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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Cover Page, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, Paul Watkinson Jul 2007

Cover Page, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, Paul Watkinson

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, Paul Watkinson Jul 2007

Table Of Contents, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, Paul Watkinson

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

No abstract provided.


Preface, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, A. Paul Watkinson Jul 2007

Preface, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, A. Paul Watkinson

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

No abstract provided.


Incorporation Of A Consideration Of Fouling Into The Design Of Vertical Thermo-Siphon Re-Boilers, G.T. Polley, S.J. Pugh Jul 2007

Incorporation Of A Consideration Of Fouling Into The Design Of Vertical Thermo-Siphon Re-Boilers, G.T. Polley, S.J. Pugh

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Two causes of under-performance within the tubes of vertical thermo-siphon re-boilers (VTR’s) are considered: premature dry-out within the unit and chemical reaction fouling at the tube wall. In many cases dryout is itself a cause of fouling. Both of these causes depend on re-boiler geometry. Some geometry performs satisfactorily. Other geometry performs poorly. There are two basic forms of flow boiling: nucleate flow boiling and convective flow boiling. In nucleate flow boiling part of the vaporisation results from the formation of bubbles of vapour on the heated surface. Unfortunately, a thin liquid film (the micro-layer) formed beneath these bubbles ...


Optimization Of Flow Direction To Minimize Particulate Fouling Of Heat Exchangers, M.S. Abd-Elhady, C.C.M. Rindt, A.A. Van Steenhoven Jul 2007

Optimization Of Flow Direction To Minimize Particulate Fouling Of Heat Exchangers, M.S. Abd-Elhady, C.C.M. Rindt, A.A. Van Steenhoven

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The influence of flow direction with respect to gravity on particulate fouling of heat exchangers is investigated experimentally to determine the optimal flow direction to minimize fouling. Four orientations of flow have been investigated, horizontal flow, upward flow, downward flow and a flow under an angle of 45°. It is observed that fouling starts at the point of stagnation irrespective of the flow direction, and also at the top of the heat exchanger tubes. Particulate fouling grows from these two points till they meet and the fouling layer covers the whole surface of the heat exchanger tube. Fouling at the ...


Effect Of Thermal Contact Resistance On The Heat Transfer In Plate Finned Tube Heat Exchangers, D. Taler Jul 2007

Effect Of Thermal Contact Resistance On The Heat Transfer In Plate Finned Tube Heat Exchangers, D. Taler

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers are made by inserting oval tubes through sheet metal strips with stamped holes and then expanding the tubes slightly to cause pressure at the tube-to-strip contacts. The gap between the fin base and the outer tube surface may be filled with air or corrosion products causing a decline in the ability of plate fins to transfer heat. The contact resistance must be accounted for in the design and performance calculations of heat exchangers. In this paper, the thermal contact resistance of the fin-to-tube attachment is estimated from the condition that the dimensionless correlations for the Colburn ...


Fouling During The Use Of ‘Fresh’ Water As Coolant- The Development Of A ‘User Guide’, S. J. Pugh, G. F. Hewitt, H. Müller-Steinhagen Jul 2007

Fouling During The Use Of ‘Fresh’ Water As Coolant- The Development Of A ‘User Guide’, S. J. Pugh, G. F. Hewitt, H. Müller-Steinhagen

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

IHS ESDU recently published its latest ‘User Guide’ to fouling in heat exchange systems, for systems with fresh water as the coolant. ESDU 07006 [1] is the third in a group, following the development of the Crude Oil Fouling User Guide [2] issued in 2000 and the Seawater Fouling User Guide [3] issued in 2004. ESDU 07006 was developed by IHS ESDU over a period of five years under the guidance of the Oil Industry Fouling Working Party, a collaborative team of oil refiners, heat transfer equipment and services suppliers and Universities. It provides designers and operators of cooling water ...


Metallic Micro Heat Exchangers: Properties, Applications And Long Term Stability, J.J. Brandner, W. Benzinger, U. Schygulla, S. Zimmermann, K. Schubert Jul 2007

Metallic Micro Heat Exchangers: Properties, Applications And Long Term Stability, J.J. Brandner, W. Benzinger, U. Schygulla, S. Zimmermann, K. Schubert

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Micro heat exchangers, which until recently have been implemented only at laboratory scale, are now being available for industrial applications. They are well known for their superior heat transfer properties due to the large surface-to-volume ratio. But there are little data available on the long term stability of these devices. In this paper application several application examples for micro heat exchangers made of stainless steel are presented. The devices consist of stainless steel foils providing numerous micro channels generated by mechanical micromachining or wet chemical etching. A number of the foils are arranged in a specific way and bonded together ...


