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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Development Of The University Of New Mexico Spectrometer For High-Resolution Fission Product Yield Data, Richard Emery Blakeley Dec 2018

Development Of The University Of New Mexico Spectrometer For High-Resolution Fission Product Yield Data, Richard Emery Blakeley

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Well-defined fission product yield data has been of increasing interest in various applications within the nuclear industry. With this need in mind, a fission fragment mass spectroscopy system was designed and developed at the University of New Mexico in collaboration with the Los Alamos National Laboratories with a stated goal of attaining a mass resolution of ≤ 1 % (FWHM/centroid) for light fragments and near 1 % for heavy fragments. The mass spectrometer utilized in this work consists of a transmission time-of-flight detection system to measure fission product velocity and an axial ionization chamber to measure the fission product energy, with measurements ...


Investigating The Electrodeposition Of Plutonium And Curium For Safeguarding The Electrorefiner, Chantell L. Murphy Dec 2018

Investigating The Electrodeposition Of Plutonium And Curium For Safeguarding The Electrorefiner, Chantell L. Murphy

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

This research investigated the electrochemical deposition behavior of plutonium (Pu) and curium (Cm) for safeguarding the electrorefiner (ER) in a pyroprocessing facility. The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility of using a safeguards concept called the neutron balance method to account for Pu in the ER. The neutron balance method relies on a known Pu/Cm ratio and measures neutrons from Cm-244 coming into and leaving a unit operation to track Pu. The application of the neutron balance approach for pyroprocessing facilities requires that Pu and Cm remain together in all extraction, product recovery, and waste ...


Investigation Of The Formation Of Γꞌꞌ Precipitates Under Ion Irradiation And Elevated Temperature Environments, James R. Pike Nov 2018

Investigation Of The Formation Of Γꞌꞌ Precipitates Under Ion Irradiation And Elevated Temperature Environments, James R. Pike

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

During a preventative maintenance at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Isotope Production Facility (IPF), a beam window made of solution annealed Alloy 718 was replaced and the old beam window was analyzed. The old beam window underwent mechanical testing and microstructure analysis. During the microstructure analysis, the formation of γꞌꞌ precipitates was observed in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) electron diffraction pattern. The formation of γꞌꞌ precipitates was not expected since they are not stable under irradiation. Furthermore, the formation of γꞌꞌ precipitates was observed only at a temperature of 33ºC, and a dose of 0.7 displacement per ...


Radiation Effects In Metal Oxides And Carbides, Benjamin Jackson Cowen Sep 2018

Radiation Effects In Metal Oxides And Carbides, Benjamin Jackson Cowen

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

MD simulations of SiO2, TiO2, Cr2O3, Al2O3, MgO, and SiC, are performed to: (a) calculate TDE probability distributions and dependence on crystallographic direction, and (b) determine the number and types of defects formed with low- and high-energy PKAs and projectiles. In addition, a qualitative comparison of the MD simulation results of radiation damage in TiO2, MgO, and crystalline and amorphous SiC thin films are compared with those of in situ TEM ion beam irradiation experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories’ I3TEM facility.

The TDE probability distributions show strong anisotropy ...


Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio Jul 2018

Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a Generation IV advanced reactor design that has potential to produce efficient, low carbon, and safe energy. But, there are significant engineering challenges that need to be addressed before the deployment of this reactor. One of the key challenges is tritium release mitigation and sequestration. Because the FHR utilizes a eutectic LiF-BeF2 (flibe) salt as a coolant, the coolant is a significant source of tritium.

High-power ultrasonics have been used in many industrial process streams such as food processing, metal production, chemical production, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Techniques and concepts from these ...


Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez Apr 2018

Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

This work describes the development of radiation detection systems to identify and image special nuclear material (SNM) using low energy gamma rays. The imaging of these materials is crucial for timely, in the field responses to potential threats to national security. Using a spectroscopy system, the sources can be identified while images can be produced concurrently for the sources which are present. Two systems were designed and characterized in this study, a collimated imager which used collimation in front of a small CdTe detector, and a pixelated pinhole imager, using a pinhole mask in front of a pixelated CZT detector ...


Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval Apr 2018

Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Due to an increase in regulatory scrutiny and medical facility accreditation requirements to monitor patient radiation dose from diagnostic imaging procedures, there is a growing necessity to determine and record accurate patient radiation dose from diagnostic medical imaging procedures. Current methods of patient dosimetry in diagnostic imaging are both extremely difficult and time consuming, require large computing resources (such as Monte Carlo computations), or lack accuracy due to using data based on homogeneous materials and “standard-man sized” anthropomorphic models.

This dissertation provides an algorithm that calculates a more accurate dose using patient-specific projection radiographic images. The algorithm includes measurements acquired ...


An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter Apr 2018

An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Modern ultraviolet (UV) cameras, when combined with UV-transmitting lenses/filter arrangements, can be used to detect radiation dose in air. Ionizing radiation excites nitrogen molecules in ambient air, the resulting decay includes weak emission of ultraviolet photons. Previous work has proven this phenomenon is detectable using highly-sensitive electronically cooled cameras traditionally used in astronomy for low-background imaging. While the ability to detect the presence of radiation (i.e. qualitative measurement) has been demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories, there are several challenges in correlating images to known dose-fields (quantitative measurement). These challenges include: a low signal to background ratio, interferences due ...


Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere Mar 2018

Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Traditional nuclear material accountancy (NMA) faces several challenges when applied to pyroprocessing facilities. To address these challenges, alternative methods of safeguarding nuclear material are being developed. One method is process monitoring (PM). PM involves taking operational process data and applying it to safeguards using an advanced framework. Signature Based Safeguards (SBS), a proposed PM framework, involves the identification of anomalous scenarios and the subsequent identification and detection of their respective PM signatures from a system of measurements. SBS has previously focused on failure modes that result in transfer of mass to unexpected places in the mass flowsheet. This work developed ...