforementioned expectation, we develop and analyze a real options framework that provides the valuation of a transmission owner’s option to expand in his or her network. What distinguishes our framework from the extant literature is that the evolution of the demand follows a geometric Brownian motion process, it explicitly accounts for the physical flow of the electric power economically manifested as the locational marginal prices ...


A Tri-Level Optimization Model For Inventory Control With Uncertain Demand And Lead Time, Mohammad Rahdar, Lizhi Wang, Guiping Hu Jan 2018

A Tri-Level Optimization Model For Inventory Control With Uncertain Demand And Lead Time, Mohammad Rahdar, Lizhi Wang, Guiping Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

We propose an inventory control model for an uncapacitated warehouse in a manufacturing facility under demand and lead time uncertainty. The objective is to make ordering decisions to minimize the total system cost. We introduce a two-stage tri-level optimization model with a rolling horizon to address the uncertain demand and lead time regardless of their underlying distributions. In addition, an exact algorithm is designed to solve the model. We compare this model in a case study with three decision-making strategies: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. Our computational results suggest that the performances of these models are either consistently inferior or highly ...


The Hurwicz Decision Rule’S Relationship To Decision Making With The Triangle And Beta Distributions And Exponential Utility, Sarat Sivaprasad, Cameron A. Mackenzie Jan 2018

The Hurwicz Decision Rule’S Relationship To Decision Making With The Triangle And Beta Distributions And Exponential Utility, Sarat Sivaprasad, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Non-probabilistic approaches to decision making have been proposed for situations in which an individual does not have enough information to assess probabilities over an uncertainty. One non-probabilistic method is to use intervals in which an uncertainty has a minimum and maximum but nothing is assumed about the relative likelihood of any value within the interval. The Hurwicz decision rule in which a parameter trades off between pessimism and optimism generalizes the current rules for making decisions with intervals. This article analyzes the relationship between intervals based on the Hurwicz rule and traditional decision analysis using a few probability distributions and ...