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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Developing A Greenometer For Green Manufacturing Assessment, Ahmed H. Salem, Ahmed M. Deif Mar 2017

Developing A Greenometer For Green Manufacturing Assessment, Ahmed H. Salem, Ahmed M. Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

In this paper a toolbox (Greenometer) to assess the greenness level of manufacturing companies is proposed. The assessment approach is based on capturing the relative greenness position of any company among other industries from different sectors as well as within the same sector. The assessment was based on selected greenness attributes and their composing indicators at each of the two levels of the developed Greenometer. Geometric Mean Method (GMM) was adopted to be the generic assessment technique for cross industries greenness evaluation, while Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was employed to assess the greenness level of intra-industries layer. Three different industrial ...


Evaluation Of Career Readiness At An Industrial Technology Program Using A Fuzzy Approach, Ahmed Deif, Cameron Stark, Kathryn Butler, Eric Olsen Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Career Readiness At An Industrial Technology Program Using A Fuzzy Approach, Ahmed Deif, Cameron Stark, Kathryn Butler, Eric Olsen

Industrial Technology and Packaging

In this research, a quantitative model to measure the “career readiness” performance level of the current curriculum of the Industrial Technology and Packaging program at California Polytechnic State University is proposed. Career readiness is first defined through performance attributes and these attributes are further classified into specific categories and metrics. Using a fuzzy logic computational approach, “career readiness” measures are developed and a “career readiness” score referred to as (CRS) is calculated. The model is designed to be flexible, dynamic and easy to use. It should enable a systematic measurement of career readiness by producing a final integrated unit-less score ...


Insights On Lean Gamifications For Higher Education, Ahmed Deif Jan 2017

Insights On Lean Gamifications For Higher Education, Ahmed Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Purpose

There is no argument that using games (gamification) is an efficient way of learning in higher education. The questions, though, are which gamification approach is most suitable at that level and how to assess its suitability? This paper aims to attempt to partially answer these two questions, in the context of lean thinking education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers an assessment criteria to investigate the impact of lean gamification based on the evaluation of motivational, cognitive and social processing during games. In addition, a study is conducted among selected games using these assessment criteria. The study included statistical ...


Variety And Volume Dynamic Management For Value Creation In Changeable Manufacturing Systems, Ahmed Deif, Hoda A. Elmaraghy Aug 2016

Variety And Volume Dynamic Management For Value Creation In Changeable Manufacturing Systems, Ahmed Deif, Hoda A. Elmaraghy

Industrial Technology and Packaging

In today’s uncertain market and continuously evolving technology, managing manufacturing systems are more complex than ever. This paper studies the dynamics of managing variety and volume to enhance value creation in manufacturers implementing system-level advanced and automated manufacturing technology (AAMT). The demand is composed of heterogeneous customers who make purchasing decisions depending on the variety levels and lead times of the firm’s product offerings. The cost structure adopted calculates profit as the difference between customer value creation rate (VCR) and costs associated with the process of creating this value. Reported results contribute to the variety and volume management ...


Variety And Volume Dynamic Management For Value Creation In Changeable Manufacturing Systems, Ahmed M. Deif, Hoda A. Elmaraghy Aug 2016

Variety And Volume Dynamic Management For Value Creation In Changeable Manufacturing Systems, Ahmed M. Deif, Hoda A. Elmaraghy

Industrial Technology and Packaging

In today’s uncertain market and continuously evolving technology, managing manufacturing systems are more complex than ever. This paper studies the dynamics of managing variety and volume to enhance value creation in manufacturers implementing system-level advanced and automated manufacturing technology (AAMT). The demand is composed of heterogeneous customers who make purchasing decisions depending on the variety levels and lead times of the firm’s product offerings. The cost structure adopted calculates profit as the difference between customer value creation rate (VCR) and costs associated with the process of creating this value. Reported results contribute to the variety and volume management ...


