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Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Ultrasonic Testing Of A Nuclear Fuel Cladding Pipe, Modelization With A Hybrid Method And Experiments, Florian Lyonnet, Didier Cassereau, Andmarie-Françoise Cugnet Jan 2016

Ultrasonic Testing Of A Nuclear Fuel Cladding Pipe, Modelization With A Hybrid Method And Experiments, Florian Lyonnet, Didier Cassereau, Andmarie-Françoise Cugnet

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Nuclear Fuel cladding pipes are long and thin tubes made of zirconium-alloy whose purpose is to confine the fissile material in a nuclear reactor. During their 3 year cycle in the reactor's core they must maintain their integrity while enduring severe stresses (heat, corrosion and irradiation). Nondestructive evaluations are performed at several stages of the manufacturing process. ASTM International provides recommendations regarding the Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of zirconium cladding pipes at the end of the production line[1]. The recommended setup is a pulse-echo immersion testing at frequency higher than 5 MHz where transverse and longitudinal calibration notches are ...


Non Destructive Evaluation Of Containment Walls In Nuclear Power Plants, V. Garnier, C. Payan, Martin Lott, Nari Ranaivamonana, Jp Balayssac, E. Larose, Yuxiang Zhang, J. Saliba, A. Boniface, Z. M. Sbartai, Bogdan Piwakowski, Charles Ciccarone, Hamid Hafid, Jean Marie Henault, Florian Ouvrier Buffet Jan 2016

Non Destructive Evaluation Of Containment Walls In Nuclear Power Plants, V. Garnier, C. Payan, Martin Lott, Nari Ranaivamonana, Jp Balayssac, E. Larose, Yuxiang Zhang, J. Saliba, A. Boniface, Z. M. Sbartai, Bogdan Piwakowski, Charles Ciccarone, Hamid Hafid, Jean Marie Henault, Florian Ouvrier Buffet

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Two functions are regularly tested on the containment walls in order to anticipate a possible accident. The first is mechanical to resist at a possible internal over-pressure and the second is to prevent leakage. The reference accident LLOCA (Large Loss of Coolant Accident) is the rupture of a pipe in the primary circuit of a nuclear plant. In this case, the pressure and temperature can reach 5 bar and 180°C in 20 seconds.

The national project ‘Non-destructive testing of the containment structures of nuclear plants’ aims at studying the non-destructive techniques capable to evaluate the concrete properties and its ...


Use Of Guided Wave Inspections To Monitor The Integrity Of Nuclear Power Station Boilers, P. Jackson, P. J. Mudge, K. J. Thornicroft, A. G. Haig, R. Sanderson, E. Hutchison, C. R. A. Scheider Jan 2016

Use Of Guided Wave Inspections To Monitor The Integrity Of Nuclear Power Station Boilers, P. Jackson, P. J. Mudge, K. J. Thornicroft, A. G. Haig, R. Sanderson, E. Hutchison, C. R. A. Scheider

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

This paper describes a ground-breaking application of guided wave testing for the nuclear power industry. Hartlepool and Heysham 1 power stations in the UK contain boilers of a unique ‘pod’ design in which the spiral boiler tubes are supported from above by a central vertical ‘spine’, which is a tubular component approximately 520mm in diameter and 21m long with complex changes in cross-section and attachments along its length. There are 32 boilers in the two stations. The gas which has passed through the reactor core flows down over the boiler tubes, heating the water inside. Only the top 2m of ...


Verification And Validation Of Computational Models For Ultrasonic Testing, Gerges Dib, Michael R. Larche, Aaron A. Diaz, Susan L. Crawford, Michael T. Anderson Jan 2016

Verification And Validation Of Computational Models For Ultrasonic Testing, Gerges Dib, Michael R. Larche, Aaron A. Diaz, Susan L. Crawford, Michael T. Anderson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting confirmatory research for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the verification and validation of computational models used in ultrasonic testing (UT). This paper discusses some of the findings obtained from simple geometrical reflectors in isotropic, fine-grained, homogeneous materials with conventional ultrasonic transducers. A total of 348 ultrasonic raster scans were acquired using pulse-echo conventional probes with different diameters, beam angles, wave modalities, and frequencies. The raster scans contained reflections from machined notches (flaws) of different sizes and orientations. High frequency pencil beam models, and flaw scattering models employing the Kirchhoff ...


A Hybrid Technique For Modelling The Ultrasonic Response From Surface-Breaking Defects, Richard Phillips, David Duxbury, Peter Huthwaite, Michael Lowe Jan 2016

A Hybrid Technique For Modelling The Ultrasonic Response From Surface-Breaking Defects, Richard Phillips, David Duxbury, Peter Huthwaite, Michael Lowe

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Computational modelling is an efficient and cost effective alternative to experimental data collection for the design and justification of ultrasonic non-destructive inspections. Semi-analytical models are commonly used within the nuclear industry, however they place limitations on the size and geometrical complexity of the defect that can be modelled, as well as on inspection parameters such as mode and frequency. The inability to quantify the effect of increased complexity on an ultrasonic inspection regularly leads to a rise in the conservatism of the inspection sensitivity, which increases the probability of reporting innocuous defects.