Influence Of Different Surface Materials On The Fouling Process In A Microstructured Heat Exchanger Under Laminar Regime, W. Benzinger, J.J. Brandner, U. Schygulla, K. Schubert Jul 2007

Influence Of Different Surface Materials On The Fouling Process In A Microstructured Heat Exchanger Under Laminar Regime, W. Benzinger, J.J. Brandner, U. Schygulla, K. Schubert

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Microstructure devices are well known for their excellent performance with regard to heat and mass transfer. Microstructured heat exchangers show significant advantages in comparison with conventional heat exchangers. The unique properties of a microreaction system show high overall heat transfer coefficients for example. Small characteristic dimensions are in the order of a few hundred μm (Schubert et al., 1998, 2001; Worz et al, 1998). Due to the small dimensions, an increased pressure drop is combined with excellent heat transfer properties. But the small channels are prone to fouling processes. The accumulation of crystalline deposits is a severe problem. An additional ...


Towards An Understanding Of How Tube Inserts Mitigate Fouling In Heat Exchangers, B. Aquino, C. Derouin, G.T. Polley Jul 2007

Towards An Understanding Of How Tube Inserts Mitigate Fouling In Heat Exchangers, B. Aquino, C. Derouin, G.T. Polley

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

A number of studies undertaken by Total have measured the improvement that can be expected when TurbotalTM inserts are installed in heat exchangers. These studies have fully established that TurbotalTM both improve heat transfer coefficient and mitigate fouling. It has been found that fouling levels vary with application. Consequently, economics of installing inserts are difficult to quantify. Gains must be estimated through specific tests. A model that predicts fouling development solves this problem. In this paper first steps towards the understanding of how TurbotalTM limits the fouling rate are described. Authors suggest that the calculation of both pressure drop and ...


Hitran® Wire Matrix Inserts In Fouling Applications, J.M. Ritchie, P. Droegemueller, M.J.H. Simmons Jul 2007

Hitran® Wire Matrix Inserts In Fouling Applications, J.M. Ritchie, P. Droegemueller, M.J.H. Simmons

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Fouling characteristics are dictated largely by the properties of the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers. As a result, fouling mitigation strategies must take into account the conditions in this region. hiTRAN® wire matrix tube inserts are a useful tool in altering the conditions near the tube wall, especially in the laminar and transition flow regions. This review paper considers Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements, which were employed in order to show the hydrodynamic differences between plain tubes and those containing inserts. Measurements indicate that the wall shear rate in tubes containing hiTRAN® inserts operating in ...


Biofouling Control In Heat Exchangers Using High Voltage Capacitance Based Technology, R. Romo, M. M. Pitts, N. B. Handagama Jul 2007

Biofouling Control In Heat Exchangers Using High Voltage Capacitance Based Technology, R. Romo, M. M. Pitts, N. B. Handagama

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Biofouling in industrial heat exchangers and piping systems is common in water from all sources. Problems generated by biofouling such as corrosion, sludge deposition and scale formation have a costly impact on industrial equipment and productivity. This paper describes an electronic approach using High Voltage Capacitance Based technology (HVCB) to control biofouling in industrial heat exchangers, focusing upon biofilm removal and the prevention of biofilm formation. Four different application case studies are presented in this paper in which the HVCB technology was used to control biofouling. The applications include an evaporative cooling wall in a greenhouse in Oracle, Arizona; a ...


Double Perforated Impingement Plate (Dpip) In Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger, S. S. Al-Anizi, A. M. Al-Otaibi Jul 2007

Double Perforated Impingement Plate (Dpip) In Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger, S. S. Al-Anizi, A. M. Al-Otaibi

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

This paper presents a solution to a chronic problem causing repeated tube failure at shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The problem is related to fouling process on tubes surface which accumulates downstream the impingement plate at exchanger inlet nozzle within the first tube rows due to low velocity and vortices production. In fouling services, the suspended deposits, fouling, accumulates on tubes surface downstream the impingement plate causing under-deposit corrosion and raising tubes surface temperature due to lack of cooling accelerating fouling process. Under fouling corrosion attacks tubes and causes repeated tube failure costing a lot of money in terms of material, maintenance ...


Solving A Hydtrotreater Feed Filter Fouling Problem, X.A. Wu, K.H. Chung Jul 2007

Solving A Hydtrotreater Feed Filter Fouling Problem, X.A. Wu, K.H. Chung

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Feed filters were installed in Syncrude hydrotreater units to protect the catalyst beds from plugging by fine solids in the feed. Severe filter fouling occurred after a process flow sheet change. The root cause of fouling was revealed through a step-by-step scientific investigation. It was first confirmed that the fouling problem was related to a process flow sheet change that introduced a heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) stream into the coker combined gas oil (KCGO) stream prior to filtration. Characterization of the foulant and the feed indicated that the fouling reactions are likely oxidative polymerization. Iron naphthenate or naphthenic acid ...