Synthesis Of Nanoporous Carbohydrate Metal-Organic Framework And Encapsulation Of Acetaldehyde, Saleh Al-Ghamdi, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras Jul 2016

Synthesis Of Nanoporous Carbohydrate Metal-Organic Framework And Encapsulation Of Acetaldehyde, Saleh Al-Ghamdi, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Gamma cyclodextrin (γ-CD) metal organic frameworks (CDMOFs) were synthesized by coordinating γ-CDs with potassium hydroxide (KOH), referred hereafter as CDMOF-a, and potassium benzoate (C7H5KO2), denoted as CDMOF-b. The obtained CDMOF structures were characterized using nitrogen sorption isotherm, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High surface areas were achieved by the γ-CD based MOF structures where the Langmuir specific surface areas (SSA) of CDMOF-a and CDMOF-b were determined as 1376 m2 g−1 and 607 m2 g−1; respectively. The dehydrated CDMOF structures demonstrated good thermal stability up to ...


Assessing Leanness Level With Demand Dynamics In A Multi-Stage Production System, Rehab M. Ali, Ahmed Deif Jan 2016

Assessing Leanness Level With Demand Dynamics In A Multi-Stage Production System, Rehab M. Ali, Ahmed Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Purpose
– The purpose of this paper is to present a dynamic model to measure the degree of system’s leanness under dynamic demand conditions using a novel integrated metric.
Design/methodology/approach
– The multi-stage production system model is based on a system dynamics approach. The leanness level is measured using a new developed integrated metric that combines efficiency, WIP performance as well as service level. The analysis includes design of experiment technique at the initial analysis to examine the most significant parameters impacting the leanness score and then followed by examining different dynamic demand scenarios. Two scenarios were examined: one ...


Mapping Kinematic Functional Abilities Of The Hand To Three Dimensional Shapes For Inclusive Design, Samuel T. Leitkam, Laura Bix, Javier De La Fuente, Tamara Reid Bush Aug 2015

Mapping Kinematic Functional Abilities Of The Hand To Three Dimensional Shapes For Inclusive Design, Samuel T. Leitkam, Laura Bix, Javier De La Fuente, Tamara Reid Bush

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Loss of hand function can have adverse effects on an individual's ability to maintain independence. The ability to perform daily activities, such as food preparation and medication delivery, is dependent on the hand's ability to grasp and manipulate objects. Therefore, the goal of this research was to demonstrate that three dimensional (3D) modeling of hand function can be used to improve the accessibility of handheld objects for individuals with reduced functionality through informed design. Individual models of hand functionality were created for 43 participants and group models were developed for groups of individuals without (Healthy) and with reduced ...


The Influence Of Cu3(Btc)2 Metal Organic Framework On The Permeability And Perm-Selectivity Of Plla-Mof Mixed Matrix Membranes, Ajay Kathuria, Saleh Al-Ghamdi, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras Aug 2015

The Influence Of Cu3(Btc)2 Metal Organic Framework On The Permeability And Perm-Selectivity Of Plla-Mof Mixed Matrix Membranes, Ajay Kathuria, Saleh Al-Ghamdi, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) - 20% (w/w) and Cu3(BTC)2 metal organic framework (MOF) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by a vertical corotating twin screw microcompounder followed by an injection molding process. Water vapor, CO2, O2, and selected aroma mass transfer properties of PLLA and PLLA MMMs were evaluated. The CO2/O2 perm-selectivity of PLLA (αCO2/O2) MMMs increased from 7.6 to 10.3 with the incorporation of 20% Cu3(BTC)2 MOF. Gravimetric permeability studies of trans-2-hexenal performed at 23°C and 50% RH indicated that permeability coefficient ...


An Affordance-Based Methodology For Package Design, Javier De La Fuente Phd, Stephanie Gustafson, Colleen L. Twomey, Laura Bix Feb 2015

An Affordance-Based Methodology For Package Design, Javier De La Fuente Phd, Stephanie Gustafson, Colleen L. Twomey, Laura Bix

Industrial Technology and Packaging

The term affordance describes an object's utilitarian function or actionable possibilities. Product designers have taken great interest in the concept of affordances because of the bridge they provide relating to design, the interpretation of design and, ultimately, functionality in the hands of consumers. These concepts have been widely studied and applied in the field of psychology but have had limited formal application to packaging design and evaluation. We believe that the concepts related to affordances will reveal novel opportunities for packaging innovation. To catalyse this, presented work had the following objectives: (a) to propose a method by which packaging ...