The Finite Element Method (FEM) provides the capability ...


Characteristic Of Pulsed Eddy Current Signal Pattern To Detect Wall Thinning Of Carbon Steel Tube, D. G. Park, M. B. Kishore, D. H. Lee Jan 2016

Characteristic Of Pulsed Eddy Current Signal Pattern To Detect Wall Thinning Of Carbon Steel Tube, D. G. Park, M. B. Kishore, D. H. Lee

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The pipelines used under high pressure and high temperatures in nuclear power plants, oil and gas, petrochemical and other energy related industries are made of ferromagnetic carbon steel. In order to increase the efficiency, the pipelines are always covered with low conductive thermal insulators to refrain from thermal emission and absorption and externally protected by cladding sheets made of aluminum alloy, stainless steel or galvanized steel. Non Destructive Technique (NDT) methods that are capable of detecting the wall thinning and defects without removing the insulation are necessary [1]. In this study we developed a Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) system to ...


Through-Wall Phased Array Imaging Of Small Surface-Breaking Cracks, Chao Zhang, Peter Huthwaite, Michael J. S. Lowe Jan 2016

Through-Wall Phased Array Imaging Of Small Surface-Breaking Cracks, Chao Zhang, Peter Huthwaite, Michael J. S. Lowe

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Accurate and reliable measurements of small surface-breaking cracks are becoming increasingly important in safety-critical components such as in nuclear power plants, because of the desire for increased operational lifetimes. With great coverage and low cost, the use of imaging to find and size surface-breaking cracks with data from ultrasonic phased arrays is becoming more attractive. For the phased array imaging, both the array configuration and the technique used to generate the images from the measurements are key factors in the image quality and sizing accuracy. Thus, the selection of a proper imaging technique is essential to ensure accurate results for ...


Testing Piezoelectric Sensors In A Nuclear Reactor Environment, Brian Reinhardt, Andy Suprock, Bernhard Tittmann Jan 2016

Testing Piezoelectric Sensors In A Nuclear Reactor Environment, Brian Reinhardt, Andy Suprock, Bernhard Tittmann

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE’s FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels ...


Crack Detection And Localization Inweld Structure Using The Topological Energy Method, Emma Lubeigt, Serge Mensah, Jean-François Chaix, Sandrine Rakotonarivo, Gilles Gobillot, François Baqué Jan 2016

Crack Detection And Localization Inweld Structure Using The Topological Energy Method, Emma Lubeigt, Serge Mensah, Jean-François Chaix, Sandrine Rakotonarivo, Gilles Gobillot, François Baqué

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Due to both significant primary loads (weight, pressure) and thermal transients, important supporting structures (bedspring, deck…) subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigues require that periodical inspections are carried out in nuclear power plant.


The bedspring and the deck are complex welded structures of very restricted access; the ability to reliably detect and locate defects like cracks is therefore a difficult challenge. Ultrasonic testing is a well-recognized non-invasive technic which exhibits high characterization performances in homogeneous media (steel). However, its capabilities are hampered when operating in heterogeneous and anisotropic austenitic welds because of deviation and splitting of the ultrasonic beam.


In order to ...


Feasibility Tests Of Ranging Inspection Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Using A Plate-Type Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor, Young-Sang Joo, Hoe-Woong Kim, Sang-Jin Park, Sung-Kyun Kim, Jong-Bum Kim, Duck-Gun Park Jan 2016

Feasibility Tests Of Ranging Inspection Of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Using A Plate-Type Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor, Young-Sang Joo, Hoe-Woong Kim, Sang-Jin Park, Sung-Kyun Kim, Jong-Bum Kim, Duck-Gun Park

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), conventional optical visual inspections cannot be applied due to the opacity of sodium coolant. An inspection technique based on the ultrasound should be employed because the opacity of sodium prevents any conventional techniques using optical devices from being applied for under-sodium viewing of SFR [1]. Recently, the 10 m long plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the under-sodium viewing of SFR [2]. In the plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor, an ultrasonic transducer installs above reactor head which is in a relatively cold condition, A0 mode Lamb wave is propagated in a plate waveguide ...


Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White Jan 1993

Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect and size crack-like defects in pressure vessels and pipework used in the nuclear industry. Reliable inspection can only be achieved if the inspection technique is understood, is optimised and subsequently applied correctly. Austenitic steels are used because of their corrosion resistance and toughness. Welds and centrifugally cast materials tend to crystallise with grains larger than the ultrasonic wavelength required to achieve the desired resolution in the inspection and thus appear anisotropic. Since the grains in a weld grow along the, varying, directions of maximum heat flux during cooling, the welds are inhomogeneous as well ...


