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Fuels Campaign (TRP)

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of our project is to investigate interface corrosion processes in TRISO nuclear fuel particles. For this purpose, we are undertaking a detailed study of the interface formation between potential candidates for metallic fission products (Pd, Ag, and Cs), likely to diffuse from the kernel of the TRISO particles, with the TRISO coating layers. As a starting point, we are investigating the Pd/SiC interface and will extend our studies to Ag/SiC during our current summer research campaign. The experimental approach comprises the preparation of metal/SiC interfaces in-situ in our ultra-high vacuum system by electron-beam deposition. In ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

In this project we utilize a combination of state-of-the-art soft X-ray spectroscopies to understand the chemical bonding between metal fission products (Pd and Ag) with coating layers in TRISO fuel particles (SiC and pyrocarbon). We are primarily focusing on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In the current first project year, we are beginning these investigations with the Pd/SiC interface, as discussed in the previous two quarterly reports. Our first experiments (both using ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, the chemical state of some of the metal fission products will be assessed.

This project studies the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials ...


Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer Jan 2005

Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The safe and effective manufacturing of actinide-bearing fuels for any transmutation strategy requires that the entire manufacturing process be contained within a shielded hot cell environment. To ensure that the fabrication process is feasible, the entire process must be designed for remote operation. The equipment must be reliable enough to perform over several decades, and also easy to maintain or repair remotely. The facility must also be designed to facilitate its own decontamination and decommissioning. In addition to these design factors, the potential viability of any fuel fabrication process will also be impacted by a number of variables, such as ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project examines inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations are used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics are synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility of the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, are investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic data necessary for modeling ...


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean Jan 2005

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to investigate the casting processes for metallic fuels to help design a process that minimizes the loss of the volatile actinide elements from the fuel. The research effort centers on the development of advanced numerical models to assess conditions that significantly impact the transport of volatile actinides during the melt casting process and represents a joint effort between researchers at UNLV and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Assessing critical equipment and process variables is required to build a successful system that will operate efficiently.


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer Jan 2005

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this research project was to provide technical support to process designers working on the development of the fuel cycles for transmutation applications. Detailed process models were developed to better define the impact of fuel choice on the transmuter fuel cycle, including relative process losses, waste generation, and plant capital cost. These process models provide insight regarding required plant size and number of plants needed to mesh with the fuel recycling line. They also determine requirements for automation.

Manufacturing models for large-scale production in a hot cell environment were also developed. Combined, these two models allow the assessment ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus Oct 2004

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

Second task of the BGU part of “Dissolution, Reactor, and Environmental Behavior of ZrO2-MgO Inert Fuel Matrix” project aims at evaluation of the fertile free fuel matrix composition effect on the fuel reactivity and corresponding reactivity limited burnup. Fertile free fuel with different MgO to ZrO2 ratio in the matrix will require different PuO2 loading in order to assure certain fuel cycle length. This is due to the fact that absorption cross section of Zr is slightly higher than that of Mg, although absorption in both of these elements is small compared to Pu. Therefore, the ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus Sep 2004

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This progress report presents results of analysis performed within the framework of “Dissolution, Reactor, and Environmental Behavior of ZrO2-MgO Inert Fuel Matrix” project managed by University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies.

The BGU working program includes the following four tasks:

1. Benchmark of computational tools

2. Determination of fissile Pu loading

3. Evaluation of burnable poison designs

4. Evaluation of reactivity feedback coefficients

This progress report presents the results of Task 1. The main objective of this task is to confirm the validity of the ELCOS 1 code system for inert matrix ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Final Report, Georg F. Mauer Aug 2004

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Final Report, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The AFCI program objective is the determination of the feasibility of transmutation as a technology to limit the need for repository storage of spent commercial fuel. The objective if the instant project is the design and evaluation of manufacturing processes for transmuter fuel fabrication. The large-scale deployment of remote fabrication and refabrication processes will be required for all transmutation scenarios. The evaluation of the different fabrication processes is intended to be part of a decision support data base to document design, operations, and costs. Fabrication processes required for different fuel types differ in terms of equipment types, throughput, and cost ...


