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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2008

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project focuses on the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles for gas-cooled reactors. By combining surface- and bulk-sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic methods, intermediate chemical phases at the interface, intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure for different coating materials and metals are examined.

In detail, the project studies the interface formation of Pd, Cs, and Ag with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using SiC single crystals and highly-ordered pyrolytic carbon (HOPG) as substrates, interfaces are prepared under controlled conditions in an ultra-high vacuum environment and are ...


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens Jan 2008

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

One of the original synthetic routes devised for the synthesis of U (III)N involved the entire reaction taking place in liquid ammonia. Several experimental reactions were conducted in an attempt to synthesize the UI3(NH3)x and U(NH2)3(NH3)x precursors of U(III) N. Each attempt involved cleaning of the uranium metal to remove the oxide coating of the metal reagent with 3 washes of concentrated nitric acid, each followed by a rinse with liquid ammonia. Success of this cleaning procedure was varied, with a majority of cleaned metal oxidizing rapidly once ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2007

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project focuses on the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles for gas-cooled reactors. By combining surface- and bulk-sensitive spectroscopic methods, intermediate chemical phases at the interface, intermixing/ diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material (metal and coating materials) and temperature are examined.

In the past year, emphasis was placed on a detailed analysis and description of the Cs/SiC interface formation process.


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarterly Report, 2006, Clemens Heske Jan 2006

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarterly Report, 2006, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project is devoted to an in-depth study of the chemical and electronic impact of metal fission products on the coating layers in TRISO nuclear fuel. In particular, there is a focus on the investigation of Pd, Cs, and Ag and their interface formation with SiC and carbon-based substrates. A variety of surface and near-surface bulk sensitive probes that investigate the occupied and unoccupied electronic states of the substrate and the metal overlayer have been utilized. By a controlled and stepwise deposition of the metal overlayer, it is possible to gain substantial insight into the formation of interfaces and their ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2006

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

In this project the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in TRISO fuel particles is investigated. The interface formation of Pd, Cs, and Ag with SiC and pyrolytic carbon is studied in detail. Using the SiC single crystals and TRISO coating materials as substrates, interfaces are prepared under controlled conditions in an ultra-high vacuum environment and are studied with a photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Inverse Photoemission, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Recent additions to the experimental approach include microscopic techniques (Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2006

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project examines inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations are used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics are synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility of the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, are investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic data necessary for modeling ...


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Thomas Hartmann Jan 2006

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Thomas Hartmann

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

A wide variety of fuel concepts are considered for advanced reactor technology including metals, metal oxides or metal nitrides as solid solutions or composite materials. Nitride fuels have appropriate properties for advanced fuels including high thermal conductivity, thermal stability, solid-state solubility of actinides, fissile metal density, and suitable neutronic properties. A drawback of nitride fuels involves their synthesis. A key parameter for preparing oxide fuels is the precipitation step in the sol-gel process. For nitride fuels, the current synthetic route is carbothermic reduction from the oxide to the nitride. This process step is based on solid phase reactions and for ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Quarterly Report, January 2005 To March 2005, Earl Wolfram, Thomas Hartmann, Kenneth Czerwinski Mar 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Quarterly Report, January 2005 To March 2005, Earl Wolfram, Thomas Hartmann, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert matrix fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics will be synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, will be investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of our project is to investigate interface corrosion processes in TRISO nuclear fuel particles. For this purpose, we are undertaking a detailed study of the interface formation between potential candidates for metallic fission products (Pd, Ag, and Cs), likely to diffuse from the kernel of the TRISO particles, with the TRISO coating layers. As a starting point, we are investigating the Pd/SiC interface and will extend our studies to Ag/SiC during our current summer research campaign. The experimental approach comprises the preparation of metal/SiC interfaces in-situ in our ultra-high vacuum system by electron-beam deposition. In ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

In this project we utilize a combination of state-of-the-art soft X-ray spectroscopies to understand the chemical bonding between metal fission products (Pd and Ag) with coating layers in TRISO fuel particles (SiC and pyrocarbon). We are primarily focusing on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In the current first project year, we are beginning these investigations with the Pd/SiC interface, as discussed in the previous two quarterly reports. Our first experiments (both using ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, the chemical state of some of the metal fission products will be assessed.

This project studies the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. In order to study the properties of the relevant ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, we intend to assess the chemical state of some of the metal fission products. The findings are expected to give valuable information about failure mechanisms of TRISO particles and fission product transport. Secondly, through ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress.


In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials and single crystal references ...