Cleaning And Prevention Of Inorganic Deposits In Plate Heat Exchangers Using Pulsating Current, A. Pehkonen, J. Aromaa, O. Forsén, J. Virtanen, I. Galfi Jul 2007

Cleaning And Prevention Of Inorganic Deposits In Plate Heat Exchangers Using Pulsating Current, A. Pehkonen, J. Aromaa, O. Forsén, J. Virtanen, I. Galfi

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Fouling of heat exchangers is a major problem in many industrial processes. The higher temperature of the heat exchange surface compared with the liquid containing precipitable compounds causes the formation of inorganic deposits. Removing the deposits on plate heat exchangers is most often carried out by high-pressure cleaning. This is a laborious task and often increases the corrosion rate of the plates by increasing the roughness of the cleaned surface. This study presents an electrochemical method to clean heat exchange surfaces fouled by deposits and to prevent formation of deposits. This method utilizes pulsating current to polarize heat exchange surfaces ...


Cleaning High-Speed Marine Separators With An Environmentally-Friendly Cip Agent, Ulf Nylén, Roger Andersson, Peter Forsberg Jul 2007

Cleaning High-Speed Marine Separators With An Environmentally-Friendly Cip Agent, Ulf Nylén, Roger Andersson, Peter Forsberg

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The present contribution is devoted to the cleaning of high-speed marine separators employing the environmentally-friendly Cleaning In Place (CIP) agent Alpacon Multi Cip Super. For this particular study an Alfa Laval lube oil separator of type S831 on board the ship MS Isabella was dismantled prior to its first CIP treatment since installation and a few of the sludge-coated insert discs were taken as samples for laboratory experiments. Following assembly, the separator was cleaned according to a standard CIP protocol. Back in the laboratory, experiments mimicking the field CIP conditions verified the excellent cleaning results observed by visual inspection out ...


Automatic Tube Cleaning System (Atcs) Installation In Sulfide Retrieval Monoethanolamine Treatment Plant: Case Study And Fouling Global Perspectives, Chemi Sugarmen, Udi Siboni, Ruth Volansky Jul 2007

Automatic Tube Cleaning System (Atcs) Installation In Sulfide Retrieval Monoethanolamine Treatment Plant: Case Study And Fouling Global Perspectives, Chemi Sugarmen, Udi Siboni, Ruth Volansky

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Automatic cleaning of heat exchangers and condensers tubes by means of sponge balls is well known since the early fifties, with expanding application from steam power plants to process industry to industrial cooling and air conditioning systems. Main benefits bottom-lined in cost savings are generally considered as: elimination of maintenance down-time and need for chemical and more efficient operation of process and plant. This paper presents the performance and benefits of an Automatic Tube Cleaning System (ATCS) implementations, in a hydrogen sulfide retrieval Monoethanolamine treatment Plant in Paz Ashdod Refinery, one of the two refineries in Israel. Patented by CQM ...


Fouling Monitoring And Cleaning Optimisation In A Heat Exchanger Network Of A Crude Distillation Unit, Andrea Heins, Ramón Veiga, Carlos Ruiz, Andrés Riera Jul 2007

Fouling Monitoring And Cleaning Optimisation In A Heat Exchanger Network Of A Crude Distillation Unit, Andrea Heins, Ramón Veiga, Carlos Ruiz, Andrés Riera

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Fouling in preheat networks of crude distillation units (CDU) plays an important role in energy consumption. In this work a procedure to monitor the performance of the heat exchanger network (HEN) and to optimize the cleaning strategies is presented. The procedure is based on a rigorous simulation of the HEN using Hysys (from Aspen Technology). The simulation is used to estimate the service overall heat transfer coefficient with real operational data acquired from the unit’s Plant Information System (PI). The clean overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated for each one of the individual heat exchangers with a rigorous simulation ...


Cfd And Neural Network-Based Expert System For The Supervision Of Boilers And Furnaces, Hugo Calisto, Nelson Martins, Naim Afgan Jul 2007

Cfd And Neural Network-Based Expert System For The Supervision Of Boilers And Furnaces, Hugo Calisto, Nelson Martins, Naim Afgan

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) tools were used to build a "virtual" furnace, validated with experimental data. This model was used to simulate both normal and “faulty” behaviours, regarding parameters such as energy conversion efficiency, steam leakage and fouling. A database was developed comprising normal situations and simulated fault sets, characterized by virtual sensor outputs used in the evaluation of diagnostic parameters patterns to be processed and recognized by the diagnostic system. The database was processed using Neural Networks, with satisfactory results even in their most simple form (backpropagation networks) trained using standard algorithms. Pattern recognition was thus performed, identifying root ...


