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University of Massachusetts Amherst

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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

The Core Of Social Network Modeling: Industrial Engineering., Shannon C. Roberts, Chaitra Gopalappa, Nazanin Nazanin Jan 2019

The Core Of Social Network Modeling: Industrial Engineering., Shannon C. Roberts, Chaitra Gopalappa, Nazanin Nazanin

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Networks are abound in our everyday lives, from disaster response networks to cellular networks to social networks. In this workshop, we will introduce the different types of networks and how Industrial Engineering is used to model these networks. Next, we will describe current social network modeling research done at UMass. Finally, we will delve into hands-on activities that include social network analysis, such as the clustering of people into groups, and modeling of the spread of ideas in a social network, such as how tweets spread on Twitter.


The Evacuation Problem In Multi-Story Buildings, Quang Hong Cung Jan 2019

The Evacuation Problem In Multi-Story Buildings, Quang Hong Cung

Masters Theses

The pressure from high population density leads to the creation of high-rise structures within urban areas. Consequently, the design of facilities which confront the challenges of emergency evacuation from high-rise buildings become a complex concern. This paper proposes an embedded program which combines a deterministic (GMAFLAD) and stochastic model (M/G/C/C State Dependent Queueing model) into one program, GMAF_MGCC, to solve an evacuation problem. An evacuation problem belongs to Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) class which will be formulated as a Quadratic Set Packing model (QSP) including the random flow out of the building and the random pairwise traffic ...


A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat Jan 2019

A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat

Masters Theses

Commonly used simulation models for predicting outbreaks of re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) take an individual-level or a population-level approach to modeling contact dynamics. These approaches are a trade-off between the ability to incorporate individual-level dynamics and computational efficiency. Agent-based network models (ABNM) use an individual-level approach by simulating the entire population and its contact structure, which increases the ability of adding detailed individual-level characteristics. However, as this method is computationally expensive, ABNMs use scaled-down versions of the full population, which are unsuitable for low prevalence diseases as the number of infected cases would become negligible during scaling-down. Compartmental models use ...


Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa Jan 2019

Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa

Masters Theses

To impede the progress of climate change, many policy makers are considering avenues to decarbonize electricity production. In addition to decarbonization, policy makers must consider how the cost of electricity will impact various stakeholders, balancing cost and social benefits. Offshore wind farms have the potential to produce affordable, carbon-free electricity, but they are a relatively new technology. The relative juvenescence of offshore wind lends itself to an uncertain future, regarding production costs. In this thesis, we seek to understand cost drivers behind offshore wind electricity by analyzing historic trends in offshore wind levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) through learning curves ...


Power System Planning In Disparate Systems: Modeling Sustainability And Electricity Access, Destenie Nock Jan 2019

Power System Planning In Disparate Systems: Modeling Sustainability And Electricity Access, Destenie Nock

Doctoral Dissertations

Electricity goals around the world tend to focus on increasing social benefit through one of two avenues: (1) increasing overall system sustainability or (2) increasing access to electricity. These goals guide the transition of the power system. In pursuit of these goals decision makers will need modeling tools that can inform decisions, in a way that is flexible enough to include a wide range of preferences and goals. It is clear that the future generation mix of the power system will change, but the most sustainable solution, will change based on a country's goals. This dissertation will explore the ...


Does The Elicitation Mode Matter? Comparing Different Methods For Eliciting Expert Judgement, Claire Cruickshank Jan 2018

Does The Elicitation Mode Matter? Comparing Different Methods For Eliciting Expert Judgement, Claire Cruickshank

Masters Theses

An expert elicitation is a method of eliciting subjective probability distributions over key parameters from experts. Traditionally an expert elicitation has taken the form of a face-to-face interview; however, interest in using online methods has been growing. This thesis compares two elicitation modes and examines the effectiveness of an interactive online survey compared to a face-to-face interview. Differences in central values, overconfidence, accuracy and satisficing were considered. The results of our analysis indicated that, in instances where the online and face-to-face elicitations were directly comparable, the differences between the modes was not significant. Consequently, a carefully designed online elicitation may ...


