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Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Work In Progress - Enhancing Student-Learning Through State-Of-The-Art Systems Level Design And Implementation, Albert A. Liddicoat, Jianbiao Pan, James G. Harris, Dominic J. Dal Bello, Lynne A. Slivovsky Oct 2008

Work In Progress - Enhancing Student-Learning Through State-Of-The-Art Systems Level Design And Implementation, Albert A. Liddicoat, Jianbiao Pan, James G. Harris, Dominic J. Dal Bello, Lynne A. Slivovsky

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

The curriculum for undergraduate engineering programs is often partitioned into several courses that are taught in isolation followed by a single culminating senior design or capstone project experience. In the senior design class students being to synthesize the knowledge and skills that they acquired through the engineering curriculum. This paper presents lower and upper division course and curricular changes made to accommodate learning objectives that better prepare students for project-based learning. These learning experiences and skills include: systems level design, experience with state-of-the-art Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, printed circuit board (PBC) design, design for manufacturability, electronics assembly, project management ...


Alternative Binder Carbide Tools For Machining Superalloys, Daniel J. Waldorf, Michael Stender, Scott Liu, Daniel Norgan Oct 2008

Alternative Binder Carbide Tools For Machining Superalloys, Daniel J. Waldorf, Michael Stender, Scott Liu, Daniel Norgan

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

This study examines the performance of a new class of wear-resistant but economical cutting tools produced by varying the binder composition of standard cemented carbide composites. By replacing some or all of the cobalt binder with rhenium and nickel-based superalloy, a stronger composite tool results, potentially capable of machining heat-resistant superalloys at significantly higher cutting speeds. Sample tools with alternative binder were produced and compared to standard tools bound with cobalt only. Turning experiments on Inconel 718 were run to evaluate wear resistance and tool life for several grades. The experimentation also examined the effects of varying the relative proportions ...


Enhancing Student Learning Through State-Of-The-Art Systems Level Design And Implementation: The Development Of A Lower Division Learning Module, James G. Harris, Dominic Dal Bello, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat Jun 2008

Enhancing Student Learning Through State-Of-The-Art Systems Level Design And Implementation: The Development Of A Lower Division Learning Module, James G. Harris, Dominic Dal Bello, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

The Cal Poly/Allan Hancock team is developing a learning module that will allow all lower division engineering students to design, fabricate, assemble, and test an electronic system implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB). All the services necessary to perform this laboratory experiment will be provided with low-cost vendors available on the . The learning module is being developed so that it can be integrated into the existing electrical engineering lower division courses that are required by all engineering students. The laboratory learning module will use operational amplifiers (op amp), resistors, capacitors and other common electronic components to study the ...


Curricular Enhancement To Support Project-Based Learning In Computer And Electrical Engineering, Albert Liddicoat, Jianbiao Pan, James G. Harris, Lynne A. Slivovsky Jun 2008

Curricular Enhancement To Support Project-Based Learning In Computer And Electrical Engineering, Albert Liddicoat, Jianbiao Pan, James G. Harris, Lynne A. Slivovsky

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Undergraduate computer and electrical engineering programs often partition the curriculum into several courses based on related topics taught in isolation. Students are expected to synthesize their knowledge in a senior design project. It is the authors’ experience that students often struggle during their senior design project since they have not gained the appropriate knowledge or mastered necessary skills needed to work on a significant or team-based engineering design project. Specifically, students need to be able to define system requirements, partition the design into subcomponents, design, build, test, and verify that the system requirements have been met. The authors have enhanced ...


A Project-Based Electronics Manufacturing Laboratory Course For Lower-Division Engineering Students, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat, James G. Harris, Dominic Dal Bello Jun 2008

A Project-Based Electronics Manufacturing Laboratory Course For Lower-Division Engineering Students, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat, James G. Harris, Dominic Dal Bello

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

This paper presents a project-based laboratory course on electronics design and manufacturing. The goal of this course is to provide lower-division engineering students a hands-on experience involving actual printed circuit board (PCB) design, layout, fabrication, assembly, and testing. Through project-based learning, students not only learn technical skills in designing and manufacturing an electronic device, but also develop their project management and communication skills early in their course of study at the university. The course outline and examples of the student projects are presented in this paper as well as project evaluations and students’ feedback. This paper also presents the selection ...