Cost Performance Dynamics In Lean Production Leveling, Ahmed Deif, Hoda Elmaraghy Jun 2014

Cost Performance Dynamics In Lean Production Leveling, Ahmed Deif, Hoda Elmaraghy

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Balancing of production systems is one of the main lean manufacturing principles as it reduces in-process storage and related forms of waste. A dynamic systems approach is proposed to investigate challenges of implementing production leveling and associated costs. A lean cell producing at takt time is modeled using system dynamics. The model captures various lean tools influencing production leveling and their implications. Comparative cost analysis between various leveling implementation policies for stochastic demand with multiple products is conducted. Results showed that determining the most feasible leveling policy is highly dictated by both the cost and limitations of capacity scalability. In ...


Dynamic Modelling Of Impact Of Lean Policies On Production Levelling Feasibility, Hoda Elmaraghy, Ahmed Deif Apr 2014

Dynamic Modelling Of Impact Of Lean Policies On Production Levelling Feasibility, Hoda Elmaraghy, Ahmed Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

A dynamic systems approach is proposed to investigate challenges of implementing production leveling and associated costs. A model of a lean cell is developed using system dynamics. The model captures various lean tools influencing production leveling. Comparative cost analysis between various leveling implementation policies for stochastic demand with multiple products is conducted. Results showed that determining the most feasible leveling policy is highly dictated by both capacity scalability cost and limitations. The developed model and revealed insights can help lean practitioners to better decide on when and how to implement production leveling as well as determine production lots sizes.


Impact Of Dynamic Capacity Policies On Wip Level In Mix Leveling Lean Environment, Ahmed Deif, Hoda Elmaraghy Apr 2014

Impact Of Dynamic Capacity Policies On Wip Level In Mix Leveling Lean Environment, Ahmed Deif, Hoda Elmaraghy

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Balancing demand's product variety in production planning is one aspect of variety management challenge. This phenomenon is described in lean systems as mix leveling. This paper approach product mix leveling problem from a dynamic perspective. A system dynamics model is developed to explore the dynamics associated with the WIP level performance at different mix leveling policies in a lean environment. The system captures different lean tools and policies. Results showed that the best WIP performance is sensitive to both the degree of lean tools implementation as well as the capacity scalability level of the system. The presented analysis showed ...


Dynamic Lean Assessment For Takt Time Implementation, Rehab M. Ali, Ahmed M. Deif Apr 2014

Dynamic Lean Assessment For Takt Time Implementation, Rehab M. Ali, Ahmed M. Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Increasing volatility, global competitiveness, and sales crisis all force the manufacturers to commit to the journey of world-class manufacturing performance via adopting “lean systems” to enable economic success in difficult times. Among the journey to lean, one of the hardest steps is measuring the progress of lean polices implementation especially in this highly dynamic market. This paper presents a dynamic model to evaluate the degree of leanness in manufacturing firms. The model is based on system dynamics approach and presents a “leanness score” for the manufacturing system. In addition, it examines the dynamics associated with the application of “One-piece flow ...


An Integrated Approach To Assess Manufacturing Greeness Level, Ahmed H. Salen, Ahmed Deif Apr 2014

An Integrated Approach To Assess Manufacturing Greeness Level, Ahmed H. Salen, Ahmed Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

This paper proposes an integrated approach for relative greenness level assessment in selected manufacturing industries at the system level. The approach builds on existing methodologies to develop a multi-layer tool box called “Greenometer” which focus on the strategic comparison for cross industries evaluation as well as tactical comparison for intra-industries. The assessment tool captures the fundamental evaluation parameters of green manufacturing namely; Environment, Energy, Resources and Economy. In addition, the Greenometer employs geometric mean method (GMM) for the strategic layer and data envelopment analysis (DEA) for the tactical layer and will be used for different selected manufacturing disciplines. The proposed ...


