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2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

A Case Study: The First Coastal Nuclear Decommissioning Project In California, Willie Aaron Quiros Dec 2019

A Case Study: The First Coastal Nuclear Decommissioning Project In California, Willie Aaron Quiros

Construction Management

San Onofre Nuclear Generating System (SONGS) is one of two nuclear power plants in California. Since the shut down in 2012, there is only one actively remaining, Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, which is set to shut down in 2024. This paper will examine the decommissioning of SONGS thus far; the first coastal nuclear decommissioning project in California’s stringent permitting process. This project was awarded as a joint venture to AECOM and Energy Solutions, both having experiencing in the field of nuclear decommissioning. This paper will outline what nuclear decommissioning challenges have been in the past; general steps of ...


Thermal Properties Of A Lif-Thf4 Molten Salt Fuel, Jackson Hill Nov 2019

Thermal Properties Of A Lif-Thf4 Molten Salt Fuel, Jackson Hill

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Molten salt reactors have seen an insurgence of interest and studies because of their high efficiency and their relatively compact design when compared to traditional reactors such as boiling water reactors. This study delves into the thermal properties of a LiF-ThF4 fuel for use in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor).


Thermal Transport In Molten Salt Reactor Fuels, Bryce Atchley Nov 2019

Thermal Transport In Molten Salt Reactor Fuels, Bryce Atchley

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Thermal Transport in Molten Salt Reactor Fuels

Bryce Atchley, Jackson Hill, Jungkyu Park, Eduardo Farfan

In this research study, we explore the thermal transport property of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) fuels by using molecular dynamics simulations. MSR has been drawing attention from researchers recently since it can run at high temperatures, yielding high energy production efficiency at relatively low amount of fuel mass. Its low operating pressure reduces the risk of a large break and loss of coolant significantly. Among different possible MSR fuels, LiF-ThF4 is selected to examine the thermal transport property of MSR fuels. Reverse Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics ...


Effect Of Ion Implantation On The Mechanical Properties Of The Grain And Grain Boundary Regions Of Inconel X750, Maisaa Nezar Tawfeeq Oct 2019

Effect Of Ion Implantation On The Mechanical Properties Of The Grain And Grain Boundary Regions Of Inconel X750, Maisaa Nezar Tawfeeq

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Annulus gas spacers in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors are made from the heat-treated Inconel X750 Nickel-based alloy. This alloy is designed to have high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperature. Unlike other reactor designs, the CANDU reactor has a high thermal neutron fluence, which results in an enhancement of the radiation damage and the internal production of helium and hydrogen. They are thus susceptible to microstructural instability and mechanical property degradation with time. Studies of ex-service spacers have indicated that they display intergranular embrittlement and lower ultimate tensile strength compared to nonirradiated Inconel X750. The primary degradation ...


Characterization And Drying Of Oxyhydroxides On Aluminum Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel, Matthew Shalloo Oct 2019

Characterization And Drying Of Oxyhydroxides On Aluminum Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel, Matthew Shalloo

Theses and Dissertations

Research reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) employ aluminum-clad fuel elements made up of many thin plates with uranium dispersed within. In most engineering applications, aluminum is considered to have favorable corrosion characteristics. It forms a thin oxide layer [Al2O3] under atmospheric conditions that is impenetrable to oxygen thus stopping any further corrosion. However, both aluminum metal and Al2O3 react with water to form hydrous oxides which are less protective against further corrosion and form significantly thicker layers than oxidation in dry air. As a result, aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel (ASNF ...


Bison Simulation-Based Identification Of Important Design Criteria For U3si2 Fuels With Composite-Monolithic Duplex Sic Cladding, Jacob A. Yingling Oct 2019

Bison Simulation-Based Identification Of Important Design Criteria For U3si2 Fuels With Composite-Monolithic Duplex Sic Cladding, Jacob A. Yingling

Theses and Dissertations

Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) require a combination of fuel and cladding which have comparable longevity characteristics to UO2 while improving resistance to radiological release during and after accidents. U3Si2 has been proposed for use in ATF concepts for its high uranium density and high thermal conductivity which provide improved fuel performance. However, some of U3Si2’s material properties are not well understood. One such property, thermal creep of U3Si2, is an important contributing factor to U3Si2’s viability as an ATF. No experimentally derived thermal creep model is published for U3Si2, and previous analyses of compressive thermal creep experimental data ...


