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Articles 1 - 30 of 257

Full-Text Articles in Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Fault Adaptive Workload Allocation For Complex Manufacturing Systems, Charlie B. Destefano May 2019

Fault Adaptive Workload Allocation For Complex Manufacturing Systems, Charlie B. Destefano

Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes novel fault adaptive workload allocation (FAWA) strategies for the health management of complex manufacturing systems. The primary goal of these strategies is to minimize maintenance costs and maximize production by strategically controlling when and where failures occur through condition-based workload allocation.

For complex systems that are capable of performing tasks a variety of different ways, such as an industrial robot arm that can move between locations using different joint angle configurations and path trajectories, each option, i.e. mission plan, will result in different degradation rates and life-expectancies. Consequently, this can make it difficult to predict when ...


Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor Apr 2019

Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Commercial transport aircraft of today vary greatly from early aircraft with regards to how the aircraft are controlled and the feedback provided from the machine to the human operator. Over time, as avionics systems became more automated, pilots had less direct control over their aircraft. Much research exists in the literature about automation issues, and several major accidents over the last twenty years spurred interest about how to maintain the benefits of automation while improving the overall human-machine interaction as the pilot is considered the last line of defense.

An important reason for maintaining or even improving overall pilot situation ...


The Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem, Aldy Gunawan, Kien Ming Ng, Vincent F. Yu, Gordy Adiprasetyo, Hoong Chuin Lau Apr 2019

The Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem, Aldy Gunawan, Kien Ming Ng, Vincent F. Yu, Gordy Adiprasetyo, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

This paper focuses on a recent variant of the Orienteering Problem (OP), namely the Capacitated Team OP (CTOP) which arises in the logistics industry. In this problem, each node is associated with a demand that needs to be satisfied and a score that need to be collected. Given a set of homogeneous fleet of vehicles, the objective is to find a path for each vehicle in order to maximize the total collected score, without violating the capacity and time budget. We propose an Iterated Local Search (ILS) algorithm for solving the CTOP. Two strategies, either accepting a new solution as ...


Route Planning For A Fleet Of Electric Vehicles With Waiting Times At Charging Stations, Baoxiang Li, Shashi Shekhar Jha, Hoong Chuin Lau Apr 2019

Route Planning For A Fleet Of Electric Vehicles With Waiting Times At Charging Stations, Baoxiang Li, Shashi Shekhar Jha, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the next wave of technology in the transportation industry. EVs are increasingly becoming common for personal transport and pushing the boundaries to become the mainstream mode of transportation. Use of such EVs in logistic fleets for delivering customer goods is not far from becoming reality. However, managing such fleet of EVs bring new challenges in terms of battery capacities and charging infrastructure for efficient route planning. Researchers have addressed such issues considering different aspects of the EVs such as linear battery charging/discharging rate, fixed travel times, etc. In this paper, we address the issue of ...


Multiagent Decision Making For Maritime Traffic Management, Arambam James Singh, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau Jan 2019

Multiagent Decision Making For Maritime Traffic Management, Arambam James Singh, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

We address the problem of maritime traffic management in busy waterways to increase the safety of navigation by reducing congestion. We model maritime traffic as a large multiagent systems with individual vessels as agents, and VTS authority as the regulatory agent. We develop a maritime traffic simulator based on historical traffic data that incorporates realistic domain constraints such as uncertain and asynchronous movement of vessels. We also develop a traffic coordination approach that provides speed recommendation to vessels in different zones. We exploit the nature of collective interactions among agents to develop a scalable policy gradient approach that can scale ...


Routing And Scheduling For A Last-Mile Transportation System, Hai Wang Jan 2019

Routing And Scheduling For A Last-Mile Transportation System, Hai Wang

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

The last-mile problem concerns the provision of travel services from the nearest public transportation node to a passenger’s home or other destination. We study the operation of an emerging last-mile transportation system (LMTS) with batch demands that result from the arrival of groups of passengers who desire last-mile service at urban metro stations or bus stops. Routes and schedules are determined for a multivehicle fleet of delivery vehicles, with the objective of minimizing passenger waiting time and riding time. An exact mixed-integer programming (MIP) model for LMTS operations is presented first, which is difficult to solve optimally within acceptable ...