Toughening Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) With Cu3Btc2 Metal Organic Framework Crystals, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras Dec 2013

Toughening Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) With Cu3Btc2 Metal Organic Framework Crystals, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and metal organic framework (MOF) composites were prepared by melt extrusion of PLLA with 5, 10 and 20% w/w of activated Cu3(BTC)2 MOF. The morphology and stability of injection-molded samples were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composites showed improved toughness during the tensile tests as compared to the neat PLLA matrix. Toughness mechanism of the composites was studied using SEM and rheological studies. SEM images indicated that cavitation induced by debonding at the interface of PLLA and MOF ...


The Effect Of Distribution On Product Temperature Profile In Thermally Insulated Containers For Express Shipments, Jay Singh, Sanjiv Jaggia, Koushik Saha Oct 2013

The Effect Of Distribution On Product Temperature Profile In Thermally Insulated Containers For Express Shipments, Jay Singh, Sanjiv Jaggia, Koushik Saha

Industrial Technology and Packaging

An uninterrupted cold chain is a continual series of storage and distribution activities that maintain a specific temperature or temperature range. Cold chain solutions typically involve excessive packaging to ensure that the desired product temperature is maintained through the distribution process, thereby increasing the logistics-related costs. There is a myriad of solutions available for shipping temperature-sensitive products, including those constructed with a variety of packaging materials as well as refrigerants. Although static characteristics for thermally insulated packaging solutions such as the R-values of package systems as well as the melting points and heat absorption rates of various refrigerants have been ...


Deterioration Of Metal–Organic Framework Crystal Structure During Fabrication Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras Feb 2013

Deterioration Of Metal–Organic Framework Crystal Structure During Fabrication Of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Ajay Kathuria, Mohamad G. Abiad, Rafael Auras

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and metal–organic framework (MOF) mixed-matrix membranes were prepared by melt extrusion of PLLA with 5% (w/w) of either activated or water-saturated Cu3(BTC)2 (Cu3(C9H3O6)2(H2O)3·xH2O, HKUST-1). The morphology and the stability of injection-molded samples were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of activated and saturated MOF crystals increased the cold crystallization onset temperature as compared to neat PLLA. This can be attributed to ...


Consumer Attention To An Over-The-Counter Warning In Four Different Styles Of Design, Abhishek Gawasane, Laura Bix, Javier De La Fuente, Raghav Prashant Sundar, Timothy J. Smith Nov 2012

Consumer Attention To An Over-The-Counter Warning In Four Different Styles Of Design, Abhishek Gawasane, Laura Bix, Javier De La Fuente, Raghav Prashant Sundar, Timothy J. Smith

Industrial Technology and Packaging

The study consisted of three objectives: (a) to test the relative prominence and conspicuousness of a warning required by US law to be conspicuous; (b) to explore whether or not the conspicuousness of the said warning can be enhanced graphically; and (c) to develop preliminary data for power analysis that would guide decisions related to sample size in future studies.

Seventeen subjects viewed four over-the-counter drug packages (each with a different style of warning) along with five other products while wearing an eye tracking device. Four styles of warning were used on the over-the-counter drug packages: no outline and no ...


Assessing Lean Systems Using Variability Mapping, Ahmed Deif May 2012

Assessing Lean Systems Using Variability Mapping, Ahmed Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

A new approach to assess lean manufacturing based on system's variability is proposed. The assessment utilizes a new tool called variability source mapping (VSMII) which focuses on capturing and reducing variability across the production system. The new tool offers a new metric called variability index to measure the overall variability level of the system. Based on the mapping and the new metric, VSMII suggests a variability reduction plan guided by a recommendation list of both lean techniques as well as production control policies. An industrial application is used to demonstrate the new tool. Results show that VSMII managed to ...


Dynamic Analysis Of A Lean Cell Under Uncertainty, Ahmed M. Deif Feb 2012

Dynamic Analysis Of A Lean Cell Under Uncertainty, Ahmed M. Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

One of the ultimate targets of lean manufacturing paradigm is to balance production and produce at takt time in production cells. This paper investigates the performance of a lean cell that implements the previous lean goals under uncertainty. The investigation is based on a system dynamics approach to model a dynamic lean cell. Backlog is used as a performance metric that reflects the cell’s responsiveness. The cell performance is compared under certain and uncertain external (demand) and internal (machine availability) conditions. Results showed that although lean cell is expected to be responsive to external demand with minimum waste, however ...