Evaluation And Validation Of Distraction Detection Algorithms On Multiple Data Sources, Shashank Mehrotra Jan 2018

Evaluation And Validation Of Distraction Detection Algorithms On Multiple Data Sources, Shashank Mehrotra

Masters Theses

This study aims to evaluate algorithms designed to detect distracted driving. This includes the comparison of how efficiently they detect the state of distraction and likelihood of a crash. Four algorithms that utilize measures of cumulative glance, past glance behavior, and glance eccentricity were used to understand the distracted state of the driver and were validated on two separate data sources (i.e., simulator and naturalistic data). Additionally, an independent method for distraction detection was designed using data mining methods. This approach utilized measures like steering degree, lane offset, lateral and longitudinal velocity, and acceleration. The results showed a higher ...


The Application Of Usability Engineering Methods To Evaluate And Improve A Clinical Decision Support System, Kristine Desotto Jan 2018

The Application Of Usability Engineering Methods To Evaluate And Improve A Clinical Decision Support System, Kristine Desotto

Masters Theses

Delays in the process of diagnosing and treating cancer are common and lead to confusion and undesirable outcomes. Care coordinators are often embedded within the system of care to manage follow-up care. Electronic and real-time reminder systems can be used to support the care coordinator’s work, but electronic health record (EHR) usability is known to be poor. This study, completed in collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Connecticut Healthcare System, evaluated the Cancer Coordination and Tracking System (CCTS), an EHR-linked, web-based tool for cancer care management.

A set of expert-driven and user-driven usability engineering methods was applied ...


Explorations Into Machine Learning Techniques For Precipitation Nowcasting, Aditya Nagarajan Jan 2017

Explorations Into Machine Learning Techniques For Precipitation Nowcasting, Aditya Nagarajan

Masters Theses

Recent advances in cloud-based big-data technologies now makes data driven solutions feasible for increasing numbers of scientific computing applications. One such data driven solution approach is machine learning where patterns in large data sets are brought to the surface by finding complex mathematical relationships within the data. Nowcasting or short-term prediction of rainfall in a given region is an important problem in meteorology. In this thesis we explore the nowcasting problem through a data driven approach by formulating it as a machine learning problem.

State-of-the-art nowcasting systems today are based on numerical models which describe the physical processes leading to ...


Theory And Practice Of Supply Chain Synchronization, Michael Prokle Jan 2017

Theory And Practice Of Supply Chain Synchronization, Michael Prokle

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, we develop strategies to synchronize component procurement in assemble-to-order (ATO) production and overhaul operations. We focus on the high-tech and mass customization industries which are not only considered to be very important to create or keep U.S. manufacturing jobs, but also suffer most from component inventory burden.

In the second chapter, we address the deterministic joint replenishment inventory problem with batch size constraints (JRPB). We characterize system regeneration points, derive a closed-form expression of the average product inventory, and formulate the problem of finding the optimal joint reorder interval to minimize inventory and ordering costs per ...


Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence Jan 2017

Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence

Doctoral Dissertations

Modern and historic flood risk management involves accommodating multiple sources of sources of uncertainty and potential impacts across a broad range of interrelated sectors. Sources of uncertainty that affect planning include internal climate variability, anthropogenic changes such as land use and system performance expectations, and more recently changes in climatology that affect the resources supporting the system. Flood management systems potentially impact human settlements within and beyond the systems’ scope of planning, local weather patterns, and associated ecological systems. Federal guidelines across nations have called for greater consideration of uncertainty and impacts of water resources planning projects, but methods for ...


Multi-Criteria Decision Making When Planning Sustainable Multimodal Transportation Routes In A Linear Corridor, Marie Louis Jan 2017

Multi-Criteria Decision Making When Planning Sustainable Multimodal Transportation Routes In A Linear Corridor, Marie Louis

Doctoral Dissertations

In urban and suburban locations, public transit can be seen as an effective mode

of daily transportation. The majority of the time, travelers would seek the cheapest, shortest, and possibly most eco-friendly means of transit. When designing public transit network systems, transportation planners and decision-makers, with input from stakeholders, should strive to optimize transportation services to meet the needs of the population most efficiently and at the lowest cost, that is, providing a transportation system that s the three E's of the sustainability concept: environment, social equity, and economic.

Previous studies have focused on sustainability as the primary concern ...