Multiagent Decision Making For Maritime Traffic Management, Arambam James Singh, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau Jan 2019

Multiagent Decision Making For Maritime Traffic Management, Arambam James Singh, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

We address the problem of maritime traffic management in busy waterways to increase the safety of navigation by reducing congestion. We model maritime traffic as a large multiagent systems with individual vessels as agents, and VTS authority as the regulatory agent. We develop a maritime traffic simulator based on historical traffic data that incorporates realistic domain constraints such as uncertain and asynchronous movement of vessels. We also develop a traffic coordination approach that provides speed recommendation to vessels in different zones. We exploit the nature of collective interactions among agents to develop a scalable policy gradient approach that can scale ...


Credit Assignment For Collective Multiagent Rl With Global Rewards, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau Dec 2018

Credit Assignment For Collective Multiagent Rl With Global Rewards, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Scaling decision theoretic planning to large multiagent systems is challenging due to uncertainty and partial observability in the environment. We focus on a multiagent planning model subclass, relevant to urban settings, where agent interactions are dependent on their collective influence'' on each other, rather than their identities. Unlike previous work, we address a general setting where system reward is not decomposable among agents. We develop collective actor-critic RL approaches for this setting, and address the problem of multiagent credit assignment, and computing low variance policy gradient estimates that result in faster convergence to high quality solutions. We also develop difference ...


A Mathematical Framework On Machine Learning: Theory And Application, Bin Shi Nov 2018

A Mathematical Framework On Machine Learning: Theory And Application, Bin Shi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation addresses the research topics of machine learning outlined below. We developed the theory about traditional first-order algorithms from convex opti- mization and provide new insights in nonconvex objective functions from machine learning. Based on the theory analysis, we designed and developed new algorithms to overcome the difficulty of nonconvex objective and to accelerate the speed to obtain the desired result. In this thesis, we answer the two questions: (1) How to design a step size for gradient descent with random initialization? (2) Can we accelerate the current convex optimization algorithms and improve them into nonconvex objective? For application ...


Instance-Specific Selection Of Aos Methods For Solving Combinatorial Optimisation Problems Via Neural Networks, Teck Hou (Deng Dehao) Teng, Hoong Chuin Lau, Aldy Gunawan Jun 2018

Instance-Specific Selection Of Aos Methods For Solving Combinatorial Optimisation Problems Via Neural Networks, Teck Hou (Deng Dehao) Teng, Hoong Chuin Lau, Aldy Gunawan

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Solving combinatorial optimization problems using a fixed set of operators has been known to produce poor quality solutions. Thus, adaptive operator selection (AOS) methods have been proposed. But, despite such effort, challenges such as the choice of suitable AOS method and configuring it correctly for given specific problem instances remain. To overcome these challenges, this work proposes a novel approach known as I-AOS-DOE to perform Instance-specific selection of AOS methods prior to evolutionary search. Furthermore, to configure the AOS methods for the respective problem instances, we apply a Design of Experiment (DOE) technique to determine promising regions of parameter values ...


Multi Self-Adapting Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (Msapso)., Gerhard Koch May 2018

Multi Self-Adapting Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (Msapso)., Gerhard Koch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The performance and stability of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm depends on parameters that are typically tuned manually or adapted based on knowledge from empirical parameter studies. Such parameter selection is ineffectual when faced with a broad range of problem types, which often hinders the adoption of PSO to real world problems. This dissertation develops a dynamic self-optimization approach for the respective parameters (inertia weight, social and cognition). The effects of self-adaption for the optimal balance between superior performance (convergence) and the robustness (divergence) of the algorithm with regard to both simple and complex benchmark functions is investigated. This work ...


