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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Conditional Survival Analysis For Concrete Bridge Decks, Azam Nabizadeh, Habib Tabatabai, Mohammad A. Tabatabai Nov 2019

Conditional Survival Analysis For Concrete Bridge Decks, Azam Nabizadeh, Habib Tabatabai, Mohammad A. Tabatabai

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Articles

Bridge decks are a significant factor in the deterioration of bridges, and substantially affect long-term bridge maintenance decisions. In this study, conditional survival (reliability) analysis techniques are applied to bridge decks to evaluate the age at the end of service life using the National Bridge Inventory records. As bridge decks age, the probability of survival and the expected service life would change. The additional knowledge gained from the fact that a bridge deck has already survived a specific number of years alters (increases) the original probability of survival at subsequent years based on the conditional probability theory. The conditional expected ...


Impacts Of Freight Consolidation And Truck Sharing On Freight Mobility, Tieming Liu, Chaoyue Zhao Apr 2019

Impacts Of Freight Consolidation And Truck Sharing On Freight Mobility, Tieming Liu, Chaoyue Zhao

Publications

The trucking industry is an important sector of the U.S. economy. However, it is quite fragmented, hindering the efficiency of cargo transportation and the ability for small carriers to identify demands to fill full truck loads. The focus of this research is to study models and algorithms in order to aid online freight marketplaces to identify efficient consolidation strategies. To accomplish this aim, a new mixed integer programming model for the pickup and delivery problem has been developed. The model is geared towards identifying effective freight consolidation opportunities. A branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the model was also developed. The ...


Impacts Of Freight Consolidation And Truck Sharing On Freight Mobility, Tieming Liu, Chaoyue Zhao Apr 2019

Impacts Of Freight Consolidation And Truck Sharing On Freight Mobility, Tieming Liu, Chaoyue Zhao

Data

Corresponding data set for Tran-SET Project No. 17ITSOKS02. Abstract of the final report is stated below for reference:

"The trucking industry is an important sector of the U.S. economy. However, it is quite fragmented, hindering the efficiency of cargo transportation and the ability for small carriers to identify demands to fill full truck loads. The focus of this research is to study models and algorithms in order to aid online freight marketplaces to identify efficient consolidation strategies. To accomplish this aim, a new mixed integer programming model for the pickup and delivery problem has been developed. The model is ...


Origami-Based Deployable Ballistic Barrier, Kenny Seymour, Dakota Burrow, Alex Avila, Terri Bateman, David C. Morgan, Spencer P. Magleby, Larry L. Howell Sep 2018

Origami-Based Deployable Ballistic Barrier, Kenny Seymour, Dakota Burrow, Alex Avila, Terri Bateman, David C. Morgan, Spencer P. Magleby, Larry L. Howell

Faculty Publications

This paper demonstrates how recent developments in origami crease pattern adaptation, surrogate folds, and thickness accommodation techniques enabled development of an origami-based deployable ballistic barrier. The barrier crease pattern was employed using the membrane-fold technique for surrogate folds and to assist in thickness accommodation. A proof-of-concept barrier was fabricated and tested, demonstrating ballistic resistance, a large deployment ratio, and rapid deployment times.


Human Factors And Ergonomics In Diversity, Inclusion And Social Justice Research, Rupa Valdez, Enid Montague, Mattie N. Milner, Michael C. Dorneich, Rod Roscoe Sep 2018

Human Factors And Ergonomics In Diversity, Inclusion And Social Justice Research, Rupa Valdez, Enid Montague, Mattie N. Milner, Michael C. Dorneich, Rod Roscoe

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Diversity Committee is entering its second year and continuing to explore ways to increase the diversity of the society. Following last year’s panel on “Challenges and Opportunities for Involvement,” we, and others, recognized that human factors and ergonomics (HFE) professionals are equipped and able to advance diversity, inclusion and social justice issues. This panel will bring together researchers to discuss experiences addressing these issues to highlight existing work, spark excitement about conducting new work and share advice. This panel will discuss and share lessons learned in a range of projects, including an HFE ...