Techniques For Developing Large Scale Fuzzy Logic Systems, Jon C. Ervin, Sema E. Alptekin Jun 2008

Techniques For Developing Large Scale Fuzzy Logic Systems, Jon C. Ervin, Sema E. Alptekin

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

In this paper, we describe various techniques used to make Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic Systems amenable to operating on applications with large numbers of inputs. A rule reduction technique known as Combs method is combined with an automated tuning process based on Particle Swarm Optimization. A second stage of tuning on rule weights results in improved performance and further reduction in the size of the rule-base. The entire process has been developed to operate within the Matlab software environment. The technique is tested against the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Database. The use of these tools shows great promise in significantly expanding the ...


Drop Test Reliability Of Lead-Free Chip Scale Packages, Andrew Farris, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat, Brian J. Toleno, Dan Maslyk, Dongkai Shangguan, Jasbir Bath, Dennis Willie, David A. Geiger May 2008

Drop Test Reliability Of Lead-Free Chip Scale Packages, Andrew Farris, Jianbiao Pan, Albert Liddicoat, Brian J. Toleno, Dan Maslyk, Dongkai Shangguan, Jasbir Bath, Dennis Willie, David A. Geiger

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

This paper presents the drop test reliability of 0.5 mm pitch lead-free chip scale packages (CSPs). Fifteen 0.5 mm pitch CSPs were assembled on a standard JEDEC drop reliability test board with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu lead-free solder. Eight boards were edge-bonded with a UV-cured acrylic; eight boards were edge- bonded with a thermal-cured epoxy; and twelve boards were assembled without edge bonding. Half of the edge-bonded test boards were subjected to drop tests at a peak acceleration of 1500 G with a pulse duration of 0.5 ms, and the other half subjected to drop tests at a ...


Designing And Manufacturing Microelectronic Packages For High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes, Brian Wright, Jianbiao Pan, Richard Savage Nov 2007

Designing And Manufacturing Microelectronic Packages For High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes, Brian Wright, Jianbiao Pan, Richard Savage

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

A new microelectronic package was designed for a high-power light-emitting diode (LED). The objective was to build a package that enables the LED to operate with currents as high as 2 Amps. An innovative thin-film interface has been developed to electrically connect the cathode of the LED die to a 22AWG Cu wire. This thin-film interface is wirebondable and solderable, and consists of three layers: Au, Ni93/V7, and Si. Four 1 mil Au wirebonds, supporting 2A of maximum current, connect the Au thin-film to the LED die cathode. Sn96Ag4 solder is used for connecting the Ni93/V7 thin-film to ...


In-House Development Of Scheduling Decision Support Systems: Case Study For Scheduling Semiconductor Device Test Operations, Tali Freed, K. H. Doerr, T. Chang Nov 2007

In-House Development Of Scheduling Decision Support Systems: Case Study For Scheduling Semiconductor Device Test Operations, Tali Freed, K. H. Doerr, T. Chang

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Most manufacturing processes can benefit from an automated scheduling system. However;: the design of a fast, computerised scheduling system that achieves high-quality results and requires minimal resources is a difficult undertaking. Efficient .. scheduling of a semiconductor device test facility requires an information system that provides good schedules quickly. Semiconductor device testing-is the last stage of the long semiconductor manufacturing process, and therefore. is subjected to customer service pressures. The cost of an off-the-shelf computerised scheduling system may he prohibitive for many companies. In addition, many companies are taken aback by other characteristics of off-the-shelf scheduling systems, such as code confidentiality ...