Resource-Constrained Scheduling For Maritime Traffic Management, Lucas Agussurja, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau Feb 2018

Resource-Constrained Scheduling For Maritime Traffic Management, Lucas Agussurja, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

We address the problem of mitigating congestion and preventing hotspots in busy water areas such as Singapore Straits and port waters. Increasing maritime traffic coupled with narrow waterways makes vessel schedule coordination for just-in-time arrival critical for navigational safety. Our contributions are: 1) We formulate the maritime traffic management problem based on the real case study of Singapore waters; 2) We model the problem as a variant of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP), and formulate mixed-integer and constraint programming (MIP/CP) formulations; 3) To improve the scalability, we develop a combinatorial Benders (CB) approach that is significantly more effective ...


Risk-Sensitive Stochastic Orienteering Problems For Trip Optimization In Urban Environments, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau, William Yeoh Feb 2018

Risk-Sensitive Stochastic Orienteering Problems For Trip Optimization In Urban Environments, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau, William Yeoh

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Orienteering Problems (OPs) are used to model many routing and trip planning problems. OPs are a variantof the well-known traveling salesman problem where the goal is to compute the highest reward path thatincludes a subset of vertices and has an overall travel time less than a specified deadline. However, the applicabilityof OPs is limited due to the assumption of deterministic and static travel times. To that end, Campbellet al. extended OPs to Stochastic OPs (SOPs) to represent uncertain travel times (Campbell et al. 2011). Inthis article, we make the following key contributions: (1) We extend SOPs to Dynamic SOPs (DSOPs ...


Scalable Urban Mobile Crowdsourcing: Handling Uncertainty In Worker Movement, Shih-Fen Cheng, Cen Chen, Thivya Kandappu, Hoong Chuin Lau, Archan Misra, Nikita Jaiman, Randy Tandriansyah Daratan, Desmond Koh Feb 2018

Scalable Urban Mobile Crowdsourcing: Handling Uncertainty In Worker Movement, Shih-Fen Cheng, Cen Chen, Thivya Kandappu, Hoong Chuin Lau, Archan Misra, Nikita Jaiman, Randy Tandriansyah Daratan, Desmond Koh

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

In this article, we investigate effective ways of utilizing crowdworkers in providing various urban services. The task recommendation platform that we design can match tasks to crowdworkers based on workers’ historical trajectories and time budget limits, thus making recommendations personal and efficient. One major challenge we manage to address is the handling of crowdworker’s trajectory uncertainties. In this article, we explicitly allow multiple routine routes to be probabilistically associated with each worker. We formulate this problem as an integer linear program whose goal is to maximize the expected total utility achieved by all workers. We further exploit the separable ...


Integrated Cooperation And Competition In Multi-Agent Decision-Making, Kyle Hollins Wray, Akshat Kumar, Shlomo Zilberstein Feb 2018

Integrated Cooperation And Competition In Multi-Agent Decision-Making, Kyle Hollins Wray, Akshat Kumar, Shlomo Zilberstein

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Observing that many real-world sequential decision problems are not purely cooperative or purely competitive, we propose a new model—cooperative-competitive process (CCP)—that can simultaneously encapsulate both cooperation and competition.First, we discuss how the CCP model bridges the gap between cooperative and competitive models. Next, we investigate a specific class of group-dominant CCPs, in which agents cooperate to achieve a common goal as their primary objective, while also pursuing individual goals as a secondary objective. We provide an approximate solution for this class of problems that leverages stochastic finite-state controllers.The model is grounded in two multi-robot meeting and ...


