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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Investigation Of The Corrosion Of Steel By Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Daniel Koury Dec 2002

Investigation Of The Corrosion Of Steel By Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Daniel Koury

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) has been proposed for use in programs for accelerator transmutation of waste. LBE is the leading candidate material as a spallation target and an option for the sub-critical blanket coolant. The corrosion of 316 and 316L stainless steels by LBE has been studied using UNLV's facilities for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). We have compared exposed and unexposed samples and studied the differences. Some amount of surface contamination is present on the samples and has been removed by ionbeam etching. The unexposed samples reveal typical stainless steel characteristics: a chromium oxide ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report August September October 2002, John Farley Nov 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report August September October 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

We continued with sputter depth profiling of 316 and 316L steel samples that have been exposed to LBE. We also calibrated the sputter depth profiling using a sample of SiO2 on Si, and the SEM. This is a valuable independent determination of the thickness of oxide layers.

In the laboratory, progress continues using the XPS machine. Experiments have been performed on steel samples using Argon ions to mill away the surface of the sample, thereby making measurements as a function of depth. This "ion beam milling" proceeds slowly through the oxide layer that covers the steel sample. We are ...


Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic: Quarterly Progress Report (Aug. 01 – Oct. 31, 2002), Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu, Woosoon Yim Oct 2002

Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic: Quarterly Progress Report (Aug. 01 – Oct. 31, 2002), Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu, Woosoon Yim

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

After two month intensive work in LANL, some preliminary sensor calibration curves have been obtained. Further data analysis shall be performed to assess the theoretical and measured data. Also, a new experimental apparatus shall be designed and located in UNLV to continue the left work.

Technical Progress:

• A set of calibration curves of voltage vs. temperature ranging from 3000C to 5000C under various oxygen concentrations in liquid LBE for the YSZ oxygen sensor has been obtained and has been reported in one paper.

• A meeting with LBE committee and other faculty members in AAA projects was ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Final Report -Phase I 09/01/2001-08/30/2002, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Task V: Final Report -Phase I 09/01/2001-08/30/2002, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the AAA proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with only very sparse experimental data. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report For May-June-July 2002, John Farley Aug 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report For May-June-July 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of this project is to understand the basic science of corrosion in the steel/LBE system.

We are taking more data, typically using the newly installed X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS) apparatus, and analyzing our existing data. Undergraduate students Denise Parsons and Julia Manzerova have helped a great deal in the analysis of the data. We can obtain the elemental composition as a function of position within the sample. This gives clues to the migration of materials, the composition of the protective oxide layer, and the basic science of the corrosion process. We found dramatic differences between the exposed ...


Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic: Quarterly Progress Report (May 01 – July 31, 2002), Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu, Woosoon Yim Jul 2002

Developing A Sensing System For The Measurement Of Oxygen Concentration In Liquid Pb-Bi Eutectic: Quarterly Progress Report (May 01 – July 31, 2002), Yingtao Jiang, Bingmei Fu, Woosoon Yim

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Accurate measurement of the oxygen concentration in liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooling system is critical in the active control of the corrosion at the interface between LBE and the stainless steel of transport tubes. Currently, LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) scientists have employed an automobile-style YSZ (Yttria Stabilized Zirconia) oxygen sensor unit to measure oxygen levels in an engineeringscaled LBE test system. Although the theoretical model for calculating oxygen concentration based on voltage measurement of YSZ sensor in static conditions is well understood, there is an urgent and strong need to obtain a complete set of calibration curves for YSZ ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 03/16/02- 06/15/02, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Jun 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 03/16/02- 06/15/02, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the AAA proposed application. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with very limited density. Scientists have noticed that the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the liquid alloy could control the corrosion rate of steels exposed to Pb or Pb-Bi. At high oxygen concentration ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Phase Two, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen May 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics-Phase Two, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The proposed work will combine chemical kinetics and hydrodynamics in target and test-loop lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems to model system corrosion effects. This approach will result in a predicative tool that can be validated with corrosion test data, used to systematically design tests and interpret the results, and provide guidance for optimization in LBE system designs. The task includes two subtasks. The first subtask is to try to develop the necessary predictive tools to be able to predict the levels of oxygen and corrosion products close to the boundary layer through the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. The ...


Third Quarter Report, Covering January Through March 2002, John Farley Mar 2002

Third Quarter Report, Covering January Through March 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Progress from June 2001-November 2001 was presented at the winter meeting of the American Nuclear Society in Reno (November 12-15, 2001), and incorporated into a refereed conference proceeding. A copy of the refereed conference proceeding has been provided to Tony Hechanova. In brief, the paper described the new program to examine the corrosive effects of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) on steels. We employed various types of surface studies (Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM], and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry [XPS]) to examine steel samples that had been exposed to LBE for various lengths of time at various temperatures. The goal is to understand the ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Feb 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the AAA proposed application.

Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with very limited density. The transport of oxygen and corrosion products, their interaction and variation of corrosion/precipitation along the flow are not well understood.

The first subtask of this project involves using ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Jan 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Many of the international efforts to develop transmutation technology, including the U.S., Russian, and European scientific communities, have determined that lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a potential material for use as a both a spallation target and a coolant. To exploit this potential, a more thorough understanding of the effect and rates of corrosion on steels, particularly non-Russian alloys, inside the LBE systems is required. Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE systems has been observed to drastically reduce the corrosion of structural steels in LBE. However, the transport of oxygen and formation of corrosion products is not well ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Task V 4th Quarterly Report, Samir Moujaes Jan 2002

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Task V 4th Quarterly Report, Samir Moujaes

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The project is moving on target with the newly realigned objective set for the Phase I. Through close communications with Dr. Li and Dr. Jinsuo Zhang from LANL a realignment of the simulation work has been recommended. The reason for that is the vendor of STAR-CD/CHEMKIN had not perfected yet the final coupling of the post processing of output for any potential surface chemistry reaction taking place on the inside pipe surface of the LBE loop. This is because the coupling of CHEMKIN and STAR-CD has been done fairly recently.

Our final effort has been to generate using an ...


Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2002

Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the present research is to achieve a basic understanding of corrosion of steels by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Liquid LBE is under consideration in the transmuter as both a spallation target and as a blanket coolant. There have been previous studies of LBE, especially by the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. However, a fundamental understanding and verification of its role in the corrosion of steels is still very incomplete. We have begun a program of post-experiment testing and analysis on steel samples that have been in intimate ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Year 1 Annual Report, John Farley Jan 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Year 1 Annual Report, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal is to investigate the corrosion of stainless steel by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), which has been proposed for use as a blanket coolant and a spallation target in the transmuter.