Modeling The Uranium-Silicon Phase Equilibria Based On Computational And Experimental Analysis, Tashiema Lixona Ulrich Oct 2019

Modeling The Uranium-Silicon Phase Equilibria Based On Computational And Experimental Analysis, Tashiema Lixona Ulrich

Theses and Dissertations

As part of Accident tolerant fuel initiative, the uranium-silicide compound, U3Si2, is under consideration as a potential replacement for conventional uranium dioxide fuel. It is of interest as its higher uranium density of 11.3 g(U)/cm3 compared to 9.7 g(U)/cm3 for UO2 may allow use of more robust, but less neutronically economical fuel cladding. The improved uranium content would not only accommodate the neutronic penalty inherent to certain accident tolerant cladding concepts but also facilitate improved reactor performance with the potential for longer fuel cycles.

The U-Si system has been the subject of various studies ...


Modeling Neutron Interaction Inside A 2d Reactor Using Monte Carlo Method, A. S. M. Fakhrul Islam Oct 2019

Modeling Neutron Interaction Inside A 2d Reactor Using Monte Carlo Method, A. S. M. Fakhrul Islam

Theses and Dissertations

Scientists and engineers have been working for many years to develop accurate approaches to analyzing nuclear power reactors using computer codes that closely model the behavior of neutrons in a reactor core. The Monte Carlo simulation method is capable of treating complex geometries with a high level of resolution and fidelity to model neutron interactions inside a reactor core. With the requirement of accurate modeling in reactor physics and dynamics and great innovation of computer technology, Monte Carlo method is becoming an ever more powerful tool and receiving rising attention. In this study, Monte Carlo method is used to model ...


Python Script For Homogeneous Aqueous Chemical Reaction Analysis And Associated Data Related To Radiolysis Simulations, Peter James Doyle, David Bartels Sep 2019

Python Script For Homogeneous Aqueous Chemical Reaction Analysis And Associated Data Related To Radiolysis Simulations, Peter James Doyle, David Bartels

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Nuclear Engineering

No abstract provided.


Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker Sep 2019

Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker

Theses and Dissertations

Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) has the desirable property of being sensitive to both gamma rays and neutrons while producing waveforms suitable for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to determine which radiation was detected. This dissertation examines the behavior of CLYC to support its further development for mobile and portable applications. First, the feasibility of performing PSD with CLYC and an inexpensive data acquisition system was examined. This system was able to clearly distinguish both events with a figure of merit of 1.42. Next, the performance of a SiPM was compared to a traditional PMT. Analysis showed that ...


Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson Sep 2019

Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson

Theses and Dissertations

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4, or commonly called KDP) crystals can be grown to large sizes and are used for many important devices (fast optical switches, frequency conversion, polarization rotation) for high powered lasers. The nonlinear optical material has a wide intrinsic transparency range. Intrinsic point defects are responsible for several short-lived absorption bands in the visible and ultraviolet regions that affect high-power pulsed laser propagation. The primary intrinsic defects have been experimentally detected in KDP using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. The defect models established thus far include (i) self-trapped holes, (ii) oxygen vacancies, and (iii) hydrogen ...


Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk Aug 2019

Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk

Theses and Dissertations

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL), and wavelength-dependent TL are used to identify and characterize point defects in lithium gallate and β-gallium oxide doped with Mg and Fe acceptor impurities single crystals. EPR investigations of LiGaO2 identify fundamental intrinsic cation defects lithium (VLi) and gallium (V2−Ga) vacancies. The defects’ principle g values are found through angular dependence studies and atomic-scale models for these new defects are proposed. Thermoluminescence measurements estimate the activation energy of lithium vacancies at Ea = 1.05 eV and gallium vacancies at Ea > 2 eV below the ...


Methods Of Use And Manufacture Of Silver-Doped, Nano-Porous Hydroxyapatite, Cheol-Woon Kim, Richard K. Brow Jul 2019

Methods Of Use And Manufacture Of Silver-Doped, Nano-Porous Hydroxyapatite, Cheol-Woon Kim, Richard K. Brow

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A silver-doped, nano-porous hydroxyapatite material is provided that can be utilized to capture radioactive iodine, 129I. Methods of using the silver-doped, nano-porous hydroxyapatite material to remove radioactive iodine, and methods of manufacturing the material are also provided.


Experimental Investigation Of Steady-State And Transient Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux, Soon Kyu Lee Jul 2019

Experimental Investigation Of Steady-State And Transient Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux, Soon Kyu Lee

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) causes a rapid reduction of heat transfer coefficient with a rapid increase of cladding temperature, which may induce physical failure of the heated material. Understanding CHF phenomena and reliable prediction of the boiling behavior are needed to design a heat transfer system including nuclear reactors. Due to the complex nature of CHF, it is still an active research topic of interest. With an increasing interest in Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF), CHF of ATF is essential topic of study for the detailed design of the fuel – cladding element and for the reactor safety analysis.