Decision Analytical Methods For Robust Water Infrastructure Planning Under Deep Uncertainty, Mehmet Umit Taner Jan 2017

Decision Analytical Methods For Robust Water Infrastructure Planning Under Deep Uncertainty, Mehmet Umit Taner

Doctoral Dissertations

Deep uncertainties resulting from climate change, demographic pressures, and rapidly evolving socioeconomic conditions are challenging the way that water planners design and operate large-scale infrastructure systems. Conventionally, water infrastructures have been developed using stationary methods, assuming that the underlying uncertainties can be derived from historical data or experience. However, these methods are less useful under deeply uncertain climate and socioeconomic conditions, in which the future can be substantially different from the past and cannot be expressed by well-defined probability distributions. The recognition of deep uncertainties in long-term water resources planning has led to the development of “decision-analytical” frameworks that do ...


Simulation Of 48-Hour Queue Dynamics For A Semi-Private Hospital Ward Considering Blocked Beds, Wei Chen Jan 2016

Simulation Of 48-Hour Queue Dynamics For A Semi-Private Hospital Ward Considering Blocked Beds, Wei Chen

Masters Theses

This thesis study evaluates access to care at an internal medicine unit with solely semi-private rooms at Baystate Medical Center (BMC). Patients are divided into two types: Type I patient consumes one bed; Type II patient occupies two beds or an entire semi-private room as a private space for clinical reasons, resulting in one empty but unavailable (blocked) bed per Type II patient. Because little data is available on blocked beds and Type II patients, unit-level hospital bed planning studies that consider blocked beds have been lacking. This thesis study bridges that gap by building a single-stream and a two-stream ...


Strategies For Reducing Supplier Risk: Inputs Into The Supply Chain, Christopher A. Greene Jan 2016

Strategies For Reducing Supplier Risk: Inputs Into The Supply Chain, Christopher A. Greene

Masters Theses

There are many aspects to consider when managing an entire supply chain from procurement to fulfillment. Complex assemblies require hundreds of components, sourced from all corners of the globe, to come together in a synchronized fashion. Given the magnitude of the supply chain, high quality standards, and significantly increased outsourcing, there is a strong need to monitor supplier risk and quickly identify and mitigate potential problems. Moreover, the continuous pressure to reduce resources and pressure to cut costs, further increases the need for the development of procedures and tools that can quickly and efficiently address these potential supply chain risks ...


Aircraft Demand Forecasting, Kayla M. Monahan Jan 2016

Aircraft Demand Forecasting, Kayla M. Monahan

Masters Theses

This thesis aims to forecast aircraft demand in the aerospace and defense industry, specifically aircraft orders and deliveries. Orders are often placed by airline companies with aircraft manufacturers, and then suddenly canceled due to changes in plans. Therefore, at some point during the three-year lead time, the number of orders placed and realized deliveries may be quite different. As a result, orders and deliveries are very difficult to predict and are influenced by many different factors. Among these factors are past trends, macroeconomic indicators as well as aircraft sales measures. These predictor variables were analyzed thoroughly, then used with time ...


Design, Implementation, And Evaluation Of A User Training Program For Integrating Health Information Technology Into Clinical Processes, Ze He Jan 2016

Design, Implementation, And Evaluation Of A User Training Program For Integrating Health Information Technology Into Clinical Processes, Ze He

Doctoral Dissertations

Health information technology (IT) implementation can be costly, and remains a challenging problem with mixed outcomes on patient safety and quality of care. Systems engineering and IT management experts have advocated the use of sociotechnical models to understand the impact of health IT on user and organizational factors.

Sociotechnical models suggest the need for user-centered implementation approaches, such as user training and support, and focus on processes to mitigate the negative impact and facilitate optimal IT use during training. The training design and development should also follow systematic processes guided by instructional development models. It should take into account of ...


Role Of Low Carbon Energy Technologies In Near Term Energy Policy, Olaitan P. Olaleye Jan 2016

Role Of Low Carbon Energy Technologies In Near Term Energy Policy, Olaitan P. Olaleye

Doctoral Dissertations

In the first part of this thesis, we use a multi-model framework to examine a set of possible future energy scenarios resulting from R&D portfolios of Solar, Nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Bio-Fuels, Bio-Electricity and Batteries for electric transportation. We show that CCS significantly complements Bio-Electricity, while most of the other energy technology pairs are substitutes. From the probabilistic analysis of future energy scenarios we observe that portfolios with CCS tend to stochastically dominate those without CCS; portfolios with only renewables tend to be stochastically dominated by others; and that there are clear decreasing marginal returns to scale. We also find that, with higher damage risk, there is more incentive for technical advancement in CCS and less incentive for development of Solar energy technology.