Fabrication Of Functionally Graded 3a/5a Zeolites By Electrophoretic Deposition, X. Wang, E. A. Olevsky, E. Bruce, M. B. Stern, D. T. Hayhurst Nov 2007

Fabrication Of Functionally Graded 3a/5a Zeolites By Electrophoretic Deposition, X. Wang, E. A. Olevsky, E. Bruce, M. B. Stern, D. T. Hayhurst

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Functionally graded zeolites of molecular sieve type 3A and 5A are deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from acetone suspension with 8% volume concentration of n-butylamine as particle charging agent. The EPD characteristics of both 3A and 5A suspensions are studied. Functionally graded zeolite 3A/5A deposits are obtained at 200 V DC. Energy dispersive X-ray dispersion (EDX) analysis results confirm the graded structure. The deposited zeolites are also analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The factors influencing the deposition process are discussed.


The Benefits Of Automatic Data Collection In The Fresh Produce Supply Chain, Ryan Charles Panos, Tali Freed Sep 2007

The Benefits Of Automatic Data Collection In The Fresh Produce Supply Chain, Ryan Charles Panos, Tali Freed

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

The potential for RFID based systems to improve the safety and efficiency of a supply chain with rapidly decaying products and strict health standards is creating pressure to adopt RFID in several agricultural industries. A handful of fresh produce industry leaders currently participate in mandated pilot projects, while the industry as a whole is still intimidated by the perceived cost of RFID. Therefore in this study we attempt to validate the correlation between performance and automated data collection, paving the way to economic justification of investment in data collection technologies, such as barcode and RFID.

The majority of product in ...


Fabrication Of Net-Shape Functionally Graded Composites By Electrophoretic Deposition And Sintering: Modeling And Experimentation, E.A. Olevsky, X. Wang, A. Maximenko, M.A. Meyers Jun 2007

Fabrication Of Net-Shape Functionally Graded Composites By Electrophoretic Deposition And Sintering: Modeling And Experimentation, E.A. Olevsky, X. Wang, A. Maximenko, M.A. Meyers

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

It is shown that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) sintering is a technological sequence that is capable of producing net-shape bulk functionally graded materials (FGM). By controlling the shape of the deposition electrode, components of complex shapes can be obtained. To enable sintering net-shape capabilities, a novel optimization algorithm and procedure for the fabrication of net-shape functionally graded composites by EPD and sintering has been developed. The initial shape of the green specimen produced by EPD is designed in such a way that the required final shape is achieved after sintering-imposed distortions. The optimization is based on a special innovative iteration procedure ...


Investigation Of The Lead-Free Solder Joint Shear Performance, James Webster, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno Apr 2007

Investigation Of The Lead-Free Solder Joint Shear Performance, James Webster, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Reflow profile has significant impact on solder joint performance because it influences wetting and microstructure of the solder joint. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of reflow profile and thermal shock on the shear performance of eutectic SnPb (SnPb) and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder joints. Test boards were assembled with four different sized surface mount chip resistors (1206, 0805, 0603 and 0402). Nine reflow profiles for SAC 305 and nine reflow profiles for SnPb were developed with three levels of peak temperature (12ºC, 22ºC, and 32ºC above solder liquidus temperature, or 230ºC, 240ºC, and 250ºC ...


Synthesis Of Gold Micro- And Nano-Wires By Infiltration And Thermolysis, E.A. Olevsky, X. Wang, E. Bruce, M.B. Stern, S. Wildhack, F. Aldinger Feb 2007

Synthesis Of Gold Micro- And Nano-Wires By Infiltration And Thermolysis, E.A. Olevsky, X. Wang, E. Bruce, M.B. Stern, S. Wildhack, F. Aldinger

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

An approach for synthesizing micro- and nano-sized gold wires by infiltration and thermolysis is investigated. A porous ZrO2 ceramic preform with aligned pores obtained by unidirectional freezing and freeze-drying is employed as an infiltration template. The sintered porous ZrO2 preform is then infiltrated by a brushing gold solution. The thermolysis is conducted at 600 °C in air. Micro- and nano-sized gold wires are developed within the walls of the pores after thermolysis. The diameter of the gold wires ranges from several hundred nanometers to several microns.