Evaluating Flexibility Metrics On Simple Temporal Networks With Reinforcement Learning, Hamzah I. Khan Jan 2018

Evaluating Flexibility Metrics On Simple Temporal Networks With Reinforcement Learning, Hamzah I. Khan

HMC Senior Theses

Simple Temporal Networks (STNs) were introduced by Tsamardinos (2002) as a means of describing graphically the temporal constraints for scheduling problems. Since then, many variations on the concept have been used to develop and analyze algorithms for multi-agent robotic scheduling problems. Many of these algorithms for STNs utilize a flexibility metric, which measures the slack remaining in an STN under execution. Various metrics have been proposed by Hunsberger (2002); Wilson et al. (2014); Lloyd et al. (2018). This thesis explores how adequately these metrics convey the desired information by using them to build a reward function in a reinforcement learning ...


Collaborative Robotic Path Planning For Industrial Spraying Operations On Complex Geometries, Steven Brown Jan 2018

Collaborative Robotic Path Planning For Industrial Spraying Operations On Complex Geometries, Steven Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Implementation of automated robotic solutions for complex tasks currently faces a few major hurdles. For instance, lack of effective sensing and task variability – especially in high-mix/low-volume processes – creates too much uncertainty to reliably hard-code a robotic work cell. Current collaborative frameworks generally focus on integrating the sensing required for a physically collaborative implementation. While this paradigm has proven effective for mitigating uncertainty by mixing human cognitive function and fine motor skills with robotic strength and repeatability, there are many instances where physical interaction is impractical but human reasoning and task knowledge is still needed. The proposed framework consists of ...


Human-Intelligence And Machine-Intelligence Decision Governance Formal Ontology, Faisal Mahmud Jan 2018

Human-Intelligence And Machine-Intelligence Decision Governance Formal Ontology, Faisal Mahmud

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Since the beginning of the human race, decision making and rational thinking played a pivotal role for mankind to either exist and succeed or fail and become extinct. Self-awareness, cognitive thinking, creativity, and emotional magnitude allowed us to advance civilization and to take further steps toward achieving previously unreachable goals. From the invention of wheels to rockets and telegraph to satellite, all technological ventures went through many upgrades and updates. Recently, increasing computer CPU power and memory capacity contributed to smarter and faster computing appliances that, in turn, have accelerated the integration into and use of artificial intelligence (AI) in ...


Developing Leading And Lagging Indicators To Enhance Equipment Reliability In A Lean System, Dhanush Agara Mallesh Dec 2017

Developing Leading And Lagging Indicators To Enhance Equipment Reliability In A Lean System, Dhanush Agara Mallesh

Masters Theses

With increasing complexity in equipment, the failure rates are becoming a critical metric due to the unplanned maintenance in a production environment. Unplanned maintenance in manufacturing process is created issues with downtimes and decreasing the reliability of equipment. Failures in equipment have resulted in the loss of revenue to organizations encouraging maintenance practitioners to analyze ways to change unplanned to planned maintenance. Efficient failure prediction models are being developed to learn about the failures in advance. With this information, failures predicted can reduce the downtimes in the system and improve the throughput.

The goal of this thesis is to predict ...


Policy Gradient With Value Function Approximation For Collective Multiagent Planning, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau Dec 2017

Policy Gradient With Value Function Approximation For Collective Multiagent Planning, Duc Thien Nguyen, Akshat Kumar, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Decentralized (PO)MDPs provide an expressive framework for sequential decision making in a multiagent system. Given their computational complexity, recent research has focused on tractable yet practical subclasses of Dec-POMDPs. We address such a subclass called CDec-POMDP where the collective behavior of a population of agents affects the joint-reward and environment dynamics. Our main contribution is an actor-critic (AC) reinforcement learning method for optimizing CDec-POMDP policies. Vanilla AC has slow convergence for larger problems. To address this, we show how a particular decomposition of the approximate action-value function over agents leads to effective updates, and also derive a new way ...