Measurement And Analysis Of Vehicle Vibration For Delivering Packages In Small‐Sized And Medium‐Sized Trucks And Automobiles, Vanee Chonhenchob, Sher Paul Singh, Jay Jagjit Singh, Joseph Stallings, Gary Grewal Jan 2012

Measurement And Analysis Of Vehicle Vibration For Delivering Packages In Small‐Sized And Medium‐Sized Trucks And Automobiles, Vanee Chonhenchob, Sher Paul Singh, Jay Jagjit Singh, Joseph Stallings, Gary Grewal

Industrial Technology and Packaging

In distribution, packaged products are subjected to the variation in vibration levels from transport vehicles that vary in frequency and acceleration while moving to their destinations. This vibration may negatively affect the product or packaging. This study measured and analysed vibration levels in vehicles commonly used to transport packages in the last leg of the package delivery service that is used by single‐parcel carriers. Using data recorders, we monitored vertical, lateral and longitudinal vibrations over 75 h of travel time in five different types of small and medium package delivery vehicles. The study presents these data as power density ...


Review Of Package Warning Labels And Their Effect On Consumer Behaviour With Insights To Future Anticounterfeit Strategy Of Label And Communication Systems, John Spink, Jay Singh, S. Paul Singh Dec 2011

Review Of Package Warning Labels And Their Effect On Consumer Behaviour With Insights To Future Anticounterfeit Strategy Of Label And Communication Systems, John Spink, Jay Singh, S. Paul Singh

Industrial Technology and Packaging

This paper investigates and reviews literature regarding a range of topics important to the research question – the themes apply across all the topics. The topics include label and package warnings, including tamperevident features, to review their effect on the consumer behaviour of changing usage or purchase decisions. This information was then applied to gain insight into anticounterfeit product/package efforts. Based on this research, it appears that there is value for brand marketers to enhance their anticounterfeit efforts and consumer confidence by utilizing warning labels and information labels on their labels or packages. Currently, consumer perception of a domestic counterfeit ...


Effect Of Processing, Packaging And Vibration Treatment On The Sensory Quality Of Fresh-Cut Apple Slices, M. Siddiq, J. B. Harte, S. P. Singh, A. A. Khan, K. D. Dolan, Koushik Saha Aug 2011

Effect Of Processing, Packaging And Vibration Treatment On The Sensory Quality Of Fresh-Cut Apple Slices, M. Siddiq, J. B. Harte, S. P. Singh, A. A. Khan, K. D. Dolan, Koushik Saha

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Fresh-cut fruit industry has seen tremendous growth in recent years. The present study was designed with the objective of studying the sensory quality of fresh-cut apple slices that were treated with different antibrowning agents, packed in three types of packaging materials and subjected to vibration treatment to simulate commercial transportation. The slices were treated with two commercial antibrowning agents [NatureSeal (Mantrose-Haeuser Co., Inc., Westport, CT, USA) and Ever-Fresh (Kraft Foods, Inc., Rye Brook, NY, USA)] at 5% (w/v) application rate. The treated slices were packaged in 5 oz polystyrene rigid container, 2 lb polyethylene bag or 2 oz polyethylene ...


Effect Of Palletized Box Offset On Compression Strength Of Unitized And Stacked Empty Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes, S. Paul Singh, Jay Singh, Koushik Saha Jul 2011

Effect Of Palletized Box Offset On Compression Strength Of Unitized And Stacked Empty Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes, S. Paul Singh, Jay Singh, Koushik Saha

Industrial Technology and Packaging

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pallet type, tie-sheet and stack configuration on compression strength of a palletized load of boxes. Four boxes made from similar board grade and different dimensions were selected for this study. The column stack configuration which represented the control was compared with the 3 stack configurations either on a CHEP® or GMA pallet. The unitized load either had a tie-sheet in between layers or no tie-sheet between layers of boxes on the respective pallets, for compression strength comparison with the control unitized load represented by a column stack configuration. This ...