Backward And Forward Compatibility, Jianbiao Pan, Jasbir Bath, Xiang Zhou, Dennis Willie Jan 2007

Backward And Forward Compatibility, Jianbiao Pan, Jasbir Bath, Xiang Zhou, Dennis Willie

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

In response to the European Union (EU) Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and other countries’ impending lead-free directives, the electronics industry is moving toward lead-free soldering. Total lead-free soldering requires not only lead-free solder paste but also lead-free printed circuit board (PCB) finish and lead-free component/packages. Transitioning tin-lead (SnPb) soldering to totally lead-free soldering is a complex issue and involves movement of the whole electronics industry supply chain. In reality, there is a transition period.


Effect Of Chromium–Gold And Titanium–Titanium Nitride–Platinum–Gold Metallization On Wire/Ribbon Bondability, Jianbiao Pan, Robert M. Pafchek, Frank F. Judd, Jason B. Baxter Nov 2006

Effect Of Chromium–Gold And Titanium–Titanium Nitride–Platinum–Gold Metallization On Wire/Ribbon Bondability, Jianbiao Pan, Robert M. Pafchek, Frank F. Judd, Jason B. Baxter

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Gold metallization on wafer substrates for wire/ribbon bond applications requires good bond strength to the substrate without weakening the wire/ribbon. This paper compares the ribbon bondability of Cr-Au and Ti-TiN-Pt-Au metallization systems for an optoelectronic application. Both Chromium and Titanium are used to promote adhesion between semiconductor substrates and sputtered gold films. However, both will be oxidized if they diffuse to the gold surface and result in the degradation of the wire/ribbon bondability. Restoring bondability by ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) etch was investigated. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Cr-Au and Ti-TiN-Pt-Au, annealing, and CAN ...


Investigation Of The Lead-Free Solder Joint Shear Performance, James Webster, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno Oct 2006

Investigation Of The Lead-Free Solder Joint Shear Performance, James Webster, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Reflow profile has significant impact on solder joint performance because it influences wetting and microstructure of the solder joint. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of reflow profile and thermal shock on the shear performance of eutectic SnPb (SnPb) and Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder joints. Test boards were assembled with four different sized surface mount chip resistors (1206, 0805, 0603 and 0402). Nine reflow profiles for SAC 305 and nine reflow profiles for SnPb were developed with three levels of peak temperature (12ºC, 22ºC, and 32ºC above solder liquidus temperature, or 230ºC, 240ºC, and 250ºC ...


Estimation Of Liquidus Temperature When Snagcu Bga/Csp Components Are Soldered With Snpb Paste, Jianbiao Pan Aug 2006

Estimation Of Liquidus Temperature When Snagcu Bga/Csp Components Are Soldered With Snpb Paste, Jianbiao Pan

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Recently, the soldering of lead-free components with SnPb paste, or lead-free backward compatibility, is becoming a hot topic. One of the major challenges in backward compatibility assembly is the development of a right reflow profile for the soldering of SnAgCu Ball Grid Array (BGA)/Chip Scale Package (CSP) components with SnPb paste. If the SnAgCu reflow profile is used, the reflow temperature may be too high for other SnPb components in the same board during assembly according to the component rating per IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020C. In addition, the flux in SnPb solder paste may not function properly in such a ...


A Comparative Study Of Various Loss Functions In The Economic Tolerance Design, Jehnan Pan, Jianbiao Pan Jun 2006

A Comparative Study Of Various Loss Functions In The Economic Tolerance Design, Jehnan Pan, Jianbiao Pan

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Engineering tolerance design plays an important role in modern manufacturing. In this paper, the Kapur's model was modified so that the economic specification limits for both symmetric and asymmetric losses can be established. Three different loss functions: (1) Taguchi's quadratic loss function; (2) Inverted Normal Loss Function; (3) Revised Inverted Normal Loss Function are compared in the economic tolerance design. The relationships between the three loss functions and process capability indices for symmetric tolerance are established. The results suggest that the revised inverted normal loss function be used in determination of economic specification limits.