Ultrasonic Beam Propagation Through A Bimetallic Weld — A Comparison For Predictions Of The Gauss-Hermite Beam Model And Finite Element Method, A. Minachi, J. Mould, R. Bruce Thompson Jan 1993

Ultrasonic Beam Propagation Through A Bimetallic Weld — A Comparison For Predictions Of The Gauss-Hermite Beam Model And Finite Element Method, A. Minachi, J. Mould, R. Bruce Thompson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

To ensure safe operation, nuclear power plants must be inspected periodically. One of the most commonly used nondestructive inspection methods uses ultrasound to detect internal flaws. However, the complex structure of some joints between different components greatly complicates the ultrasonic inspection. These joints, which consist of welds with varying and sometimes anisotropic elastic properties, can distort the ultrasonic beam and produce unreliable results. To understand the propagation of elastic waves through such materials, beam models are used.


Nondestructive Evaluation Of Radioactive Waste Drums Containing Cement-Solidified Liquid Wastes, John Steude, Jeff Anders, Richard Sporny, Ed Strickland Jan 1993

Nondestructive Evaluation Of Radioactive Waste Drums Containing Cement-Solidified Liquid Wastes, John Steude, Jeff Anders, Richard Sporny, Ed Strickland

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

There are approximately 1.4 million radioactive waste drums buried or stored at sites within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex [1,2]. Many of these drums contain cement-solidified liquid wastes. A common method for treating liquid wastes is to mix the liquid waste with cement and pour the waste/cement mixture into steel drums. This process stabilizes the liquid wastes in the hardened cement.


On Characterizing Operating Conditions Of Ultrasonic Systems Using Mtf And Related Techniques, R. Zilber, K. Shiloh Jan 1993

On Characterizing Operating Conditions Of Ultrasonic Systems Using Mtf And Related Techniques, R. Zilber, K. Shiloh

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

For a given sample under test, the quality of the ultrasonic image obtained by scanning is greately influenced by the choice of the equipment as well as by the operating conditions. The possibilities of choosing the different parameters is very wide, even if the basic ultrasonic system is determined. The parameters to select before starting an experiment include the transducer itself, its position relative to the sample, the different settings such as gain, attenuation and damping, the mode of detection, etc. The selection is usually dictated by qualitative indications which can be inaccurate or even misleading. Consequently it is very ...


Nondestructive Characterization Of Ceramic Composite Whiskers With Neutron Diffraction And Ultrasonic Techniques, D. S. Kupperman, S. Majumdar, S. R. Macewan, R. L. Hitterman, J. P. Singh, J. L. Routbort Jan 1988

Nondestructive Characterization Of Ceramic Composite Whiskers With Neutron Diffraction And Ultrasonic Techniques, D. S. Kupperman, S. Majumdar, S. R. Macewan, R. L. Hitterman, J. P. Singh, J. L. Routbort

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A necessary step in the development of structural composites is the understanding and characterization of the bond between fiber and matrix, Questions regarding the mechanical properties of the optimum interfacial bond and how properties of the bond can be assessed nondestructively must be answered. In this paper we present some results of a program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in which the characterization and control of interfacial bonds in composites are being investigated. The General Purpose Powder Diffractometer (GPPD) at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at ANL has been employed to measure residual strains in a ceramic-ceramic composite by ...


Strength And Ultrasonic Characterization Of Metallic Interfaces, D. D. Palmer, C. D. Roberts, David K. Rehbein, J. F. Smith, Otto Buck Jan 1988

Strength And Ultrasonic Characterization Of Metallic Interfaces, D. D. Palmer, C. D. Roberts, David K. Rehbein, J. F. Smith, Otto Buck

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In recent years, the process of diffusion bonding has found considerable usage in both the nuclear power and aerospace industries. This process requires the compression of mating surfaces at an elevated temperature for a given time. If optimum conditions of time, temperature, pressure and surface cleanliness are achieved, diffusion of material across the interface will occur, yielding interfacial mechanical properties identical to those of the bulk material. The use of insufficient bonding conditions may result in void formation, precipitation of undesired phases or lack of grain growth across the interface. The consequence will be an interface that is less than ...


