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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2008

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project focuses on the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles for gas-cooled reactors. By combining surface- and bulk-sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic methods, intermediate chemical phases at the interface, intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure for different coating materials and metals are examined.

In detail, the project studies the interface formation of Pd, Cs, and Ag with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using SiC single crystals and highly-ordered pyrolytic carbon (HOPG) as substrates, interfaces are prepared under controlled conditions in an ultra-high vacuum environment and are ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix. Ceramics with this inert matrix, Ce, U and eventually Pu will be synthesized and examined. While the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative focus is on inert fuels with Pu as the fissile component, this task will perform initial laboratory experiments with Ce and U. The initial work with Ce will be performed early in the project with results used as a basis for U studies. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf ...


Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The research objectives are:

• To explore a low-temperature fluoride route to synthesize actinide nitrides. • To characterize actinide nitrides structurally and thermally.

• To use high resolution TEM techniques to explore the microstructure of the radioactive samples.


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens Jan 2008

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

One of the original synthetic routes devised for the synthesis of U (III)N involved the entire reaction taking place in liquid ammonia. Several experimental reactions were conducted in an attempt to synthesize the UI3(NH3)x and U(NH2)3(NH3)x precursors of U(III) N. Each attempt involved cleaning of the uranium metal to remove the oxide coating of the metal reagent with 3 washes of concentrated nitric acid, each followed by a rinse with liquid ammonia. Success of this cleaning procedure was varied, with a majority of cleaned metal oxidizing rapidly once ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2007

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project focuses on the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles for gas-cooled reactors. By combining surface- and bulk-sensitive spectroscopic methods, intermediate chemical phases at the interface, intermixing/ diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material (metal and coating materials) and temperature are examined.

In the past year, emphasis was placed on a detailed analysis and description of the Cs/SiC interface formation process.


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2007

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix. Ceramics with this inert matrix, Ce, U and eventually Pu will be synthesized and examined. While the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative focus is on inert fuels with Pu as the fissile component, this task will perform initial laboratory experiments with Ce and U. The initial work with Ce will be performed early in the project with results used as a basis for U studies. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarterly Report, 2006, Clemens Heske Jan 2006

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarterly Report, 2006, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project is devoted to an in-depth study of the chemical and electronic impact of metal fission products on the coating layers in TRISO nuclear fuel. In particular, there is a focus on the investigation of Pd, Cs, and Ag and their interface formation with SiC and carbon-based substrates. A variety of surface and near-surface bulk sensitive probes that investigate the occupied and unoccupied electronic states of the substrate and the metal overlayer have been utilized. By a controlled and stepwise deposition of the metal overlayer, it is possible to gain substantial insight into the formation of interfaces and their ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2006

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

In this project the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in TRISO fuel particles is investigated. The interface formation of Pd, Cs, and Ag with SiC and pyrolytic carbon is studied in detail. Using the SiC single crystals and TRISO coating materials as substrates, interfaces are prepared under controlled conditions in an ultra-high vacuum environment and are studied with a photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Inverse Photoemission, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Recent additions to the experimental approach include microscopic techniques (Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2006

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project examines inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations are used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics are synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility of the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, are investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic data necessary for modeling ...


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Thomas Hartmann Jan 2006

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Thomas Hartmann

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

A wide variety of fuel concepts are considered for advanced reactor technology including metals, metal oxides or metal nitrides as solid solutions or composite materials. Nitride fuels have appropriate properties for advanced fuels including high thermal conductivity, thermal stability, solid-state solubility of actinides, fissile metal density, and suitable neutronic properties. A drawback of nitride fuels involves their synthesis. A key parameter for preparing oxide fuels is the precipitation step in the sol-gel process. For nitride fuels, the current synthetic route is carbothermic reduction from the oxide to the nitride. This process step is based on solid phase reactions and for ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov Jun 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This report presents results of the analysis performed within the framework of “Dissolution, Reactor, and Environmental Behavior of ZrO2-MgO Inert Fuel Matrix” project managed by University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies. The main objective of the study was to explore the basic neutronic feasibility of using MgO-ZrO2 as inert fuel matrix for Pu recycling in conventional Light Water Reactors (LWR).


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin May 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This report presents the results of the Task 4, defined in working program as: evaluation of reactivity feedback coefficients. Three main parameters of the Fertile-Free Fuel (FFF) lattices were evaluated: Moderator Temperature Coefficient (MTC), Fuel Temperature Coefficient due to Doppler Effect (DC), and soluble Boron reactivity worth (BW).