In the second part of this thesis, we examine the optimal R&D portfolio changes at the different R&D budget levels and how risk in climate damages affects the optimal R&D portfolio. We find that the optimal portfolio is generally not robust to risk, and the optimal investments in the energy technologies vary with risk in climate damages; however R&D investments in certain energy technologies, such as Nuclear, are robust under the different risk ...


The Effect Of Interruptions On Primary Task Performance In Safety-Critical Environments, Cheryl Ann Nicholas Jan 2016

The Effect Of Interruptions On Primary Task Performance In Safety-Critical Environments, Cheryl Ann Nicholas

Doctoral Dissertations

Safety critical systems in medicine utilize alarms to signal potentially life threatening situations to professionals and patients. In particular, in the medical field multiple alarms from equipment are activated daily and often simultaneously. There are a number of alarms which require caregivers to take breaks in complex, primary tasks to attend to the interruption task which is signaled by the alarm. The motivation for this research is the knowledge that, in general, interrupting tasks can have a potentially negative impact on performance and outcomes of the primary task.

The focus of this research is on the effect of an interrupting ...


Stochastic Network Design: Models And Scalable Algorithms, Xiaojian Wu Jan 2016

Stochastic Network Design: Models And Scalable Algorithms, Xiaojian Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

Many natural and social phenomena occur in networks. Examples include the spread of information, ideas, and opinions through a social network, the propagation of an infectious disease among people, and the spread of species within an interconnected habitat network. The ability to modify a phenomenon towards some desired outcomes has widely recognized benefits to our society and the economy. The outcome of a phenomenon is largely determined by the topology or properties of its underlying network. A decision maker can take management actions to modify a network and, therefore, change the outcome of the phenomenon. A management action is an ...


Resource And Supply Allocation And Relief Center Location For Humanitarian Logistics, Guven Ince Feb 2015

Resource And Supply Allocation And Relief Center Location For Humanitarian Logistics, Guven Ince

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines two salient issues that arise in the strategic planning of disaster management operations for providing relief to populations that are impacted by a disaster, such as an earthquake. The first issue is the alleviation of destitution faced by affected populations in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. The second is the establishment of an infrastructure for provision of relief, for a much longer period of time, until normalcy is restored. Central to the alleviation of destitution is the avoidance of critical shortages in meeting the demand for relief supplies. The literature on pro-active and strategic planning of ...


X-Band Dual Polarization Phased-Array Radar For Meteorological Applications, Krzysztof Orzel Feb 2015

X-Band Dual Polarization Phased-Array Radar For Meteorological Applications, Krzysztof Orzel

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation details the development and operation of a novel dual-polarized Phase-Tilt Weather Radar (PTWR) designed for meteorological applications. The use of radar has a well-documented history in detection and classification of weather phenomena, but due to the limited mechanical scanning speed, its usage for severe weather observations remains far from ideal. The PTWR utilizes phased-array technology and provides unique capabilities such as smart scanning, fast scan update, and tracking. This technology is considered a candidate for a replacement and consolidation of the current US weather and surveillance radar networks.

The dissertation can be divided into three parts. First, the ...


Model-Based Guidance For Human-Intensive Processes, Stefan Christov Feb 2015

Model-Based Guidance For Human-Intensive Processes, Stefan Christov

Doctoral Dissertations

Human-intensive processes (HIPs), such as medical processes involving coordination among doctors, nurses, and other medical staff, often play a critical role in society. Despite considerable work and progress in error reduction, human errors are still a major concern for many HIPs.

To address this problem of human errors in HIPs, this thesis investigates two approaches for online process guidance, i.e., for guiding process performers while a process is being executed. Both approaches rely on monitoring a process execution and base the guidance they provide on a detailed formal process model that captures the recommended ways to perform the corresponding ...


Syllabus: Introduction To Mechanical And Industrial Engineering, Erin Baker Jan 2015

Syllabus: Introduction To Mechanical And Industrial Engineering, Erin Baker

Sustainability Education Resources

Student teams will explore engineering analysis and design under the theme of Engineering Sustainability: Energy and the Environment, incorporating economics, environmental impacts, and social concerns. ENGIN 113 is intended to introduce students to the fields of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Engineering, and to provide students with important skills that they will need to be successful in college and the professional world. The specific course objectives are to:  Develop effective teamwork skills, including peer- and self-evaluation.  Practice critical thinking and engineering problem solving.  Take a systems approach to design, incorporating economics, environment, and social concerns  Develop information literacy.  Communicate technical material ...