Optimizing Design For Resilience For Risk-Averse Firms Using Expected Utility And Value-At-Risk, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu May 2018

Optimizing Design For Resilience For Risk-Averse Firms Using Expected Utility And Value-At-Risk, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Research Problem •Determine how resilience should be integrated into a firm’s design decisions •Optimize design for a risk-averse firm that incorporates resilience


Online Testing To Assess Performance Of Students In A Large Engineering Class, Vrishtee Rane, Cameron A. Mackenzie May 2018

Online Testing To Assess Performance Of Students In A Large Engineering Class, Vrishtee Rane, Cameron A. Mackenzie

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Fall 2017: Engineering Economic Analysis course •242 students: in-class and distance learning •New assessment procedure: Online testing modules •7 required online testing modules •2 bonus testing modules to earn an A •Semester grades determined completely by number of modules passed •Unlimited number of attempts for each testing module •Randomly chosen questions


Design Optimization Under Long-Range Uncertainty, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu May 2018

Design Optimization Under Long-Range Uncertainty, Ramin Giahi, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Chao Hu

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Flexibility in engineering system design: •Flexibility in system design and implications for aerospace systems (Saleh et.al 2003) •A flexible and robust approach for preliminary engineering design based on designer's preference (Nahmet.al, 2007) •A real options approach to hybrid electric vehicle architecture design for flexibility (Kang et.al 2016) •Our research: •Simulation optimization •Long range uncertainty •Add flexibility and robustness to design


Modeling Uncertainty In Rooftop Pv Investment, Anuj Mittal, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline C. Krejci, Taylor B. Elkins May 2018

Modeling Uncertainty In Rooftop Pv Investment, Anuj Mittal, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline C. Krejci, Taylor B. Elkins

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

No abstract provided.


Decision Making For Different Types Of Variation In A Manufacturing System, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline Krejci May 2018

Decision Making For Different Types Of Variation In A Manufacturing System, Xue Lei, Cameron A. Mackenzie, Caroline Krejci

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Common cause variation: Natural part of the process; Acting on process.

Special cause variation: From external sources; searching and mitigating causes.


Likelihood And Cost Impact Of Engineering Change Requirements For Dod Contracts, James C. Ellis, Edward D. White, Jonathan D. Ritschel, Shawn M. Valentine, Brandon Lucas, Ian S. Cordell Apr 2018

Likelihood And Cost Impact Of Engineering Change Requirements For Dod Contracts, James C. Ellis, Edward D. White, Jonathan D. Ritschel, Shawn M. Valentine, Brandon Lucas, Ian S. Cordell

Faculty Publications

Purpose: There appears to be no empirical-based method in the literature for estimating if an engineering change proposal (ECP) will occur or the dollar amount incurred. This paper aims to present an empirically based approach to address this shortfall.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Using the cost assessment data enterprise database, 533 contracts were randomly selected via a stratified sampling plan to build two regression models: one to predict the likelihood of a contract experiencing an ECP and the other to determine the expected median per cent increase in baseline contract cost if an ECP was likely. Both models adopted a stepwise ...


Repeatability Case Study Of The 3d Printer In The School Of Engineering And Applied Science Lab, Naif Faleh S. Albaiji Apr 2018

Repeatability Case Study Of The 3d Printer In The School Of Engineering And Applied Science Lab, Naif Faleh S. Albaiji

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

3DP (three-dimensional printing) technologies have become more than just a tool to help companies with prototyping and designing in the pre-production stage. Some firms have already implemented 3DP technology to produce parts and end-use products. However, there are several challenges and barriers that this technology must overcome to replace traditional manufacturing methods. One of the most significant obstacles associated with 3D printing is its low level of accuracy in variable repeatability when it comes to making separate batches of the same product. There are several arguable reasons behind this variation. Some of the factors that can influence repeatability are the ...


Integration Of Hydrogeophysical Datasets And Empirical Orthogonal Functions For Improved Irrigation Water Management, Catherine E. Finkenbiner, Trenton E. Franz, Justin P. Gibson, Derek M. Heeren, J. D. Luck Jan 2018

Integration Of Hydrogeophysical Datasets And Empirical Orthogonal Functions For Improved Irrigation Water Management, Catherine E. Finkenbiner, Trenton E. Franz, Justin P. Gibson, Derek M. Heeren, J. D. Luck

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Precision agriculture offers the technologies to manage for infield variability and incorporate variability into irrigation management decisions. The major limitation of this technology often lies in the reconciliation of disparate data sources and the generation of irrigation prescription maps. Here the authors explore the utility of the cosmic-ray neutron probe (CRNP) which measures volumetric soil water content (SWC) in the top ~ 30 cm of the soil profile. The key advantages of CRNP is that the sensor is passive, non-invasive, mobile and soil temperature-invariant, making data collection more compatible with existing farm operations and extending the mapping period. The objectives of ...