One of the major design challenges associated with utilization of FFF is deterioration of the temperature coefficients and control materials reactivity worth caused by high thermal cross-section of Pu and consequent hardening of the neutron spectrum. The purpose of the investigation reported in this section is to estimate the potential of addition ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Quarterly Report, January 2005 To March 2005, Earl Wolfram, Thomas Hartmann, Kenneth Czerwinski Mar 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Quarterly Report, January 2005 To March 2005, Earl Wolfram, Thomas Hartmann, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert matrix fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics will be synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, will be investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin Feb 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, S. Kolesnikov, E. Shwageraus, A. Galperin

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This report presents the results of the Task 3, defined in working program as: evaluation of burnable poison designs. Adopting the basic design of a standard PWR and Pu loadings required for 18-month cycle (results of Task 2), this part of the program is aimed to estimate performance of each BP design and BP material to address challenges of Fertile-Free Fuel (FFF) Concept. Finally, an optimal BP design will be developed and an overall feasibility of FFF concept will be determined. Basically, the main challenge encountered in neutronic design for a FFF core is to develop reactivity control system which ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 2nd Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of our project is to investigate interface corrosion processes in TRISO nuclear fuel particles. For this purpose, we are undertaking a detailed study of the interface formation between potential candidates for metallic fission products (Pd, Ag, and Cs), likely to diffuse from the kernel of the TRISO particles, with the TRISO coating layers. As a starting point, we are investigating the Pd/SiC interface and will extend our studies to Ag/SiC during our current summer research campaign. The experimental approach comprises the preparation of metal/SiC interfaces in-situ in our ultra-high vacuum system by electron-beam deposition. In ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 1st Quarter Report, 2005, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

In this project we utilize a combination of state-of-the-art soft X-ray spectroscopies to understand the chemical bonding between metal fission products (Pd and Ag) with coating layers in TRISO fuel particles (SiC and pyrocarbon). We are primarily focusing on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In the current first project year, we are beginning these investigations with the Pd/SiC interface, as discussed in the previous two quarterly reports. Our first experiments (both using ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske Jan 2005

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, the chemical state of some of the metal fission products will be assessed.

This project studies the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2005

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project examines inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix, with the relative amount of MgO varied from 30% to 70% in ZrO2. Reactor physics calculations are used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf with reactor grade Pu providing the fissile component, with up to 10% of 239Pu. Ceramics are synthesized and characterized based on the reactor physics results. The solubility of the fuel ceramics, in reactor conditions, reprocessing conditions, and repository conditions, are investigated in a manner to provide thermodynamic data necessary for modeling ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus Oct 2004

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

Second task of the BGU part of “Dissolution, Reactor, and Environmental Behavior of ZrO2-MgO Inert Fuel Matrix” project aims at evaluation of the fertile free fuel matrix composition effect on the fuel reactivity and corresponding reactivity limited burnup. Fertile free fuel with different MgO to ZrO2 ratio in the matrix will require different PuO2 loading in order to assure certain fuel cycle length. This is due to the fact that absorption cross section of Zr is slightly higher than that of Mg, although absorption in both of these elements is small compared to Pu. Therefore, the ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus Sep 2004

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix: Neutronic Evaluation Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuels, E. Fridman, A. Galperin, E. Shwageraus

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This progress report presents results of analysis performed within the framework of “Dissolution, Reactor, and Environmental Behavior of ZrO2-MgO Inert Fuel Matrix” project managed by University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies.

The BGU working program includes the following four tasks:

1. Benchmark of computational tools

2. Determination of fissile Pu loading

3. Evaluation of burnable poison designs

4. Evaluation of reactivity feedback coefficients

This progress report presents the results of Task 1. The main objective of this task is to confirm the validity of the ELCOS 1 code system for inert matrix ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 4th Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. In order to study the properties of the relevant ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress. Furthermore, we intend to assess the chemical state of some of the metal fission products. The findings are expected to give valuable information about failure mechanisms of TRISO particles and fission product transport. Secondly, through ...


Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske Jan 2004

Interaction Between Metal Fission Products And Triso Coating Materials: A Study Of Chemical Bonding And Interdiffusion: 3rd Quarter Report, 2004, Clemens Heske

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The goal of this project, which started in May 2004, is to elucidate the chemical bonding and interface formation of metal fission products with the coating materials used in state-of-the-art TRISO fuel particles. Particular emphasis is placed on an analysis of intermediate chemical phases at the interface, the intermixing/diffusion behavior, and the electronic interface structure as a function of material choice (metal and coating materials), temperature, and external stress.


In detail, this project is devoted to studying the interface formation of Pd, Ag, and Cs with SiC and pyrolytic carbon. Using the TRISO coating materials and single crystal references ...