Effect Of Horizontal Offset On Vertical Compression Strength Of Stacked Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes, Jay Singh, S. Paul Singh, Koushik Saha Jul 2011

Effect Of Horizontal Offset On Vertical Compression Strength Of Stacked Corrugated Fiberboard Boxes, Jay Singh, S. Paul Singh, Koushik Saha

Industrial Technology and Packaging

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of horizontal offset on the compression strength of stacked box configurations. Four different boxes of varying sizes and similar board combinations, made from similar flute but different manufacturers were studied. The single box compression strength for each type of box was determined to represent as the control for this study. The compression strength of control boxes were compared to overall strength of a three-high stack and in three different offset configurations. In addition a set of perfectly aligned boxes were compared to overall strength of a three-high stack and in ...


A System Model For Green Manufacturing, Ahmed M. Deif Jun 2011

A System Model For Green Manufacturing, Ahmed M. Deif

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Manufacturing systems evolution is afunction in multiple external and internal factors. With today’s global awareness of environmental risks as well as the pressing needs to compete through efficiency, manufacturing systems are evolving into a new paradigm. This paper presents a system model for the new green manufacturing paradigm. The model captures various planning activities to migrate from a less green into a greener and more eco-efficient manufacturing. The various planning stages are accompanied by the required control metrics as well as various green tools in an open mixed architecture. The system model is demonstrated by an industrial case study ...


Evaluation Of An Innovative System For Improving Readability Of Passive Uhf Rfid Tags Attached To Reusable Plastic Containers, Jay A. Singh, S. Roy, B. Roesner Apr 2011

Evaluation Of An Innovative System For Improving Readability Of Passive Uhf Rfid Tags Attached To Reusable Plastic Containers, Jay A. Singh, S. Roy, B. Roesner

Industrial Technology and Packaging

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a contactless identification technology that has proven to work well in conjunction with reusable plastic containers (RPCs). The impact of this technology on returnable containers has been explored by several past studies. This study evaluates an innovative system for improving readability of passive UHF RFID tags in conjunction with RPCs. The system involves an energy transfer device (ETD), which when attached to the RPCs, passively transfers radio frequency signals to interior regions of a unitized load thereby improving the readability of all RFID tags attached to the RPCs. This study included an evaluation of the ...


An Exploratory Model For Predicting Post-Consumer Recycled Pet Content In Pet Sheets, Dong Ho Kang, Rafael Auras, Keith Vorst, Jay Singh Feb 2011

An Exploratory Model For Predicting Post-Consumer Recycled Pet Content In Pet Sheets, Dong Ho Kang, Rafael Auras, Keith Vorst, Jay Singh

Industrial Technology and Packaging

An exploratory model for determining post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) content in PET sheets for one specific stream of mechanically recycled PET (RPET) was developed. Six kinds of PET sheets with varying percent of virgin (V) and recycled (R) PET contents (i.e., 100V, 80V20R, 60V40R, 40V60R, 20V80R, and 100R PET) were commercially extruded. The optical, thermal, physicomechanical and barrier properties of the PET sheets were evaluated as function of RPET content. Differences were found between the sheets for UV and visible light absorption in the regions 200–350 nm and 670–700 nm, respectively. Intrinsic viscosities of 100V and ...


Life Cycle Inventory Of Hdpe Bottle-Based Liquid Milk Packaging Systems, Jay Singh, Aric Krasowski, S. Paul Singh Jan 2011

Life Cycle Inventory Of Hdpe Bottle-Based Liquid Milk Packaging Systems, Jay Singh, Aric Krasowski, S. Paul Singh

Industrial Technology and Packaging

This study aims at providing a relatively straightforward methodology to serve as a decision-making tool when more than one packaging solution could be available to a user. It involves a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis and comparison of three currently available 3.79 l (1 gallon) packaging systems for liquid milk. Two of the primary container types studied use reusable plastic crates (RPCs) for stacking and shipping,
while the third type is a heavier duty container that does not require secondary shipping containers. The three primary containers studied are identified as original, cube and stackable throughout this paper. The study ...