Nde Characterization Of Metallic Interfaces, D. D. Palmer, David K. Rehbein, J. F. Smith, Otto Buck Jan 1987

Nde Characterization Of Metallic Interfaces, D. D. Palmer, David K. Rehbein, J. F. Smith, Otto Buck

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In recent years, the process of diffusion bonding has found considerable usage in the aerospace and nuclear power industries [1]. This process entails two surfaces being pressed together at elevated temperatures and high pressures. If ideal conditions are achieved, the bonded interface will have properties identical to those of the matrix metal and the microstructure will be continuous across the interface. There is a fine margin for error in attaining ideal conditions and the ability to characterize the bond nondestructively is highly desirable. The present project is aimed at the development of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of interfaces between ...


Materials Characterization By Ultrasonic Attenuation Spectral Analysis, R. L. Smith Jan 1987

Materials Characterization By Ultrasonic Attenuation Spectral Analysis, R. L. Smith

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of microstructural features has attracted much attention in recent years. Although the measurement of ultrasonic parameters has been used for determining material properties for many years, but with the advent of modern signal processing techniques it is possible to extract significantly more information from ultrasonic signals. This has lead to numerous studies being carried out on the effect of microstructures on the propagation of ultrasonic waves and their application to monitoring properties of industrial significance. Examples include the determination of grain size, degree of porosity, amount of second phase particles and measurement ...


Uk Developments In Theoretical Modeling For Ndt, Andrew Temple Jan 1987

Uk Developments In Theoretical Modeling For Ndt, Andrew Temple

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Non-destructive inspection is widely used to ensure that engineering structures such as railway rails, bridges, nuclear reactor pressure vessels, offshore oil platforms, airplane airframes and so on contain no unacceptably large defects. Such defects, if they were present in the structures, could cause failure under certain applied loads. Generally, the most serious defects are cracks which occur during manufacture, either in castings or in welds, or during service due to cyclic loads and environmental attack. The non-destructive inspections are carefully designed to be capable of detecting these crack-like defects. I am concerned here only with ultrasonic inspection techniques and consider ...


Status Of Advanced Ut Systems For The Nuclear Industry, M. Behravesh, M. Avioli, G. Dau, S.-N. Liu Jan 1987

Status Of Advanced Ut Systems For The Nuclear Industry, M. Behravesh, M. Avioli, G. Dau, S.-N. Liu

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

An advanced ultrasonic testing (UT) system is a configuration of hardware that includes some type of computer. The computer may be hardwired to perform specific functions or have appropriate software. It may typically be used for data acquisition, signal processing, image generation, pattern recognition and data analysis. Additionally, advanced systems have data storage and are, therefore, different from the standard transducer-pulser/receiver systems that rely on human filtering and written documentation of the filtered data.


On The Ultrasonic Imaging Of Tube/Support Structure Of Power Plant Steam Generators, Jafar Saniie, Daniel T. Nagle Jan 1987

On The Ultrasonic Imaging Of Tube/Support Structure Of Power Plant Steam Generators, Jafar Saniie, Daniel T. Nagle

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The corrosion and erosion of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants can present problems of both safety and economics. In steam generators, the inconel tubes are fit loosely through holes drilled in carbon steel support plates. Corrosion is of particular concern with such tube/support plate structures. Non-protective magnetite can build up on the inner surface of the support plate holes, and allowed to continue unchecked, will fill the gap, eventually denting and fracturing the tube walls. Therefore, periodic nondestructive inspection can be valuable in characterizing corrosion and can be used in evaluating the effectiveness of chemical treatments used ...


A Real-Time Saft System Applied To The Ultrasonic Inspection Of Nuclear Reactor Components, T. E. Hall, S. R. Doctor, L. D. Reid Jan 1987

A Real-Time Saft System Applied To The Ultrasonic Inspection Of Nuclear Reactor Components, T. E. Hall, S. R. Doctor, L. D. Reid

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In 1982 Pacific Northwest Laboratory began activity under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to implement SAFT technology in a field usable system. The University of Michigan had previously laid the groundwork by performing extensive research related to the development of the SAFT algorithm in the area of ultrasonics and the investigation of ways to improve the computation time [1,2]. The task given PNL was to deploy the results of this research effort by developing an instrument that would perform in-service inspection of nuclear reactor components using the SAFT-UT algorithm.


Image Processing And Artificial Intelligence For Detection And Interpretation Of Ultrasonic Test Signals, Keith S. Pickens, John C. Lusth, Pamela K. Fink, Karol K. Palmer, Earnest A. Franke Jan 1987

Image Processing And Artificial Intelligence For Detection And Interpretation Of Ultrasonic Test Signals, Keith S. Pickens, John C. Lusth, Pamela K. Fink, Karol K. Palmer, Earnest A. Franke

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Detection of flaws is an important industrial concern. For example, aircraft and nuclear-power reactor owners and regulatory authorities need effective means of detecting flaws that could pose a threat to public safety. Operators of costly equipment require information on service-induced flaws to be able to make run-or-retire decisions. As the cost of parts and concerns for public safety increase, the importance of flaw detection and size estimation has likewise escalated.