In this ...


The Blue Emission At 2.8 Ev In Strontium Titanate: Evidence For A Radiative Transition Of Self-Trapped Excitons From Unbound States, Miguel L. Crespillo, Joseph T. Graham, Fernando Agullo-Lopez, Y. Zhang, William J. Weber Jul 2019

The Blue Emission At 2.8 Ev In Strontium Titanate: Evidence For A Radiative Transition Of Self-Trapped Excitons From Unbound States, Miguel L. Crespillo, Joseph T. Graham, Fernando Agullo-Lopez, Y. Zhang, William J. Weber

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The origin of the blue emission in SrTiO3 has been investigated as a function of irradiation fluence, electronic excitation density, and temperature using a range of ion energies and masses. The emission clearly does not show correlation with the concentration of vacancies generated by irradiation but is greatly enhanced under heavy-ion irradiation. The intensity ratio of the 2.8 and 2.5 eV bands is independent of fluence at all temperatures, but it increases with excitation rate. The 2.8 eV emission is proposed to correspond to a transition from conduction band states to the ground state level of ...


Implementation Of View Factor Model And Radiative Heat Transfer Model In Moose, Abdurrahman Ozturk Jul 2019

Implementation Of View Factor Model And Radiative Heat Transfer Model In Moose, Abdurrahman Ozturk

Theses and Dissertations

View factors are functions that represent the geometric relationship between surfaces. They are important parameters for radiative heat transfer calculations. View factor catalogues are available for simple geometries in the current literature. However, in the case of complicated geometry, analytical or numerical methods are needed to evaluate view factors. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most flexible one among numerical methods, which are used to calculate view factors, since it can be applied to any geometry.

When experimental studies are not affordable to conduct, modeling of engineering problems gains more importance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s finite element framework ...


Achieving High-Power Configuration In Missouri S&T Reactor (Mstr) For Potential Uprate, Thaqal Alhuzaymi, Ayodeji Babatunde Alajo Jun 2019

Achieving High-Power Configuration In Missouri S&T Reactor (Mstr) For Potential Uprate, Thaqal Alhuzaymi, Ayodeji Babatunde Alajo

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Research reactor is a powerful tool because of its wide contribution, almost to each field of science. It’s considered to be an essential element for advancing research, development and improvement in nuclear industry. The main goal of research reactor is to produce neutrons which are beneficially used for a wide range of applications such as industrial, agricultural, medical, etc. Neutron spectrum impact it uses. Commonly, neutrons with low energy level, up to 0.5 eV, called thermal neutrons where neutrons with intermediate energy level, ranging from 0.5 eV to 0.10 MeV, called epithermal "resonance" neutrons and neutron ...


Low-Power Core Reconfiguration For Missouri S&T Reactor (Mstr), Thaqal Alhuzaymi, Ayodeji Babatunde Alajo Jun 2019

Low-Power Core Reconfiguration For Missouri S&T Reactor (Mstr), Thaqal Alhuzaymi, Ayodeji Babatunde Alajo

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Missouri University of Sciences and Technology Reactor (MSTR) is pool-type research reactor which operates up to 200 kilowatt (kW). MSTR used for training and educating nuclear engineering students at Missouri S&T. A several of nuclear researches and irradiation experiments have been conducted in MSTR for example, neutron activation analysis (NAA), neutron radiography, radiolysis, image processing, etc. MSTR initial criticality took place on December 9, 1961. The first power level that MSTR operates at, was 10 kW. The power level alongside the core configuration was upgraded to the current ones, see Fig. 1. MSTR used light-water for moderation and ...


Neutronic And Cfd-Thermal Hydraulic Analyses Of Very-Small, Long-Life, Modular (Vsllim) Reactor, Luis M. Palomino May 2019

Neutronic And Cfd-Thermal Hydraulic Analyses Of Very-Small, Long-Life, Modular (Vsllim) Reactor, Luis M. Palomino

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Neutronic and CFD-thermal hydraulic analyses are performed of the Very-Small, Long-LIfe, and Modular (VSLLIM) nuclear reactor. This reactor was developed at the University of New Mexico’s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies (UNM-ISNPS) to generate 1.0 – 10 MWth for extended periods without refueling. It offers passive operation and safety features and redundant control and would be fabricated, assembled and sealed in the factory. During nominal operation and after shutdown, the VSLLIM is cooled by natural circulation of in-vessel liquid sodium, with the aid of an in-vessel chimney and annular ...