Plotting A Bright Future For Manufacturing Education: Results Of A Brainstorming Session, Daniel Waldorf, Sema E. Alptekin, Robert Bjurman Jun 2006

Plotting A Bright Future For Manufacturing Education: Results Of A Brainstorming Session, Daniel Waldorf, Sema E. Alptekin, Robert Bjurman

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Manufacturing industries worldwide have undergone dramatic changes in recent years and now demand more from graduating manufacturing engineers. The effects of globalization have forever changed the parameters for success in manufacturing. Our educational institutions must respond to these changes with innovation. That agenda formed the basis for a special SME/CIRP international conference on manufacturing engineering education called “Looking Forward: Innovations in Manufacturing Engineering Education,” held in San Luis Obispo, California, June 22-25, 2005. At the meeting, manufacturing education professionals from around the world came together to share their own innovative ideas and to brainstorm ways to shape the future ...


Processing Model For Tungsten Powders And Extention To Nanoscale Size Range, Randall M. German, J. Ma, X. Wang, E. Olevsky Mar 2006

Processing Model For Tungsten Powders And Extention To Nanoscale Size Range, Randall M. German, J. Ma, X. Wang, E. Olevsky

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Nanoscale tungsten powders promise access to very hard, strong and wear resistant materials via the press–sinter route. A small particle size changes the response during sintering, requiring lower temperatures and shorter times to attain dense but small grain size structures. On the other hand, oxide reduction and impurity evaporation favour high sintering temperatures and long hold times. Accordingly, press–sinter processing encounters conflicting constraints when applied to small particles. Presented here is an analysis of press–sinter tungsten particle processing to isolate conditions that balance the temperature and size dependent effects. The calculations are pinned by existing data. Opportunities ...


A Simplified Model For Ploughing Forces In Turning, Daniel Waldorf Jan 2006

A Simplified Model For Ploughing Forces In Turning, Daniel Waldorf

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

This paper aims to provide experimental data in support of a modified theoretical model for quantifying the effect of cutting tool edge geometry on machining forces. A previously published slip-line model is simplified and extended to the case of turning. Several sets of machining experiments were run with custom-fabricated cutting inserts of varying edge hone radius and chamfer geometry. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer during cutting. Results show that varying edge geometry can have a major effect on cutting forces. The developed model effectively captures the edge phenomenon and its effect on cutting forces and also offers a ...


The Effect Of Reflow Profile On Snpb And Snagcu Solder Joint Shear Strength, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno, Tzu-Chien Chou, Wesley J. Dee Jan 2006

The Effect Of Reflow Profile On Snpb And Snagcu Solder Joint Shear Strength, Jianbiao Pan, Brian J. Toleno, Tzu-Chien Chou, Wesley J. Dee

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Purpose –The purpose of this work is to study the effect of the reflow peak temperature and time above liquidus on both SnPb and SnAgCu solder joint shear strength.

Design/methodology/approach –Nine reflow profiles for Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu and nine reflow profiles for Sn37Pb have been developed with three levels of peak temperature (230°C, 240°C, and 250°C for Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu; and 195°C, 205°C, and 215°C for Sn37Pb) and three levels of time above solder liquidus temperature (30, 60, and 90 s). The shear force data of four different sizes of chip resistors ...


Optimization Of The Fuzzy Logic Controller For An Autonomous Uav, Jon C. Ervin, Sema E. Alptekin, Dianne J. Deturris Sep 2005

Optimization Of The Fuzzy Logic Controller For An Autonomous Uav, Jon C. Ervin, Sema E. Alptekin, Dianne J. Deturris

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

In this paper, we describe the optimization of membership functions in an application employing a hierarchical Fuzzy Logic Controller. The size of the rule base is made manageable by using a unique formulation, known as Combs method, to help control the problem of ‘exponential rule expansion’. The optimization is performed using a steady state genetic algorithm with a dynamic fitness function. The controller being developed is designed to fly a small, autonomous parafoil, suitable for short-range reconnaissance and land survey applications. The optimization process is performed in the Matlab/Simulink software environment and incorporates fuzzy logic modules developed in the ...