Application Of Real Field Connected Vehicle Data For Aggressive Driving Identification On Horizontal Curves, Arash Jahangiri, Vincent Berardi, Sahar Ghanipoor Machiani Dec 2017

Application Of Real Field Connected Vehicle Data For Aggressive Driving Identification On Horizontal Curves, Arash Jahangiri, Vincent Berardi, Sahar Ghanipoor Machiani

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The emerging technology of connected vehicles generates a vast amount of data that could be used to enhance roadway safety. In this paper, we focused on safety applications of a real field connected vehicle data on a horizontal curve. The database contains connected vehicle data that were collected on public roads in Ann Arbor, Michigan with instrumented vehicles. Horizontal curve negotiations are associated with a great number of accidents, which are mainly attributed to driving errors. Aggressive/risky driving is a contributing factor to the high rate of crashes on horizontal curves. Using basic safety message data in connected vehicle ...


Benchmarking Estonia's Cyber Security: An On-Ramping Methodology For Rapid Adoption And Implementation, Ernest Wong, Nan Porter, Mckinnon Hokanson, Bing Bing Xie Oct 2017

Benchmarking Estonia's Cyber Security: An On-Ramping Methodology For Rapid Adoption And Implementation, Ernest Wong, Nan Porter, Mckinnon Hokanson, Bing Bing Xie

Research Papers

In April of 2007, Estonia fell victim to a series of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that crippled its government websites, email servers, media outlets, and banking system for nearly a month. Due to the devastating effects of these cyber attacks, Estonia took great efforts to strengthen its cyber security protocols. This research analyzes the reforms that Estonia has implemented in its domestic and foreign policies and attempts to determine if any of it systemic improvements can help to also bolster cyber security in the United States (US). The findings from this research are that Estonia’s policy reforms ...


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe Nov 2016

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


Developing Game-Based Learning Requirements To Increase Female Middle School Students Interest In Computer Science, Desmond Bonner, Michael Dorneich Sep 2016

Developing Game-Based Learning Requirements To Increase Female Middle School Students Interest In Computer Science, Desmond Bonner, Michael Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This paper presents work on the development of a Game-Based Learning (GBL) application’s requirements for female middle school students which teaches fundamental concepts of programming. Currently, there are not enough students who desire to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic (STEM) career fields. Additionally, female are underrepresented in STEM fields, and increased female participation may help partially address this gap. GBL was used to encourage middle school student interest in STEM by allowing them to practice computer science concepts in engaging contexts outside the classroom. The game Sorceress of Seasons was built to teach fundamental programming concepts, and was ...


The Challenges Of Building Intelligent Tutoring Systems For Teams, Desmond Bonner, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Anne M. Sinatra, Anna Slavina, Anastacia Macallister, Joseph Holub Sep 2016

The Challenges Of Building Intelligent Tutoring Systems For Teams, Desmond Bonner, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Anne M. Sinatra, Anna Slavina, Anastacia Macallister, Joseph Holub

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been useful for individual instruction and training, but have not been widely created for teams, despite the widespread use of team training and learning in groups. This paper reviews two projects that developed team tutors: the Team Multiple Errands Task (TMET) and the Recon Task developed using the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT). Specifically, this paper 1) analyzes why team tasks have significantly more complexity than an individual task, 2) describes the two team-based platforms for team research, and 3) explores the complexities of team tutor authoring. Results include a recommended process for authoring a ...


Politeness In Machine-Human And Human-Human Interaction, Joachim Meyer, Chris Miller, Peter Hancock, Ewart De Visser, Michael Dorneich Sep 2016

Politeness In Machine-Human And Human-Human Interaction, Joachim Meyer, Chris Miller, Peter Hancock, Ewart De Visser, Michael Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Computers communicate with humans in ways that increasingly resemble interactions between humans.Nuances in expression and responses to human behavior become more sophisticated, and they approachthose of human-human interaction. The question arises whether we want systems eventually to behave likehumans, or whether systems should, even when much more developed, still adhere to rules that aredifferent from the rules governing interpersonal communication. The panel addresses this issue fromvarious perspectives, eventually aiming to gain some insights into the question of the direction to which thedevelopment of machine-human communication and the etiquette implemented in the systems shouldmove.