Slag Monitoring System For Combustion Chambers Of Steam Boilers, J. Taler, D. Taler Jul 2007

Slag Monitoring System For Combustion Chambers Of Steam Boilers, J. Taler, D. Taler

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The computer based boiler performance system, presented in this paper, has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate ...


Cleaning Monitoring Using Controlled Nano-Vibrations, A. Pereira, J. Mendes, L.F. Melo Jul 2007

Cleaning Monitoring Using Controlled Nano-Vibrations, A. Pereira, J. Mendes, L.F. Melo

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The monitoring of fouling and cleaning has become very important in order to optimize production cycles, to increase the quality of the final product and to reduce environmental impacts. The aim of the study here presented was to use the MSS – Mechatronic Surface Sensor, to detect the cleaning end-point of hair shampoo removal under different cleaning conditions. It was found that this new monitoring tool was able to clearly identify when the equipment was cleaned, producing different cleaning curves for different cleaning conditions.


Electrochemical Impedance And Digital Image Methods To Detect Initial Deposition Of Microorganisms, H. Men, S. W. Mu, Z. W. Lu, Y. L. Chen, S.R. Yang, Y. P. Jia, S. X. Cao Jul 2007

Electrochemical Impedance And Digital Image Methods To Detect Initial Deposition Of Microorganisms, H. Men, S. W. Mu, Z. W. Lu, Y. L. Chen, S.R. Yang, Y. P. Jia, S. X. Cao

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Microorganism in industrial cooling water can cause corrosion and biofouling. Electrochemical impedance method and digital image method (DIM) were used to detect quantitatively iron bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. Microorganism growth and metabolism can change the impedance of culture medium. The detection time of impedance variation lie in the function relationship with the logarithm of bacteria concentration. 7-million-pixel CCD sensor was used to shoot the shape of microorganism in order to count the number. Compared with most probable number (MPN) method, the detection time of electrochemical impedance is shortened. The DIM reduces the bacteria counting time and the inaccuracy associated with ...


Investigation Of Fouling Process For Convective Heat Transfer In An Annular Duct, Y.C. Chen, Z.H. Quan, C.F. Ma Jul 2007

Investigation Of Fouling Process For Convective Heat Transfer In An Annular Duct, Y.C. Chen, Z.H. Quan, C.F. Ma

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Experimental and theoretical study is summarized of fouling process on heat transfer surface. An automatic monitoring system was set up to determine impact of fouling. Experiments were performed with artificial hard water as a working fluid at different conditions. Some important parameters including water temperature, wall temperature, flow velocity, water hardness and alkalinity were testified to make sure their influences on the fouling process on heat transfer surfaces. The ranges of water temperature, wall temperature, flow velocity and water hardness are between 20~50℃, 50~75℃, 0.5~2.0m/s, 200 ~ 1000mg/L (as CaCO3), respectively. All the experimental ...


Extending The Induction Period Of Crystallization Fouling Through Surface Coating, T. Geddert, I. Bialuch, W. Augustin, S. Scholl Jul 2007

Extending The Induction Period Of Crystallization Fouling Through Surface Coating, T. Geddert, I. Bialuch, W. Augustin, S. Scholl

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

To minimize the negative effects of scale formation in heat exchangers, new anti-fouling strategies are focusing on the modification of heat transfer surfaces. These modifications should lead to tailored made surfaces for different technical applications. Aim of this surface modification is the extension of the induction period to minimize the negative effects of fouling and maximize the endurance of the heat exchanger. To achieve such, different surface coatings on stainless steel were investigated in respect of fouling tendency. The effect of flow velocity respectively Reynolds number on the induction time of CaSO4 crystallization fouling were tested in different test units ...


Influence Of Different Surface Materials On Nucleation And Crystal Growth In Heat Exchangers, T. Geddert, S. Kipp, W. Augustin, S. Scholl Jul 2007

Influence Of Different Surface Materials On Nucleation And Crystal Growth In Heat Exchangers, T. Geddert, S. Kipp, W. Augustin, S. Scholl

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The influence of different materials on the fouling tendency in saline calcium sulfate solution was investigated. The effects of the untreated material on the crystallization process have been studied experimentally in the micro- and macroscopic scale. The crystallization in the induction period was visualized with SEM and AFM to locate preferred nucleation spots and to visualize the crystal growth. The different materials are showing different crystal growth behavior (number and size of the crystals). These results are corresponding with the macroscopic fouling results with limited shear stress. Also different roughness values on stainless steel have been studied with respect to ...