Stability Analysis For Forging Of Porous Bodies, Xuan Wang, Eugene Olevsky, Alain Molinari Jul 2005

Stability Analysis For Forging Of Porous Bodies, Xuan Wang, Eugene Olevsky, Alain Molinari

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

The continuum theory of sintering is used for the analysis of the stability of forging of a cylindrical powder specimen. The constitutive properties of the powder material are assumed to follow a power-law creep relationship. Temperature-coupled linear non-uniform stability analyses are carried out. Stability maps are obtained for forging of copper powder components.


The Effectiveness Analysis Of The Online Tools For Engineering Faculty Needs, Ismail Fidan, Jianbiao Pan, Leijun Li Jun 2005

The Effectiveness Analysis Of The Online Tools For Engineering Faculty Needs, Ismail Fidan, Jianbiao Pan, Leijun Li

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

As the use of Internet is increasing dramatically, many faculty members are using it in their teaching, research, and services. The Internet also provides faculty easy access to employee benefits and other information. Many universities are using or plan to use online teaching. Lately, many editorial and funding agencies have also started to initiate online review and decision-making system. These systems have eased the burden on both reviewers and agencies. In this study, a survey was prepared and conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the online tools for faculty needs in authors’ institutions and some other United States universities. The ...


Sequential Deposition Of Copper/Alumina Composites, X. Wang, J. Ma, A. Maximenko, E.A. Olevsky, M.B. Stern, B.M. Guenin Jun 2005

Sequential Deposition Of Copper/Alumina Composites, X. Wang, J. Ma, A. Maximenko, E.A. Olevsky, M.B. Stern, B.M. Guenin

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

No abstract provided.


Pnl Applied To Economics, Barbara Diaz, Tomohiro Takagi, Sema E. Alptekin May 2005

Pnl Applied To Economics, Barbara Diaz, Tomohiro Takagi, Sema E. Alptekin

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

This work is a continuation of Zadeh’s research on Precisiated Natural language. Precisiated Natural Language (PNL) provides a system for computation and deduction of propositions expressed in a natural language. The importance of PNL for economics is discussed. The improved process of PNL is presented using a real world example from economics.


Development Of A Flying Eye: A Project-Based Learning Experience, Sema E. Alptekin, Dianne Deturris, Daniel J. Macy, Jon E. Ervin Jan 2005

Development Of A Flying Eye: A Project-Based Learning Experience, Sema E. Alptekin, Dianne Deturris, Daniel J. Macy, Jon E. Ervin

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

The paper describes the design for manufacturability of a prototype product as part of a manufacturing engineering capstone course. The product chosen was a vertically launched unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)—the “Flying Eye.” The Flying Eye is an autonomous parafoil surveillance platform quipped with sensors, controllers, mechanical components, and software. Once the autonomous UAV is deployed, it is designed to follow a predetermined flight path down to the ground. The design effort of the prototype device took place over a three-year period as a collaborative effort between the Aerospace Engineering and Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering departments at California Polytechnic State ...


Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability – State Of The Art And Perspectives, Jianbiao Pan, Jyhwen Wang, David M. Shaddock Jan 2005

Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability – State Of The Art And Perspectives, Jianbiao Pan, Jyhwen Wang, David M. Shaddock

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

There is an increasing demand for replacing tin-lead (Sn/Pb) solders with lead-free solders in the electronics industry due to health and environmental concerns. The European Union recently passed a law to ban the use of lead in electronic products. The ban will go into effect in July of 2006. The Japanese electronics industry has worked to eliminate lead from consumer electronic products for several years. Although currently there are no specific regulations banning lead in electronics devices in the United States, many companies and consortiums are working on lead-free solder initiatives including Intel, Motorola, Agilent Technologies, General Electric, Boeing ...