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Jun 2004

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

After considering the heating mechanisms, casting issues, crucible design and issues related to the mass transport of americium, an ISM system was selected for melting the feedstock and casting fuel pins containing high vapor pressure actinides (americium). The finite element commercial software (FIDAP) was used to simulate the induction melting process and the casting process. Phase change is considered both in the heating and in the solidification process. Various factors and properties are studied, such as boundary conditions and initial conditions, output current, frequency of the current, main dimensions of the system, mold preheating temperature, heat transfer coefficient and mold ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #11, Georg F. Mauer May 2004

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #11, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The eleventh quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva successfully defended his thesis in April 2004 and graduated from the MEG Master’s program.

• Further refinements on Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph.D. Graduate Jae-Kyu Lee). Ms. Caroline Wiejak, an exchange student from the ESIEE in Marne-la-Vallee, France is continuing with the image analysis effort. To date, she has transferred Jae-Kyu’s code to Matlab, and is presently expanding its application to more complex 3D shapes.

• Graduate student Jamil Renno refined and detailed his simulations of ...


Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer May 2004

Design Concepts And Process Analysis For Transmuter Fuel Manufacturing, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This proposal addresses the subject heading ‘Transmutation Fuel Development’ in the 2004 research topic list of the UNLV Transmutation Research Program (TRP) and DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The large-scale deployment of remote fabrication and refabrication processes (with a capacity of approx. 100 metric tons of Minor Actinides (MA) annually) will be required for all transmutation scenarios. The objective of this project is the design, analysis, and evaluation of manufacturing processes for transmuter fuel fabrication. Fabrication processes for different fuel types differ in terms of equipment types, throughput, and cost. The evaluation of the fabrication processes will create a ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #10, Georg F. Mauer Feb 2004

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #10, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The tenth quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot, and is close to completing his M.Sc. thesis project. Rich will likely defend his thesis in April 2004.

• A project review meeting with Dr. Mitch Meyer and other ANL scientists was held in December 2003 at ANL West, Idaho Falls, ID. Dr. Meyer described ANL long term research objectives with regard to transmuter fuel manufacturing.

• Further refinements on Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #10, Georg F. Mauer Feb 2004

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #10, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The tenth quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot, and is close to completing his M.Sc. thesis project. Rich will likely defend his thesis in April 2004.

• A project review meeting with Dr. Mitch Meyer and other ANL scientists was held in December 2003 at ANL West, Idaho Falls, ID. Dr. Meyer described ANL long term research objectives with regard to transmuter fuel manufacturing.

• Further refinements on Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. In order to study the properties of the relevant ...


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean Jan 2004

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to investigate the casting processes for metallic fuels to help design a process that minimizes the loss of the volatile actinide elements from the fuel. The research effort centers on the development of advanced numerical models to assess conditions that significantly impact the transport of volatile actinides during the melt casting process and represents a joint effort between researchers at UNLV and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Assessing critical equipment and process variables is required to build a successful system that will operate efficiently.


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer Jan 2004

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this research project is to provide technical support to process designers working on the development of the fuel cycles for transmutation applications. Detailed process models are developed to better define the impact of fuel choice on the transmuter fuel cycle, including relative process losses, waste generation, and plant capital cost. These process models provide insight regarding required plant size and number of plants needed to mesh with the fuel recycling line. They also determine requirements for automation.

Manufacturing models for large-scale production in a hot cell environment are also developed. Combined, these two models allow the assessment ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, we intend to assess the chemical state of some of the metal fission products. The findings are expected to give valuable information about failure mechanisms of TRISO particles and fission product transport. Secondly, through ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress.


In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials and single crystal references ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #9, Georg F. Mauer Nov 2003

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #9, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The ninth quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot. Rich will continue to develop detailed 3-D process simulation models as his M.Sc. thesis project.

• A paper on hot cell robotics was presented at the ANS Winter Annual Meeting and published in the ANS 2003 conference proceedings.

• Further advances on Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph.D. Student Jae-Kyu Lee)

• Graduate student Jamil Renno created simulations of more complex fuel manufacturing and fuel pin ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #8, Georg F. Mauer Aug 2003

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #8, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The eighth quarter of the project covered the following:

· Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot. Rich will continue to develop detailed 3-D process simulation models as his M.Sc. thesis project.

· A paper submitted for ANS for the Winter Annual Meeting on hot cell robotics was accepted for presentation and publication.