Efficient Gate System Operations For A Multi-Purpose Port Using Simulation Optimization, Ketki Kulkarni, Khiem Trong Tran, Hai Wang, Hoong Chuin Lau Dec 2017

Efficient Gate System Operations For A Multi-Purpose Port Using Simulation Optimization, Ketki Kulkarni, Khiem Trong Tran, Hai Wang, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Port capacity is determined by three major infrastructural resources namely, berths, yards and gates. Theadvertised capacity is constrained by the least of the capacities of the three resources. While a lot ofattention has been paid to optimizing berth and yard capacities, not much attention has been given toanalyzing the gate capacity. The gates are a key node between the land-side and sea-side operations in anocean-to-cities value chain. The gate system under consideration, located at an important port in an Asiancity, is a multi-class parallel queuing system with non-homogeneous Poisson arrivals. It is hard to obtaina closed form analytic approach for ...


A Multi-Agent System For Coordinating Vessel Traffic, Teck-Hou Teng, Hoong Chuin Lau, Akshat Kumar May 2017

A Multi-Agent System For Coordinating Vessel Traffic, Teck-Hou Teng, Hoong Chuin Lau, Akshat Kumar

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Environmental, regulatory and resource constraints affects the safety and efficiency of vessels navigating in and out of the ports. Movement of vessels under such constraints must be coordinated for improving safety and efficiency. Thus, we frame the vessel coordination problem as a multi-agent path-finding (MAPF) problem. We solve this MAPF problem using a Coordinated Path-Finding (CPF) algorithm. Based on the local search paradigm, the CPF algorithm improves on the aggregated path quality of the vessels iteratively. Outputs of the CPF algorithm are the coordinated trajectories. The Vessel Coordination Module (VCM) described here is the module encapsulating our MAPF-based approach for ...


Explorations Into Machine Learning Techniques For Precipitation Nowcasting, Aditya Nagarajan Mar 2017

Explorations Into Machine Learning Techniques For Precipitation Nowcasting, Aditya Nagarajan

Masters Theses

Recent advances in cloud-based big-data technologies now makes data driven solutions feasible for increasing numbers of scientific computing applications. One such data driven solution approach is machine learning where patterns in large data sets are brought to the surface by finding complex mathematical relationships within the data. Nowcasting or short-term prediction of rainfall in a given region is an important problem in meteorology. In this thesis we explore the nowcasting problem through a data driven approach by formulating it as a machine learning problem.

State-of-the-art nowcasting systems today are based on numerical models which describe the physical processes leading to ...


Decentralized Planning In Stochastic Environments With Submodular Rewards, Rajiv Ranjan Kumar, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar Feb 2017

Decentralized Planning In Stochastic Environments With Submodular Rewards, Rajiv Ranjan Kumar, Pradeep Varakantham, Akshat Kumar

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Decentralized Markov Decision Process (Dec-MDP) providesa rich framework to represent cooperative decentralizedand stochastic planning problems under transition uncertainty.However, solving a Dec-MDP to generate coordinatedyet decentralized policies is NEXP-Hard. Researchershave made significant progress in providing approximate approachesto improve scalability with respect to number ofagents. However, there has been little or no research devotedto finding guarantees on solution quality for approximateapproaches considering multiple (more than 2 agents)agents. We have a similar situation with respect to the competitivedecentralized planning problem and the StochasticGame (SG) model. To address this, we identify models in thecooperative and competitive case that rely on submodular rewards ...


Dynamic Repositioning To Reduce Lost Demand In Bike Sharing Systems, Supriyo Ghosh, Pradeep Varakantham, Yossiri Adulyasak, Patrick Jaillet Feb 2017

Dynamic Repositioning To Reduce Lost Demand In Bike Sharing Systems, Supriyo Ghosh, Pradeep Varakantham, Yossiri Adulyasak, Patrick Jaillet

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Bike Sharing Systems (BSSs) are widely adopted in major cities of the world due to concerns associated with extensive private vehicle usage, namely, increased carbon emissions, traffic congestion and usage of nonrenewable resources. In a BSS, base stations are strategically placed throughout a city and each station is stocked with a pre-determined number of bikes at the beginning of the day. Customers hire the bikes from one station and return them at another station. Due to unpredictable movements of customers hiring bikes, there is either congestion (more than required) or starvation (fewer than required) of bikes at base stations. Existing ...