Using Human Factors To Establish Occupant Task Lists For Office Building Simulations, Kelly Kalvelage, Michael Dorneich Sep 2016

Using Human Factors To Establish Occupant Task Lists For Office Building Simulations, Kelly Kalvelage, Michael Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

The purpose of this research is to establish an in-depth understanding of task-related occupant behaviors toserve as the basis for the design of an occupant-building interaction interface. Building simulations arefrequently used to design buildings and predict energy performance. Yet, all of these assumptions are relatedto occupant behavior and interactions with the building. In an occupant-controlled environment, anunderstanding of the occupant decision-making process must be represented in the simulation task lists.Current task lists assume general occupant behaviors based on averages, and lack the details required for thisunderstanding. This paper looks to strike a balance between simplicity and complexity in the ...


Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney Aug 2016

Laboratory And Full Boom-Based Investigation Of Nozzle Setup And Restriction Effects On Flow, Pressure And Spray Pattern Distribution, Shane H. Forney

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Pesticide application is an integral part of crop production and ground-based agricultural boom sprayers are used extensively to apply pesticides to the crop canopy or soil surface across millions of acres in the United States. Efficient application is necessary to minimize costs and limit adverse environmental impacts. Errors in flow rate and system pressure measurements may cause as-applied maps to incorrectly indicate application rates and could negatively affect downstream data processing or analysis. The goals of this study were to provide quantified measurements on the effects of nozzle setup errors on spray pattern uniformity and evaluate how laboratory patternator data ...


A Five-Year Performance Review Of Field-Scale, Slow-Release Permanganate Candles With Recommendations For Second-Generation Improvements, Mark Christenson, Ann Kambhu, James Reece, Steve D. Comfort, Laurie Brunner Feb 2016

A Five-Year Performance Review Of Field-Scale, Slow-Release Permanganate Candles With Recommendations For Second-Generation Improvements, Mark Christenson, Ann Kambhu, James Reece, Steve D. Comfort, Laurie Brunner

Faculty Publications from The Water Center

In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable siltyclay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the ...


Quantized Consensus Admm For Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization, Shengyu Zhu, Mingyi Hong, Biao Chen Jan 2016

Quantized Consensus Admm For Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization, Shengyu Zhu, Mingyi Hong, Biao Chen

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Abstract: This paper considers multi-agent distributed optimization with quantized communication which is needed when inter-agent communications are subject to finite capacity and other practical constraints. To minimize the global objective formed by a sum of local convex functions, we develop a quantized distributed algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Under certain convexity assumptions, it is shown that the proposed algorithm converges to a consensus within log1+η Ω iterations, where η > 0 depends on the network topology and the local objectives, and O is a polynomial fraction depending on the quantization resolution, the distance between initial ...


The Hidden Challenges Of Team Tutor Development, Desmond Bonner, Anna Slavina, Anastacia Macallister, Joseph Holub, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anne M. Sinatra, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot H. Winer Jan 2016

The Hidden Challenges Of Team Tutor Development, Desmond Bonner, Anna Slavina, Anastacia Macallister, Joseph Holub, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anne M. Sinatra, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot H. Winer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This paper describes the unexpected challenges of team tutor development such as the task and logistics. Previously, a research team from Iowa State University (ISU) working with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) developed the reconnaissance (Recon) task for simple team tutoring with the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) (Bonner et al., 2015; Gilbert et al., 2015). Considerations were included for the testing environment such as audio-based team interactions, initialization of the scenario simultaneously, and the inclusion of eyetracking and screen capture technology. Throughout the process of tutor development, several computational challenges have been encountered such as the ...


Mitigating Visually Induced Motion Sickness: A Virtual Hand-Eye Coordination Task, Michael Curtis, Kayla Dawson, Kelli Jackson, Liat Litwin, Chase Meusel, Michael Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert, Jonathan Kelly, Richard Stone, Eliot Winer Dec 2015

Mitigating Visually Induced Motion Sickness: A Virtual Hand-Eye Coordination Task, Michael Curtis, Kayla Dawson, Kelli Jackson, Liat Litwin, Chase Meusel, Michael Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert, Jonathan Kelly, Richard Stone, Eliot Winer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Virtual reality has grown rapidly over the past decade, yet visually induced motion sickness (VIMS),continues to affect the usability of this technology. Aside from medicine, physical hand-eye-coordinationtasks have been found to be effective in mitigating symptoms of VIMS, however the need for equipmentoutside of virtual reality limits the usefulness of these mitigation techniques. In this study, 21 participantswere sickened via a virtual obstacle course and used one of two mitigation techniques. The first, naturaldecay, is simply waiting outside the virtual environment (VE) for symptoms to subside; the other was avirtual peg-in-hole task, performed in the VE with a gamepad ...