· Further advances on Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph.D. Student Jae-Kyu Lee)

· Undergraduate student Jamil Renno created simulations of fuel pin assembly (robotic insertion of pellets into cladding ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The analysis of mold filling and solidification continues with progress being made for the consideration of these two features within one model. Analysis of the induction heating process of an Induction Skull Melter (ISM) is under study. Efforts are underway to validate the modeling procedure and specific comparisons are being made to previously published work. Few detailed modeling results have been reported by other researchers, making the validations an important part of the overall modeling process. Skin heating depths, power deposition rates, and other process parameters are being evaluated for use in upcoming furnace design simulations. Efforts are beginning on ...


Phase Ii: Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Jun 2003

Phase Ii: Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This research report develops a model to analyze the transport of americium from the melt to the vapor phase above the crucible. The model considers mass transport in the melt, vaporization at the surface, and transport through the vapor phase. The greatest problem with the model is the uncertainty of the thermodynamic properties of the proposed ternary alloy. The details of the model and the specific quantities needed for the physical properties will be discussed.


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #7, Georg F. Mauer May 2003

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #7, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The seventh quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot. Rich will continue to develop detailed 3-D process simulation models as his M.Sc. thesis project.

• Mr. Richard Silva presented a paper on hot cell robotics at the ANS student conference in Berkeley, CA.

• Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control, focusing on rule-based object recognition (Ph.D. Student Jae-Kyu Lee)

• Undergraduate student Jamil Renno, developed better control algorithms, and created simulations of pick and place actions for the hot cell manipulator ...


Unlv Transmutation Research Program Proposal Year Iii: Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer May 2003

Unlv Transmutation Research Program Proposal Year Iii: Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The objective of this project is the design and evaluation of manufacturing processes for transmuter fuel fabrication. The large-scale deployment of remote fabrication and refabrication processes will be required for all transmutation scenarios. Current program emphasis is on a five-year effort to determine the feasibility of transmutation as a technology to limit the need for repository storage of spent commercial fuel. The evaluation of the fabrication processes will create a decision support data base to document design, operations, and costs. Fabrication processes required for different fuel types differ in terms of equipment types, throughput, and cost. Differential cost Implications of ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper May 2003

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

Progress continues on the analysis of casting and solidification of the melt into molds. Modeling results for constant pressure casting, which is more realistic, have been obtained and produce physically realistic results for flow that starts, flows, and then eventually stops as it enters the mold. Potential mass transfer modeling features (Lammuir’s law for example) are being studied to enhance the capabilities of a mass transfer in a detailed system model. Different parameters are being varied as part of a parametric study to evaluate factors that impact the flow of the melt into the molds. The ability to include ...


Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #6, Georg F. Mauer Feb 2003

Design And Evaluation Of Processes For Fuel Fabrication: Quarterly Progress Report #6, Georg F. Mauer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The sixth quarter of the project covered the following:

• Mr. Richard Silva continued the development of a simulation model with a Waelischmiller hot cell robot. Rich will continue to develop detailed 3-D process simulation models as his M.Sc. thesis project. Rich is employed with Bechtel at the Yucca Mountain project.

• Concepts and Methods for Vision-Based Hot Cell Supervision and control (Ph.D. Student Jae-Kyu Lee )

• An undergraduate senior student in mechanical engineering, Mr. Jamil Renno, was hired to develop the simulation model for the hot cell manipulator.


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrel W. Pepper, Randy Clarksean Feb 2003

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrel W. Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

UNLV has developed and will continue to develop process models for the analysis of melt casting processes. This work will continue to be performed under the guidance of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) engineers to insure that their knowledge and experience benefits the project. The research to be conducted during year three will center on performing detailed analyses on a conceptual design of an inductively heated skull-crucible casting furnace. Processing conditions will be analyzed, basic models utilized, and detailed heat and mass transfer models will be developed to analyze the most promising processes. The goal of this third year is to ...


An Analysis Of The Melt Casting Of Metallic Fuel Pins, Xiaolong Wu, Randy Clarksean, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Mitchell K. Meyer Jan 2003

An Analysis Of The Melt Casting Of Metallic Fuel Pins, Xiaolong Wu, Randy Clarksean, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Mitchell K. Meyer

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

• Background

– Casting Volatile Actinides

– Need to Contain Americium

– Overview of Project

• Fuel Rod Model

– Physical System

– Governing Equations

• Preliminary Modeling Results

– Mold Materials

– Injection Casting Velocity