An Efficient Approach To Model-Based Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning, Zhuoru Li, Akshay Narayan, Tze-Yun Leong Feb 2017

An Efficient Approach To Model-Based Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning, Zhuoru Li, Akshay Narayan, Tze-Yun Leong

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

We propose a model-based approach to hierarchical reinforcement learning that exploits shared knowledge and selective execution at different levels of abstraction, to efficiently solve large, complex problems. Our framework adopts a new transition dynamics learning algorithm that identifies the common action-feature combinations of the subtasks, and evaluates the subtask execution choices through simulation. The framework is sample efficient, and tolerates uncertain and incomplete problem characterization of the subtasks. We test the framework on common benchmark problems and complex simulated robotic environments. It compares favorably against the stateof-the-art algorithms, and scales well in very large problems.


Sensitivity Analysis Method To Address User Disparities In The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Marie Ivanco, Gene Hou, Jennifer Michaeli Jan 2017

Sensitivity Analysis Method To Address User Disparities In The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Marie Ivanco, Gene Hou, Jennifer Michaeli

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Decision makers often face complex problems, which can seldom be addressed well without the use of structured analytical models. Mathematical models have been developed to streamline and facilitate decision making activities, and among these, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) constitutes one of the most utilized multi-criteria decision analysis methods. While AHP has been thoroughly researched and applied, the method still shows limitations in terms of addressing user profile disparities. A novel sensitivity analysis method based on local partial derivatives is presented here to address these limitations. This new methodology informs AHP users of which pairwise comparisons most impact the derived ...


Cognition-Based Approaches For High-Precision Text Mining, George John Shannon Jan 2017

Cognition-Based Approaches For High-Precision Text Mining, George John Shannon

Doctoral Dissertations

"This research improves the precision of information extraction from free-form text via the use of cognitive-based approaches to natural language processing (NLP). Cognitive-based approaches are an important, and relatively new, area of research in NLP and search, as well as linguistics. Cognitive approaches enable significant improvements in both the breadth and depth of knowledge extracted from text. This research has made contributions in the areas of a cognitive approach to automated concept recognition in.

Cognitive approaches to search, also called concept-based search, have been shown to improve search precision. Given the tremendous amount of electronic text generated in our digital ...


A Bounded Actor-Critic Algorithm For Reinforcement Learning, Ryan Jacob Lawhead Jan 2017

A Bounded Actor-Critic Algorithm For Reinforcement Learning, Ryan Jacob Lawhead

Masters Theses

"This thesis presents a new actor-critic algorithm from the domain of reinforcement learning to solve Markov and semi-Markov decision processes (or problems) in the field of airline revenue management (ARM). The ARM problem is one of control optimization in which a decision-maker must accept or reject a customer based on a requested fare. This thesis focuses on the so-called single-leg version of the ARM problem, which can be cast as a semi-Markov decision process (SMDP). Large-scale Markov decision processes (MDPs) and SMDPs suffer from the curses of dimensionality and modeling, making it difficult to create the transition probability matrices (TPMs ...


A New Reinforcement Learning Algorithm With Fixed Exploration For Semi-Markov Decision Processes, Angelo Michael Encapera Jan 2017

A New Reinforcement Learning Algorithm With Fixed Exploration For Semi-Markov Decision Processes, Angelo Michael Encapera

Masters Theses

"Artificial intelligence or machine learning techniques are currently being widely applied for solving problems within the field of data analytics. This work presents and demonstrates the use of a new machine learning algorithm for solving semi-Markov decision processes (SMDPs). SMDPs are encountered in the domain of Reinforcement Learning to solve control problems in discrete-event systems. The new algorithm developed here is called iSMART, an acronym for imaging Semi-Markov Average Reward Technique. The algorithm uses a constant exploration rate, unlike its precursor R-SMART, which required exploration decay. The major difference between R-SMART and iSMART is that the latter uses, in addition ...