Bacterial And Protein Adhesion On Ni-P-Ptfe Coated Surfaces, Q. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Wang Jul 2007

Bacterial And Protein Adhesion On Ni-P-Ptfe Coated Surfaces, Q. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Liu, S. Wang

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The adhesion of bacteria and proteins on the surfaces of heat exchangers and food processing equipment has been recognized as a widespread problem. Biofouling not only reduces heat transfer performance significantly, but also causes considerable pressure drop, calling for higher pumping requirements. Biofouling also present a considerable hygiene risk in the food industry. It would be much more desirable if surfaces with an inherently lower stickability for biofouling could be developed. In this paper, stainless steel 304 plates were modified by electroless plating Ni-P and small amounts of PTFE. The experimental results showed that the surface free energy of the ...


Low Fouling Crude Oil Preheaters: Scrap Your Existing Conventional Crude Oil Preheaters, Replace Them By Low Fouling Heat Exchangers And Save Money, D.G. Klaren, E.F. De Boer, D.W. Sullivan Jul 2007

Low Fouling Crude Oil Preheaters: Scrap Your Existing Conventional Crude Oil Preheaters, Replace Them By Low Fouling Heat Exchangers And Save Money, D.G. Klaren, E.F. De Boer, D.W. Sullivan

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

In a time that crude oil prices are constantly higher than US$ 60 per barrel, low fouling heat exchangers can reduce total fouling cost in all crude oil preheat trains in the world with a throughput of 74 Mn bpd by 90%. For 2006, this is a reduction from approximately US$ 11 Bn to US$ 1.3 Bn and a saving on annual fouling cost of US$ 9.7 Bn. Besides this saving on fouling cost, substantial additional savings can be realized on energy by a more ‘energy efficient’ design of the crude oil preheat train. The advantages of the ...


Achievements And Potential Of Self-Cleaning Heat Exchangers Using Untreated Natural Seawater As A Coolant, D.G. Klaren, E.F. De Boer Jul 2007

Achievements And Potential Of Self-Cleaning Heat Exchangers Using Untreated Natural Seawater As A Coolant, D.G. Klaren, E.F. De Boer

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The fluidized bed self-cleaning heat exchange technology has been developed in the 70s for the application in thermal desalination plants, like Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) evaporators. This paper summarizes the achievements of the Multi-Stage Flash / Fluidized Bed Evaporator (MSF/FBE) in the past, but also pays attention to its market potential today, whether or not in combination with the possible revamp of existing conventional MSF plants into a better performing configuration. Further, this paper also pays attention to the application of the self-cleaning heat exchange technology for closedloop coolers or so-called ‘mother-coolers’ for large chemical plants. Last but not least, attention ...


Modelling Of Particulate Fouling On Heat Exchanger Surfaces: Influence Of Bubbles On Iron Oxide Deposition., D.H. Lister, F.C. Cussac Jul 2007

Modelling Of Particulate Fouling On Heat Exchanger Surfaces: Influence Of Bubbles On Iron Oxide Deposition., D.H. Lister, F.C. Cussac

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

Studies of iron oxide deposition on Alloy-800 heatexchanger tubes have been part of a continuing research program at the University of New Brunswick; the present work formulates mechanisms for the effect of bubbles on deposition in water under boiling conditions. To supplement results from earlier deposition experiments in a fouling loop at UNB, measurements of bubble frequency and departure diameter as a function of heat flux were performed. High-speed movies of bubbling air/water systems indicated that a pumping action moved particles from adjacent areas at the surface to bubble nucleation sites. To explain the observations, the model considers deposition ...


Intelligent Discrimination Model To Identify Influential Parameters During Crystallisation Fouling, M.R. Malayeri, H. Müller-Steinhagen Jul 2007

Intelligent Discrimination Model To Identify Influential Parameters During Crystallisation Fouling, M.R. Malayeri, H. Müller-Steinhagen

Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII

The introduction of redundant independent variables into any function approximation model, or the neglect of important variables, may result in a correlation with poor prediction and reduced reliability. This paper demonstrates that a novel integrated model of neural networks and genetic algorithms can deal with this problem robustly with good accuracy, while be far less time-consuming compared to lengthy conventional models Furthermore, a redundant variable input was imposed to the model to discern if the approach could identify it among other important variables. Genetic algorithms were exploited as a powerful optimisation tool for the selection of best set of inputs ...