Isotopically-Resolved Neutron Cross Sections As Probe Of The Nuclear Optical Potential, Cole Davis Pruitt May 2019

Isotopically-Resolved Neutron Cross Sections As Probe Of The Nuclear Optical Potential, Cole Davis Pruitt

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neutron scattering experiments provide direct access to the forces experienced by nucleons in the nuclear environment. Due to the experimental difficulty of cross section measurements with neutrons, isotopically-resolved neutron scattering cross sections are sorely needed as inputs for many nuclear models. This dissertation presents the results from a campaign of isotope-specific neutron total cross section measurements on 16,18O, 58,64Ni, 112,124Sn, and 103Rh from 3-450 MeV and elastic scattering differential cross section measurements on 112,nat,124Sn at 11 and 17 MeV. Equipped with these new data and with computational improvements to the Dispersive Optical Model (DOM), we ...


Calculation And Tabulation Of Efficiencies For Tungsten Foil Positron Moderators, R. Alsulami, M. Albarqi, S. Jaradat, Shoaib Usman, Joseph T. Graham May 2019

Calculation And Tabulation Of Efficiencies For Tungsten Foil Positron Moderators, R. Alsulami, M. Albarqi, S. Jaradat, Shoaib Usman, Joseph T. Graham

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were used to calculate the positron stopping profiles in tungsten positron moderator foils. Stopping profiles were numerically integrated with efficiency kernels derived from Green's function solutions of the 3D diffusion equation to determine the moderation efficiency in both the backscattering and transmission geometries. Stopping profiles and efficiencies were calculated for positron energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and incident angles from 0° to 75°. The resulting efficiencies agreed with other calculated and measured values in the literature, especially when similar values of the positron diffusion length and surface emission branching ratio were used ...


Numerical Study Of Spacer Grid Geometry In A 5 X 5 Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundle, Wan Chuan Fan May 2019

Numerical Study Of Spacer Grid Geometry In A 5 X 5 Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundle, Wan Chuan Fan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Reactor fuel rod bundles serve as the primary heat source in light water reactors (LWRs), commonly found in the aforementioned PWR plants. The fuel rod bundles’ structure consists of a collection of fuel rods put into a parallel grid configuration. The bundles also include fuel rod spacers, which hold the fuel rods in place, in accordance with the grid. Repeating structures of the fuel bundles create the meta-structure in the reactor. In other words, the grid configuration repeats until it fills the entire space of the reactor. This results in reactor fuel rods suspended in the working fluid domain, oriented ...


Tertiary Safety System For Nuclear Spent Fuel Pool, Jonathan Farmer, Amanda Bachmann, Taylor Adams, Eissa Altalahlah, Trina Garrett, Jillian Newmyer, Drew Shayotovich May 2019

Tertiary Safety System For Nuclear Spent Fuel Pool, Jonathan Farmer, Amanda Bachmann, Taylor Adams, Eissa Altalahlah, Trina Garrett, Jillian Newmyer, Drew Shayotovich

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Interrogation Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks Using Cosmic-Ray Muon Computed Tomography, Daniel C. Poulson Apr 2019

Interrogation Of Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks Using Cosmic-Ray Muon Computed Tomography, Daniel C. Poulson

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Properly accounting and safeguarding spent nuclear fuel are key components in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s mission of non-proliferation. Currently, no instruments are deployed that are able to verify the spent nuclear fuel contents of dry storage casks. Cosmic-ray muons provide an ideal probe for the heavily shielded casks due to their ability to penetrate thick, dense materials. Coulombic scattering of the muons, to first order, is proportional to the Z2/A of the material; this makes it especially sensitive to actinides, such as uranium and plutonium. The combination of these traits allows muons to be used to image ...


Manufacture Of Dual Sided Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors, Jared Medina Apr 2019

Manufacture Of Dual Sided Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors, Jared Medina

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

The world is in need of a new way to detect neutrons. The best current detectors rely on 3He, which is in short supply. The 3He detectors are extremely expensive. The goal of this project is to produce inexpensive and robust detectors that do not rely on 3He. Instead of using gas, the Dual Sided Microstructured Neutron Detectors (DS-MSNDs) are made from a semiconductor material. The DS-MSNDs have been simulated to have up to 70% efficiency, which is comparable to the 3He detectors efficiency of about 80%. The DS-MSNDs have micro-trenches that are back filled with ...