Classroom Exercise: Intro To Mechanical And Industrial Engineering, Erin Baker Jan 2015

Classroom Exercise: Intro To Mechanical And Industrial Engineering, Erin Baker

Sustainability Education Resources

This classroom exercise was developed for Introduction to Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Engineering Sustainability: Energy and the Environment. This is a freshman class with a class size of about 200. It is intended to get students to think critically about energy in the economy; to recognize the power of technological change; and to inspire them to work toward solving climate change.


Resilience Of Transportation Infrastructure Systems To Climatic Extreme Events, Alexandra C. Testa Jan 2015

Resilience Of Transportation Infrastructure Systems To Climatic Extreme Events, Alexandra C. Testa

Masters Theses

A topology-based approach has been used to measure the resilience of a highway network to climatic events. Civil infrastructure systems are inarguably critical to the everyday functions of society. Because such systems are regionally distributed, their components undergo a wide range of hazard intensities, often dependent on their relative locations. The ability of an infrastructure system to withstand, adapt to, and rapidly recover from extreme events is paramount to its ability to continuously serve users. The topological properties of a network can provide a good means to assess the resilience of the system which is adequate to comprehend the preparedness ...


Evaluation Of A Training Program (Strap) Designed To Decrease Young Drivers Secondary Task Engagement In High Risk Scenarios, Akhilesh Krishnan Jan 2015

Evaluation Of A Training Program (Strap) Designed To Decrease Young Drivers Secondary Task Engagement In High Risk Scenarios, Akhilesh Krishnan

Masters Theses

Distracted driving involving secondary tasks is known to lead to an increased likelihood of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. Some secondary tasks are unnecessary and should never be performed. But other secondary tasks, e.g., operating the defroster, are critical to safe driving. Ideally, the driver should schedule when to perform the critical tasks such that the likelihood of a hazard materializing is relatively small during the performance of the secondary task. The current study evaluates a training program -- STRAP (Secondary Task Regulatory & Anticipatory Program) -- which is designed to make drivers aware of latent hazards in the hope that ...


Application Of Techniques For Map Estimation To Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem, Yoonheui Kim Jan 2015

Application Of Techniques For Map Estimation To Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem, Yoonheui Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

The problem of efficiently finding near-optimal decisions in multi-agent systems has become increasingly important because of the growing number of multi-agent applications with large numbers of agents operating in real-world environments. In these systems, agents are often subject to tight resource constraints and agents have only local views. When agents have non-global constraints, each of which is independent, the problem can be formalized as a distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP). The DCOP is closely associated with the problem of inference on graphical models. Many approaches from inference literature have been adopted to solve DCOPs. We focus on the Max-Sum algorithm ...


Flexibility And Capacity Allocation Under Uncertain Prescheduled (Non-Urgent) Demand And Same-Day (Urgent) Demand In Primary Care Practices, Xiaoling Gao Jan 2015

Flexibility And Capacity Allocation Under Uncertain Prescheduled (Non-Urgent) Demand And Same-Day (Urgent) Demand In Primary Care Practices, Xiaoling Gao

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, we are applying and extending well-established concepts of flexibility in manufacturing and service sectors to a healthcare setting: primary care. In the healthcare scenarios, appointments are booked over time and thus future resource capacity is sequentially being allocated under partial demand information. In manufacturing flexibility is typically presented as a technology choice that requires heavy investment for expensive flexible equipment, or highly cross-trained workers, but can then be used at little or no cost to satisfy demand. In primary care, however, the resources are inherently flexible, as primary care physicians are naturally able to see other panel ...


Guidelines For Scheduling In Primary Care: An Empirically Driven Mathematical Programming Approach, Hyun Jung Alvarez Oh Jan 2015

Guidelines For Scheduling In Primary Care: An Empirically Driven Mathematical Programming Approach, Hyun Jung Alvarez Oh

Doctoral Dissertations

Primary care practices play a vital role in healthcare delivery since they are the first point of contact for most patients, and provide health prevention, counseling, education, diagnosis and treatment. Practices, however, face a complex appointment scheduling problem because of the variety of patient conditions, the mix of appointment types, the uncertain service times with providers and non-provider staff (nurses/medical assistants), and no-show rates which all compound into a highly variable and unpredictable flow of patients. The end result is an imbalance between provider idle time and patient waiting time.

To understand the realities of the scheduling problem we ...