The Application Of Gage R&R Analysis In S Six Sigma Case Of Improving And Optimizing An Automotive Die Casting Product’S Measurement System, Qizheng Ren Oct 2015

The Application Of Gage R&R Analysis In S Six Sigma Case Of Improving And Optimizing An Automotive Die Casting Product’S Measurement System, Qizheng Ren

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

With the rapid development of automation technology in automotive manufacturing processes, massive and efficient production is a current trend. Therefore, measurement systems with accurate and automated measuring instruments are sought by automotive companies and suppliers. However, the problematic measuring instruments with unreliable accuracy and stability lead to erroneous measurements and wrong quality decisions that cause manufacturers huge profit losses. An effective method called “measurement system analysis” can be applied to define and eliminate erroneous measurements to ensure adequate reliability. An automotive transmission die casting parts supplier called company T was suffering a serious profit loss due to the erroneous measurements ...


The Effect Of Time Delay On Emotion, Arousal, And Satisfaction In Human-Robot Interaction, Euijung Yang, Michael Dorneich Sep 2015

The Effect Of Time Delay On Emotion, Arousal, And Satisfaction In Human-Robot Interaction, Euijung Yang, Michael Dorneich

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

This study investigates the influence of time delay on user emotion, arousal, and satisfaction in humanrobotinteraction (HRI). Time delay is a gap between an input from a user and the corresponding feedbackresponse from the system, and its negative consequence on performance has been documented in variousareas including psychology and HRI. On the contrary, the effects of time delay on user emotion andsatisfaction have been difficult to establish due to the fluctuations in the emotional aspect of thephysiological state of the user. In this study, the hypothesis of whether time delay during robot vehicleoperation increases user arousal and negative emotions while ...


Impact Of Prognostic Uncertainty In System Health Monitoring, Robert M. Vandawalker, David R. Jacques, Jason K. Freels May 2015

Impact Of Prognostic Uncertainty In System Health Monitoring, Robert M. Vandawalker, David R. Jacques, Jason K. Freels

Faculty Publications

Across many industries, systems are exceeding their intended design lives, whether they are ships, bridges or military aircraft. As a result failure rates can increase and unanticipated wear or failure conditions can arise. Health monitoring research and application has the potential to more safely lengthen the service life of a range of systems through utilization of sensor data and knowledge of failure mechanisms to predict component life remaining. A further benefit of health monitoring when combined across an entire platform is system health management. System health management is an enabler of condition based maintenance, which allows repair or replacement based ...


Design, Programming, And User-Experience, Kaila G. Manca May 2015

Design, Programming, And User-Experience, Kaila G. Manca

Honors Scholar Theses

This thesis is a culmination of my individualized major in Human-Computer Interaction. As such, it showcases my knowledge of design, computer engineering, user-experience research, and puts into practice my background in psychology, com- munications, and neuroscience.

I provided full-service design and development for a web application to be used by the Digital Media and Design Department and their students.This process involved several iterations of user-experience research, testing, concepting, branding and strategy, ideation, and design. It lead to two products.

The first product is full-scale development and optimization of the web appli- cation.The web application adheres to best practices ...


The Development Of A Testbed To Assess An Intelligent Tutoring System For Teams, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen B. Gilbert, Robert A. Sottilare Jan 2015

The Development Of A Testbed To Assess An Intelligent Tutoring System For Teams, Desmond Bonner, Jamiahus Walton, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen B. Gilbert, Robert A. Sottilare

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Work has been ongoing to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for teams. As part of this work, we are developing a flexible, scalable, military-based set of collaborative team tasks that can serve as a “testbed” to exercise various aspects of a team ITS architecture. Warfighting teams are a core part of any operation as individual soldiers combine their skill sets and plan, coordinate and act as one entity to accomplish assigned objectives. The team ITS test bed presented in this paper uses simple team tasks to train soldiers on basic functions including observation, target detection, target identification, communication within ...