Modeling Complex Oxides: Thermochemical Behavior Of Nepheline-Forming Na-Al-Si-B-K-Li-Ca-Mg-Fe-O And Hollandite-Forming Ba-Cs-Ti-Cr-Al-Fe- Ga-O Systems, Stephen A. Utlak Apr 2019

Modeling Complex Oxides: Thermochemical Behavior Of Nepheline-Forming Na-Al-Si-B-K-Li-Ca-Mg-Fe-O And Hollandite-Forming Ba-Cs-Ti-Cr-Al-Fe- Ga-O Systems, Stephen A. Utlak

Theses and Dissertations

High concentrations of Na2O and Al2O3 in the liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Hanford Site can cause nepheline (NaAlSiO4) to precipitate in a vitrified monolithic waste form upon cooling. Nepheline phase formation removes glass- former SiO2 and -modifier Al2O3 from the immobilization matrix in greater proportion to alkalis, which can reduce glass durability and consequently increase the leach rate of radionuclides into the surrounding environment.

Current uncertainty in defining the HLW glass composition region prone to precipitating nepheline necessitates targeting a conservative waste loading, which raises operational costs by extending the liquid radioactive waste disposal mission and ...


Modeling Complex Oxides: Thermochemical Behavior Of Nepheline-Forming Na-Al-Si-B-K-Li-Ca-Mg-Fe-O And Hollandite-Forming Ba-Cs-Ti-Cr-Al-Fe- Ga-O Systems, Stephen A. Utlak Apr 2019

Modeling Complex Oxides: Thermochemical Behavior Of Nepheline-Forming Na-Al-Si-B-K-Li-Ca-Mg-Fe-O And Hollandite-Forming Ba-Cs-Ti-Cr-Al-Fe- Ga-O Systems, Stephen A. Utlak

Theses and Dissertations

High concentrations of Na2O and Al2O3 in the liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Hanford Site can cause nepheline (NaAlSiO4) to precipitate in a vitrified monolithic waste form upon cooling. Nepheline phase formation removes glass- former SiO2 and -modifier Al2O3 from the immobilization matrix in greater proportion to alkalis, which can reduce glass durability and consequently increase the leach rate of radionuclides into the surrounding environment.

Current uncertainty in defining the HLW glass composition region prone to precipitating nepheline necessitates targeting a conservative waste loading, which raises operational costs by extending the liquid radioactive waste disposal mission and ...


Investigation Of The Coupled Nuclear, Thermal-Hydraulic, And Thermomechanical Response Of A Natural Circulation Research Reactor Under Severe Reactivity-Initiated Accident Transients, Darren G. Talley Mar 2019

Investigation Of The Coupled Nuclear, Thermal-Hydraulic, And Thermomechanical Response Of A Natural Circulation Research Reactor Under Severe Reactivity-Initiated Accident Transients, Darren G. Talley

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Research reactors play an important role in higher education, scientific research, and medical radioisotope production around the world. It is thus important to ensure the safety of facility workers and the public. This work presents a new reactor transient analysis code, referred to as Razorback, which computes the coupled reactor kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, fuel element thermal expansion and thermal stress, and thermal-hydraulic response of a natural circulation research reactor. The code was developed for the evaluation of large rapid reactivity addition in research reactors, with an initial focus on the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National ...


Developing A Simulation Tool For Evaluating In-Motion Detector Systems (La-Ur-18-29139), Brian Jennings Mar 2019

Developing A Simulation Tool For Evaluating In-Motion Detector Systems (La-Ur-18-29139), Brian Jennings

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Available simulation software lacks the ability to produce in-motion detector responses for detector systems that may be used to detect the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. In this thesis, a simulation tool is developed that uses static measured data as a basis set for producing in-motion detector responses with the ability to vary many parameters in each simulated trial. Once the basis set is measured and loaded into the simulation tool, the user interface allows the user to enter variations to speed, source height, source-to-detector distance, background exposure rate, which source(s) are present, their relative strength and shielding configuration ...


Development Of A Mixed-Radiation Directional Rotating Scatter Mask Detection System, Bryan V. Egner Mar 2019

Development Of A Mixed-Radiation Directional Rotating Scatter Mask Detection System, Bryan V. Egner

Theses and Dissertations

Previous work demonstrated gamma-ray directional detection through the integration of a radiation detection system and an additively manufactured rotating scatter mask (RSM). This work advances the RSM directional detection system through improvements in the system's design, validation of a new scatter mask, and the novel ability to directionally detect both neutrons and gamma rays, a desirable feature for many nuclear safeguard and counterproliferation applications. The mixed-radiation RSM system developed for this research utilized the Spartan I mask design coupled with a 1" EJ-309 liquid scintillator. A GEome-try ANd Tracking (Geant4) model is developed and quantitatively compared to experimental measurements ...